intro to cell test 4

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Determine if each of the following processes occurs in mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II.
-crossing over occurs during prophase
-a 2n number of sister chromatids line up along a plane of division at metaphase
-homologous chromosomes pair at metaphase
-haploid number of sister chromatids separate at anaphase
-a haploid number of sister chromatids line up along a plane of division at metaphase
-diploid number of daughter chromosomes after telophase and cytokinesis
-homologous chromosomes separate at anaphase
-diploid number of sister chromatids separate at anaphase
-haploid number of daughter chromosomes after telophase and cytokinesis
-haploid number of chromosomes in the form of sister chromatids after telophase and cytokinesis

mitosis: a 2n number of sister chromatids line up along a plane of division at metaphase, diploid number of daughter chromosomes after telophase and cytokinesis, diploid number of sister chromatids separate at anaphase
meiosis I: crossing over occurs during prophase, homologous chromosomes separate at anaphase, homologous chromosomes pair at metaphase, haploid number of chromosomes in the form of sister chromatids after telophase and cytokinesis
meiosis II: haploid number of daughter chromosomes after telophase and cytokinesis, a haploid number of sister chromatids line up along a plane of division at metaphase, haploid number of sister chromatids separate at anaphase

Which of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. asexual reproduction?
-Sexual reproduction requires that parents be diploid.
-In asexual reproduction, offspring are produced by fertilization without meiosis.
-In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring.
-Asexual reproduction, but not sexual reproduction, is characteristic of plants and fungi.
-Asexual reproduction produces only haploid offspring.

In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring.

Which of the following defines a genome?
-the complete set of an organism's genes
-representation of a complete set of a cell's polypepti
-the complete set of a species' polypeptides
-the complete set of an organism's polypeptides
-a karyotype

the complete set of an organism's genes

Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?
-The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.
-A gamete from this species has four chromosomes
-The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell.
-Each cell has eight homologous pairs.
-During the S phase of the cell cycle there will be 32 separate chromosomes.

Each cell has eight homologous pairs.

Which of these statements is false?
-In humans, each of the 22 maternal autosomes has a homologous paternal chromosome.
-Single, haploid (n) sets of chromosomes in ovum and sperm unite during fertilization, forming a diploid (2n), single-celled zygote.
-In humans, the 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, determines whether the person is female (XX) or male (XY).
-At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.

At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.

A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. We can therefore conclude which of the following?
-Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes.
-It must be a primate.
-It must be an animal.
-It must be sexually reproducing.
-It must be human.

Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes.

If a cell has completed the first meiotic division and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents?
-It is identical in content to another cell from the same meiosis.
-It has the same number of chromosomes but each of them has different alleles than another cell from the same meiosis.
-It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.
-It has one-fourth the DNA and one-half the chromosomes as the originating cell.
-It has half the chromosomes but twice the DNA of the originating cell.

It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.

In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?
-Length and position of the centromere only.
-Length, centromere position, and staining pattern only.
-Length, centromere position, staining pattern, and DNA sequences.
-Length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes.
-They have nothing in common except they are X-shaped.

Length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes.

After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is
-tetraploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.
-diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.
-haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.
-haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid.
-diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid

haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids

How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about to begin meiosis?
-They have twice the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.
-They have half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA.
-They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.
-They have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.
-They have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.

Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?
-Homologous chromosomes are separated.
-The chromosome number per cell is conserved.
-Four daughter cells are formed.
-Sister chromatids are separated.
-The sperm cells elongate to form a head and a tail end.

Homologous chromosomes are separated.

A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically different.
-The statement is true for mitosis only.
-The statement is true for meiosis II only.
-The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.
-The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.
-The statement is true for meiosis I only.

The statement is true for meiosis I only.

Chromatids are separated from each other.
-The statement is true for mitosis only.
-The statement is true for meiosis II only.
-The statement is true for meiosis I only.
-The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.
-The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I.

The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

Label as either mitosis or meiosis
-in this type of cell division the daughter cells are genetically identical
-cloning is a word that describes this process
-daughter cells are genetically different from their parent cell
-is the process by which growth takes place
-relates only to sexual reproduction
-takes place only in the formation of gametes or spores
-the purpose of this type of cell division is to make identical cells to the parent cells
-has half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell

mitosis: in this type of cell division the daughter cells are genetically identical, cloning is a word that describes this process, is the process by which growth takes place, the purpose of this type of cell division is to make identical cells to the parent cells
meiosis: daughter cells are genetically different from their parent cell, relates only to sexual reproduction, takes place only in the formation of gametes or spores, has half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell

look at diagrams on part 3 of detail of meiosis

....

look at diagrams on part 4 of details of meiosis

....

