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Virulent

describes a microorganism that causes disease that is highly infectious (refers only to viruses that reproduce through the lytic cycle)

Transformation

the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another

Bacteriophages

viruses that infect bacteria

Nucleotide

repeating subunits of two long chains; consists of three parts: a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

Deoxyribose

the five-carbon sugar in a DNA nucleotide

Nitrogenous Base

contains nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) atoms and is a base (accepts hydrogen ions)

Purines

nitrogenous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, such as adenine and guanine

Pyrimidines

nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, such as cytosine and thymine

Base Pairing Rules

the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA

Complementary Base Pairs

the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand; adenine pairs with thymine or uracil and guanine pairs with cytosine

Base Sequence

the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA

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