Arab nomads; united under Islam
the pre-Muhammad name for Medina
islamic house of prayer
1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad.
the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
the seal of the prophets
name of the Qu'ran; referring to the idea that Muhammad is the last of the great prophets
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Members of the Sunni dynasty of caliphs that ruled a Muslim empire from 661 to 750
Five Pillars of Faith
five steps to take to become part of the Islam religion; affirmation, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage
The People of the Book
a term Muhammad used to refer to Jews and Christians because they also believed in a singular God
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca; means "city of the prophet"
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
a Sunni dynasty that took over the Caliphate in 750 and held it until 1258. - designated Bagdad as their capital
The Night of Power
When Muhammed received the message from God through the angel Gabriel. The first revelation.
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
The branch of Islam that supports the descendants of Muhammad as his rightful successors
Capital city of Iraq. As heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.
Muhammad's wife; a wealthy widow who ran a prosperous caravan business
(Islam) a fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of Ramadan
the Muslim community or people
Muslim name for the one and only God