The parent cell that enters meiosis is diploid, whereas the four daughter cells that result are haploid.
Which statement correctly describes how cellular DNA content and ploidy levels change during meiosis I and meiosis II?
-DNA content is halved in both meiosis I and meiosis II. Ploidy level changes from diploid to haploid in meiosis I, and remains haploid in meiosis II.
-DNA content is halved only in meiosis I. Ploidy level changes from diploid to haploid in meiosis I, and remains haploid in meiosis II.
-DNA content is halved only in meiosis I. Ploidy level changes from diploid to haploid only in meiosis II.
-DNA content is halved only in meiosis II. Ploidy level changes from diploid to haploid in meiosis I, and remains haploid in meiosis II.
-DNA content is halved in both meiosis I and meiosis II. Ploidy level changes from diploid to haploid only in meiosis II

DNA content is halved in both meiosis I and meiosis II. Ploidy level changes from diploid to haploid in meiosis I, and remains haploid in meiosis II

What is the ploidy of organisms that have two sets of chromosomes?

2n

What information can not be obtained from an individual's karyotype?
-The sequence of bases of a particular gene
-The number of autosomes in the individual
-The ploidy of the individual
-The types of chromosomes present in the individual

The sequence of bases of a particular gene

True or false? A haploid organism has one pair of homologous chromosomes.

false

If a cell has 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would each of its four daughter cells have after meiosis?

12

Which of the following statements about meiosis and mitosis is true?
-In mitosis and meiosis I, homologous chromosomes move independently of each other.
-Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister chromatids of each chromosome separate.
-Each daughter cell produced during meiosis and mitosis is genetically identical to the parent cell.
-In meiosis II and mitosis, a diploid cell divides.

Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister chromatids of each chromosome separate

Which structure is directly correlated with the production of genetic variability in the daughter cells produced during meiosis?
-Tetrad
-Synapsis
-Chiasma
-Centromere

chiasma

What is the composition of a tetrad at the beginning of prophase I?
-Two pairs of homologous chromosomes
-Four different chromosomes
-Two sister chromatids
-One pair of homologous chromosomes

One pair of homologous chromosomes

Meiosis I produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.

two ... haploid

Meiosis II typically produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.

four ... haploid

look at diagrams on part 6 of details of meiosis

....

During _____ sister chromatids separate.

anaphase II

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids.

telophase I

Synapsis occurs during _____

prophase I

Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _____.

anaphase I

During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell.

metaphase II

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis there are four haploid cells.

telophase II

During _____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell.

prophase II

look at diagrams on part 7 of details of meiosis

....

Assume that an organism exists in which crossing over does not occur, but that all other processes associated with meiosis occur normally. Consider how the absence of crossing over would affect the outcome of meiosis.
If crossing over did not occur, which of the following statements about meiosis would be true? Select all that apply
-The four daughter cells produced in meiosis II would all be different.
-Independent assortment of chromosomes would not occur.
-The daughter cells of meiosis I would be diploid, but the daughter cells of meiosis II would be haploid.
-The two sister chromatids of each replicated chromosome would no longer be identical.
-The two daughter cells produced in meiosis I would be identical.
-There would be less genetic variation among gametes.

There would be less genetic variation among gametes.

Which of these individuals is a homozygous genotype?
-Gg
-AA
-aG
-AG
-Aa

AA

All the genes in a population are that population's _____.

gene pool

Genetic drift is a process based on _____.
-mutation
-emigration
-the role of chance
-immigration
-differential reproductive success correlated to the relationship between a phenotype and the environment

the role of chance

A mutation occurs when _____.
-individuals enter a population
-some individuals leave more offspring than other individuals
-population sizes are small
-individuals leave a population
-there is a change in the DNA sequence of a gene

there is a change in the DNA sequence of a gene

Every few years a giant axe chops off the head of every person who is over 6 feet tall. How will this affect the human population?
-Genetic drift will play less of a role in the evolution of humans.
-Alleles that promote "tallness" will decrease in frequency.
-It will increase in number since shorter people use fewer resources than taller people.
-The mutation rate will increase.
-Gene flow will increase.

