Unit 5 APUSH terms

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GI Bill of Rights

Also known as Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veterans to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business

Taft-Hartley Act

banned the closed shop, outlawed boycotts, and forced loyalty oaths and the cooling off period before the strike

McCarran Act

A United States federal law that required the registration of Communist organizations with the Attorney General in the United States and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons suspected of engaging in subversive activities or otherwise promoting the establishment of a "totalitarian dictatorship," fascist or communist. Allows for the detention of dangerous, disloyal, or subversive persons in times of war or "internal security emergency".

HUAC

The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda

Alger Hiss case

In 1948 committee member Richard M. Nixon led the chase after Alger Hiss, a prominent ex-New Dealer and a distinguished member of the "eastern establishment." accused of being a communist agent in the 1930s, hiss demanded the right to defend himself. His dramatically met his chief accuser before the Un-American Activities Committee in august but was convicted of perjury.

Rosenbergs

Husband and wife tried/excuted for treason under suspecision of communist influence and trading atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union

Youngstown Sheet and Tube v. Sawyer

1952 Truman discovered steel workers were planning a strike. He ordered Sec. of Commerce to nationalize steel mines and have the gov. run them. Truman couldn't because of the Supreme Court ruling that the president wasn't allowed to take possession of private property

Adlai Stevenson

The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower.

Senator Joseph McCarthy

1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists

AFL-CIO

First successful labor union organization in the United States

Gideon v. Wainwright

a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.

Office of Economic Opportunity

1965 - Part of LBJ's war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.

marshall plan

Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

berlin airlift

moving supplies into West Berlin by American and British planes during a Soviet blockade in 1948-1949

warsaw pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. This was in response to NATO

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

U-2 incident

The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.

bay of pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

peace corps

(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America

Vietcong

the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also know as the National Liberation Front , In 1960 the southern Vietnam formed the National Liberation Front. It's main goal was to overthrow of Diem's government.

gulf of tonkin resolution

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

tet offensive

a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.

paris peace accords

1973 peace agreement between the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Vietcong that effectively ended the Vietnam War.

henry kissinger

Secretary of State, supported realpolitik, appointed by Nixon as his national Secretary advisor, engaged shuttle diplomacy

ABM treaty

1972-2001; political; treaty between the U.S and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members

iran contra scandal

Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan's administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras.

glasnost

a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information

perestroika

a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society

Immigration act of 1965

replaced varying quotas with the limit of 20,000 immigrants per year from anyone outside the western hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western hemisphere

SDS

a student organization that organized a march on Washington D.C.; Students for a Democratic Society

CREEP

Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.

Reaganomics

Belief in capitalism with a smaller government, tax cuts, cuts of social programs, deregulation on industry, and Keynesian deficit spending (military spending)

civil rights act

LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin., LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

voting rights act

1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote

black power

A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.

malcom X

One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.

Betty friedan

1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".

Cesar chavez

1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.

AIM

American Indian Movement - Minneapolis, 1968 - Intent: Native American Pride and Self-Defense; Trribes from all over country come to this visit;

desert storm

The code name used by the United States and its coalition partners in waging war against Iraq in early 1991 to liberate Kuwait.

Dixiecrat

Southern democrats who left the party in 1948 in opposition to President Truman's civil rights platform.

fair deal

Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.

new federalism

a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)

stagflation

a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)

eisenhower doctrine

Eisenhower policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country

truman doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

vietnamization

President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces

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