What are the basic components of emotion?
Pyscological arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious experience
Name the 2 basic components of emotions in the two-factor theory
Schacter- Singer pyscioliogical arousal and conative arousal
Who proposed the two-factor theory?
Schacter and singer
effect of physical arousal
your general alertness
effect of emotions
. the response of the whole organism
When do we usually perform best?
During moderate arousal
What arousal is best with well-learned tasks?
What arousal is best with difficult tasks?
? Lower arousal
Explain the Schachter-Singer experiment and findings
Two groups of college kids given epinephrine one group was told what would happen the other group was told it was something like allergy medicine the group that new was fine the group that didn't know freaked out, we like to know our emotions
Why do Lykken and Saxe oppose lie detector tests?
Because it does not measure a lie
Who recognizes facial expressions of emotion best?
Introverts and women
Are facial expressions the same across cultures?
Are Gestures the same across cultures?
Where do we see the most emotions?
In the face
What emotional disabled-expression(s) do we understand best?
Happiness and anger
collectivist cultures differ in emotional display?
Not supposed to do that
*Explain "facial feedback".
The face ou put on influences you towards those emotions
How many emotions are there?
8 to 10
*What is catharsis?
Emotional release, proved untrue, if you want to get bad emotions out be violent
*Does aggressive action or fantasy reduce anger?
No, it intensifies anger
*What is the feel-good, do-good phenomenon?
If you feel good you'll do good things tries to trick on test by switching it up
What is subjective well-being?
That you decide how well your doing, your happiness
What is the relationship of wealth to health?
A slight positive relationship
Explain the adaptation-level phenomenon
Whatever you have over a short period of time won't make you happy any more because you adapt to having it
Explain the concept of relative deprivation.
The perception that one is worse off relative to those whom one compares oneself
What doesn't lead to happiness?
Amount of money physical apperance
What does lead to happiness?
Good relationships, faith, calling
what you feel
general adaptation syndrome
Alarm resistance exhaustion
Describe the flight or fight response
Higher heart rate, higher O2 in blood
What are the stages of the general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm- arousal to the stressor, resistance- resistance to the alarm, exhaustion
What does the immune system do?
What does over activity do?
Weakens us, immunesystem
Relate stress levels and susceptibility to illness
Prolonged high stress levels make us more susceptible to illness
What is meant by daily hassles?
Every day annoyances
What association has been found with daily hassles?
They add up
What increases chances of heart disease?
Depression and anger
What is heart disease linked to?
High blood pressure
Define type A
type A with anger
ambition with anger
Explain type A behavior.
Motivated, over achieving
What is the toxic element attached to it?
Define psychophysiological illness
Literally mind body illness; stress related
What is the relationship of stress and the immune system?
Prolonged stress depresses the immune system
Compare men and women's immune systems.
Womens are slower, during extreme times womens immune system tends to attack the body
What did Cohen find?
Those with more stress are more susceptible to sickness
What does research on cancer patients reveal?
The more stress the faster cancer grows
What correlates with cancer?
Stress and the speed of growth
what you do when you try to solve a problem
when you get used to a problem
What, on the job, is more likely to lead to stress-induced illness?
Why do executives live longer than clerics/laborers?
They have more control
Relate stress to poverty and economic inequality.
The less money you have the more bills the more stress
Relate control to stress
low control more stress
; optimism to stress
optimism low stress
When did/didn't rats develop ulcers?
When they had control no ulcers, when they didn't they developed ulcers
What is social support?
People to listen
What are the results of it?
What is, and what are elements of, social support?
Being liked and admired
What is aerobic exercise linked to?
Almost everything good, lower depression rates
Relate religious involvement to healthiness
There is a strong relationship
Characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and acting
What is psychoanalysis?
Freuds theory of personality that attributes toughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
What is free association?
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind
According to freud a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.
energy or drive for things
moderates between the others
internalized ideals, product of punishments or corrections
What are Freud's psychosexual stages?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
What is fixation?
According to freud a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresoved
Why do we employ defense mechanisms?
Freud said that the ego protects it's self with them
Explain each defense mechanism, and definitions listed on pages
repression, regression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement
What did Adler and Horney believe?
That child hood social tensions are crucial for personality formation
What did Jung believe?
That the unconscious exerts a powerful influence
*Who is Maslow? Who and what did he study?
He studied healthy people, self actualiztion, your born to grow
What are beliefs of humanistic psychology?
That healthy people strive for self-determination and self-relization
Describe self-actualization and the characteristics accompanying it.
According to maslow the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill ones potential
What were Rogers 3 conditions for growth
A.g.e.- acceptance, genuiness, empathy
What is the role of self-concept to Rogers?
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question who am i?
What leads to dissatisfaction and unhappiness?
The difference of your self ideal to your self concept is large
How does our level of self-esteem affect our behavior?
It increases the likelihood that you will be happy
What are benefits of self-esteem?
What are common criticisms of humanistic perspective?
That it fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil
What are traits?
Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation
What does trait theory attempt to do?
Attempts to describe you
What dimensions of personality have the Eysencks emphasized?
That we can reduce our normal individual variations to two or three dimensions
What is a personality inventory?
A questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Explain and list the Big 5.
The five most important parts of your personality; C.A.N.O.E conscientious/ lazy agreeable/ disagreeable, neurotic/ non neurotic, openness/closeness, extraversion/ intraversion
What is the Barnum effect?
The acceptance of stock positive descriptions
What does social cognitive psychology emphasize?
Reinforcement, modeling, cognitive
What is reciprocal determinism?
The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
What psychological perspective does Bandura represent?
Social cognitive or reciprocal determination
Explain internal locus of control
you believe you can meet your needs
external locus of control
you need to have your needs met for you
Out sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
What is learned helplessness?
Seligmen and dogs; the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
What did Schwartz find about information overload?
We don't like to many choices
Explain attributional style and what it leads to.
How you explain things you see the world as you are instead of how it is
What are some effects of optimism?
How does overconfidence differ from confidence?
Some one who doesn't know grammar could feel good about a test coming out of it when they have actually failed not knowing is the source of their confidence
What are the 3 pillars of positive psychology?
Positive feelings, virtues, relationships
How does positive psychology go beyond humanism?
Uses research and scientific metho
What is the spotlight effect?
Overestimating how much other people are thinking about you
What is the self-serving bias?
Readiness to perceive our self favorably
What is collectivism?
More security less freedom
More freedom, dog eat dog