Alleles that promote "tallness" will decrease in frequency

Modern travel along with migration reduces the probability of _____ having an effect on the evolution of humans.

genetic drift

The ease with which humans travel across the globe is likely to increase _____.

genetic flow

Homologous pairs of chromosomes are lined up independently of other such pairs during _____.

metaphase I

Crossing over, resulting in an increase in genetic variation, occurs between _____.
-nonsister chromatids of nonhomologous chromosomes
-nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
-sex cells and somatic cells
-sister chromatids of nonhomologous chromosomes
-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes

nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes

In human gamete production there is an average of _____ crossover events per chromosome pair.

2-3

look at diagrams on part 8 of details of meiosis

....

Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of

the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I.

For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
-920
-23
-460
-about 8 million
-46

about 8 million

How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?
-by decreasing mutation frequency
-by increasing gene stability
-by allowing fertilization
-by allowing crossing over
-by conserving chromosomal gene order

by allowing crossing over

If nondisjunction occurred in meiosis II, you would expect the four resulting gametes from a single cell to have which of the following chromosomal complements (where n = haploid chromosome number)?

n+1, n-1, n, n

What is a nondisjunction?
-None of the above
-An error in which a diploid cell or organism has an extra chromosome of one type, producing a chromosome number of 2n + 1
-An error in cell division that causes homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to move to the same side of the dividing cell
-An error in which a diploid cell or organism lacks a chromosome of one type, producing a chromosome number of 2n - 1

An error in cell division that causes homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to move to the same side of the dividing cell

When can nondisjunction occur? Choose the best answer.
-In meiosis, when sister chromatids fail to separate
-All three answers are correct.
-In mitosis, when sister chromatids fail to separate
-In meiosis, when homologous chromosomes fail to separate

all three answers are correct

Which syndrome is characterized by the XO chromosome abnormality?
-Trisomy X
-Down syndrome
-Turner syndrome
-Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

What kind of cell results when a diploid and a haploid gamete fuse during fertilization?

a triploid cell

Of the following chromosomal abnormalities, which type is most likely to be viable in humans?
-Trisomy
-Haploidy
-Triploidy
-Monosomy

Trisomy

If a diploid cell undergoes meiosis and produces two gametes that are normal, and one with n − 1 chromosomes, and one with n + 1 chromosomes, what type of error occurred?
-A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis I, in which both members of all homologous pairs migrated to the same pole of the cell.
-A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis II, in which both sister chromatids of a chromosome migrated to the same pole of the cell.
-No error occurred; these are normal gametes.
-A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis I, in which both members of a homologous pair migrated to the same pole of the cell.

A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis II, in which both sister chromatids of a chromosome migrated to the same pole of the cell.

If a diploid cell undergoes meiosis and produces two gametes with n + 1 chromosomes and two gametes with n− 1 chromosomes, what type of error occurred?
-A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis I, in which both members of all homologous pairs migrated to the same pole of the cell.
-No error occurred; these are normal gametes.
-A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis II, in which both sister chromatids of a chromosome migrated to the same pole of the cell.
-A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis I, in which both members of a homologous pair migrated to the same pole of the cell.

A nondisjunction error occurred in meiosis I, in which both members of a homologous pair migrated to the same pole of the cell.

In 1985 Hassold and Chiu found that the likelihood of miscarriage increased with maternal age. What is the most likely explanation for the relationship between age and miscarriage?
-The DNA replication that takes place immediately prior to meiosis is less accurate in older women.
-Women in their mid-thirties and older have more health problems that interfere with their ability to maintain pregnancy.
-Ova are arrested in meiosis until ovulation. As a result, completion of meiosis in the older woman is more likely to result in aneuploidy or other chromosomal abnormalities.
-Older women typically have hormonal imbalances that prevent them from carrying a baby to term.

Ova are arrested in meiosis until ovulation. As a result, completion of meiosis in the older woman is more likely to result in aneuploidy or other chromosomal abnormalities.

Why might the incidence of trisomy from maternal origin be higher than that from paternal origin?
-Sperm travel to the site of fertilization, and an extra chromosome may slow them down.
-Eggs are arrested in meiosis in the mother from approximately birth until ovulation.
-Eggs move little from their site of release to the site of fertilization.
-All of the above are possible explanations for the higher incidence of trisomy of maternal origin.

All of the above are possible explanations for the higher incidence of trisomy of maternal origin.

What happens when an individual has an odd number of chromosome sets (e.g., triploidy)?
-Their offspring are often sterile.
-Their cells are unable to complete meiosis.
-They go through three sets of meiosis (meiosis I, meiosis II, and meiosis III)
-They produce offspring with an even number of chromosome sets (e.g., tetraploid, hexaploid).

their offspring are often sterile

A couple has three boys. What are the chances of them having a fourth boy?

1/2

There are five dice in the game of Yahtzee®. What are the chances that a player will roll five ones (1) on the first roll?

1/7776

In humans, the allele for freckles (F) is dominant over the allele for no freckles (f). What is the chance of a heterozygous couple (Ff) having a boy without freckles?

1/8

In humans, the allele for freckles (F) is dominant over the allele for no freckles (f). What is the chance of a heterozygous couple (Ff) having a girl with freckles?

3/8

Four o'clock flower color is determined by two alleles: R (red) and r (white). RR flowers are red, rr flowers are white, and Rr flowers are pink, indicating incomplete dominance. Two pink-flowered plants were crossed. What is the probability of producing a homozygous plant?

1/2

What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants?
-Traits are inherited in discrete units, and are not the results of "blending."
-There is considerable genetic variation in garden peas.
-An organism that is homozygous for many recessive traits is at a disadvantage.
-Recessive genes occur more frequently in the F1 generation than do dominant ones.
-Genes are composed of DNA.

Traits are inherited in discrete units, and are not the results of "blending."

The visualization or physical appearance of a trait is called the ___________

phenotype

The symbol used to indicate a generation of individuals produced from crossing two pure breeding parents would be:

F1

Why did the F1 offspring of Mendel's classic pea cross always look like one of the two parental varieties?

one phenotype was completely dominant over another

Why did Mendel continue some of his experiments to the F2 or F3 generation?

to observe whether or not a recessive trait would reappear

Two plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. What does this suggest?

the parents were both heterozygous for a single trait

Mendel accounted for the observation that traits which had disappeared in the F1 generation reappeared in the F2 generation by proposing that
-the mechanism controlling the appearance of traits was different between the F1 and the F2 plants.
-members of the F1 generation had only one allele for each trait, but members of the F2 had two alleles for each trait.
-traits can be dominant or recessive, and the recessive traits were obscured by the dominant ones in the F1.
-the traits were lost in the F1 due to dominance of the parental traits.
-new mutations were frequently generated in the F2 progeny, "reinventing" traits that had been lost in the F1.

traits can be dominant or recessive, and the recessive traits were obscured by the dominant ones in the F1.

The fact that all seven of the pea plant traits studied by Mendel obeyed the principle of independent assortment most probably indicates which of the following?
-None of the traits obeyed the law of segregation.
-The diploid number of chromosomes in the pea plants was 7.
-All of the genes controlling the traits behaved as if they were on different chromosomes.
-All of the genes controlling the traits were located on the same chromosome.
-The formation of gametes in plants occurs by mitosis only.

All of the genes controlling the traits behaved as if they were on different chromosomes.

Mendel's observation of the segregation of alleles in gamete formation has its basis in which of the following phases of cell division?
-metaphase I of meiosis
-anaphase II of meiosis
-prophase I of meiosis
-anaphase of mitosis
-anaphase I of meiosis

anaphase I of meiosis

In certain plants, tall is dominant to short. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be short?

0

When crossing an organism that is homozygous recessive for a single trait with a heterozygote, what is the chance of producing an offspring with the homozygous recessive phenotype?

50%

What do we mean when we use the terms monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross?
-A monohybrid cross involves a single parent, whereas a dihybrid cross involves two parents.
-A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters and a monohybrid cross involves only one.
-A monohybrid cross results in a 9:3:3:1 ratio whereas a dihybrid cross gives a 3:1 ratio.
-A monohybrid cross is performed for one generation, whereas a dihybrid cross is performed for two generations.
-A monohybrid cross produces a single progeny, whereas a dihybrid cross produces two progeny.

A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters and a monohybrid cross involves only one.

How many unique gametes could be produced through independent assortment by an individual with the genotype AaBbCCDdEE?

8

Which of the following differentiates between independent assortment and segregation?
-The law of independent assortment is accounted for by observations of prophase I.
-The law of segregation requires describing two or more genes relative to one another.
-The law of independent assortment requires describing two or more genes relative to one another.
-The law of segregation requires having two or more generations to describe.
-The law of segregation is accounted for by anaphase of mitosis.

The law of independent assortment requires describing two or more genes relative to one another.

A sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes, one for head shape (H) and one for tail length (T). Its genotype is HhTt. Which of the following genotypes is possible in a gamete from this organism?
-Hh
-tt
-T
-HT
-HhTt

HT

Mendel's second law of independent assortment has its basis in which of the following events of meiosis I?
-synapsis of homologous chromosomes
-separation of homologs at anaphase
-separation of cells at telophase
-crossing over
-alignment of tetrads at the equator

alignment of tetrads at the equator

The individual with genotype AaBbCCDdEE can make many kinds of gametes. Which of the following is the major reason?
-the tendency for dominant alleles to segregate together
-segregation of maternal and paternal alleles
-recurrent mutations forming new alleles
-different possible alignments of chromosomes

different possible alignments of chromosomes

In the cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc, what is the probability of producing the genotype AABBCC?

1/64

Given the parents AABBCc × AabbCc, assume simple dominance for each trait and independent assortment. What proportion of the progeny will be expected to phenotypically resemble the first parent?

3/4

Which of the following is the best statement of the use of the addition rule of probability?
-the probability that two or more independent events will both occur in the offspring of one set of parents
-the probability that two or more independent events will both occur
-the likelihood that a trait is due to two or more meiotic events
-the probability of producing two or more heterozygous offspring
-the probability that either one of two independent events will occur

the probability that either one of two independent events will occur

Which of the following calculations require that you utilize the addition rule?
-Calculate the probability of each of four children having cystic fibrosis if the parents are both heterozygous.
-Calculate the probability of black offspring from the cross AaBb × AaBb, when B is the symbol for black.
-Calculate the probability of purple flower color in a plot of 50 plants seeded from a self-fertilizing heterozygous parent plant.
-Calculate the probability of children with both cystic fibrosis and polydactyly when parents are each heterozygous for both genes.
-Calculate the probability of a child having either sickle-cell anemia or cystic fibrosis if parents are each heterozygous for both.

Calculate the probability of a child having either sickle-cell anemia or cystic fibrosis if parents are each heterozygous for both

look at diagrams on part 6 of mendel's experiments and the...

....

How could the botanist best determine whether the genotype of the green-pod plant is homozygous or heterozygous?

Cross the green-pod plant with a yellow-pod plant.

look at diagrams on part 7 of mendel's experiments and the...

....

Suppose that the botanist carried out the test cross described in Parts A and B and determined that the original green-pod plant was heterozygous (Gg). Which of Mendel's findings does her test cross illustrate?

law of segregation

During which part of meiosis (meiosis I or meiosis II) do the two alleles of a gene separate? During which phase does the separation occur?

meiosis 1, anaphase

look at diagrams on part 8 of mendel's experiments and the...

....

What is the difference between heterozygous and homozygous individuals?
-Heterozygotes carry two copies of a gene while homozygotes only carry one.
-The homozygote will express the dominant trait and the heterozygote will express the recessive trait.
-All of the gametes from a homozygote carry the same version of the gene while those of a heterozygote will differ.
-Homozygotes have one chromosome while heterozygotes have two similar chromosomes.

All of the gametes from a homozygote carry the same version of the gene while those of a heterozygote will differ

When constructing a Punnett square, the symbols on the outside of the boxes represent _______, while those inside the boxes represent _______

gametes, progeny

True or false? The same phenotype can be produced by more than one genotype.

true

True or false? In diploid organisms, a dominant phenotype will only be expressed if the individual is homozygous dominant for that trait.

false

If an organism with the genotype AaBb produces gametes, what proportion of the gametes would be Bb?

none

Two mice are heterozygous for albinism (Aa) . The dominant allele (A) codes for normal pigmentation, and the recessive allele (a) codes for no pigmentation. What percentage of their offspring would have an albino phenotype?

25

A tall, purple-flowered pea plant (TtPp) is allowed to self-pollinate. (The recessive alleles code for short plants and white flowers.) The phenotypic ratio of the resulting offspring is 9:3:3:1. What is the genotype of the plant whose phenotype appeared once out of every 16 offspring (the "1" in the 9:3:3:1 ratio)?

ttpp

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