APUSH Ch. 41 vocab

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American Pageant 13th Edition #brohanson

New Democrats

an ideologically centrist faction within the Democratic Party that emerged after the victory of Republican George H. W. Bush in the 1988 presidential election. They are identified with centrist social/cultural/pluralist positions and neoliberal fiscal values

Brady Bill

1993; it was passed to place restrictions on buying a gun

Branch Davidians

a religious cult that gathered weapons and holed themselves up in a Waco, TX compound which was eventually set on fire. Everyone inside, including women and children, either were killed by their leaders, committed suicide, or died from the fire

Columbine High School

1999; a massacre that was a school shooting which occurred on April 20, 1999-- sparked debate over gun control laws, the availability of firearms within the United States and gun violence involving youths

Welfare Reform Bill

1994; Republicans passed this which rolled back welfare handouts and forced able-bodied people to get off taxpayer money and go to work

Contract with America

1994; Newt Gingrich (repub.) created a very successful deal with America to reduce the deficit and cut welfare-state programs

Hopwood v. Texas

1996; first successful legal challenge to a university's affirmative action policy in student admissions since the Bakke case in 1978--four white plaintiffs who had been rejected from The University of Texas School of Law challenged the institution's admissions policy on equal protection grounds and prevailed

World Trade Organization (WTO)

1995; Clinton supported this in order to lower tariffs and trade barriers internationally

Kosovo

a region in southeastern Europe; was an armed conflict in Kosovo that lasted from 28 February 1998 until 11 June 1999. It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and NATO

Whitewater

1992; a scandal that said Clinton and his wife had invested and lost money in the Whitewater development project

September 11, 2001

militant Islamic radicals attacked America. The radicals hijacked passenger planes and used the planes, and hostages, as guided missiles--Two planes slammed into the World Trade Center towers in New York City. The towers caught fire, then came down. Third plane slammed into Pentagon and fourth was thought to be aiming for the White House or Capitol building, but heroic passengers took back the plane before it crashed in a Pennsylvania field

World Trade Center

1993; terrorists drove a truck bomb underneath it and detonated it. The parking garage was gutted, but the buildings stood up until the two planes hit it in 2001

Al-Qaeda

radical Islamic terrorist sect led by Osama bin Laden

Taliban

an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan

USA - Patriot Act

2001; signed by George H. W. Bush that gave the government extended surveillance rights

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Intelligence at the time suggested that Hussein had and was actively making this

Enron and Worldcom

2001; a scandal that eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas--attributed as the biggest audit failure

Gratz v. Bollinger

2003; a United States Supreme Court case regarding the University of Michigan undergraduate affirmative action admissions policy

Grutter v. Bollinger

2003; a landmark case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing for the majority in a 5-4 decision, ruled that the University of Michigan Law School had a compelling interest in promoting class diversity

UNMOVIC

1999; United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission was used to replace the former United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) and continue with the latter's mandate to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction, and to operate a system of ongoing monitoring and verification to check Iraq's compliance with its obligations not to reacquire the same weapons prohibited to it by the Security Council

International Atomic Energy Agency

an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons (established in 1957)

Kyoto Treaty

1997; made to limit greenhouse emissions, and speaking of new oil exploration in Alaska

"culture wars"

issues with abortion, gun politics, separation of church and state, privacy, recreational drug use, homosexuality, censorship issues

"unfunded mandates"

Republicans passed a law restricting this where the federal government mandates the states to do something, but provides no money to do it

globalization

the process of extending social relations across world-space. Such extensions arise from the movements of people, things and ideas

"ethnic cleansing"

the process or policy of eliminating unwanted ethnic or religious groups by deportation, forcible displacement, mass murder, or by threats of such acts, with the intent of creating a territory inhabited by people of a homogeneous or pure ethnicity, religion, culture, and history

"red" and "blue" states

states of the United States whose residents predominantly vote for the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates

"a-symmetrical warfare"

a conflict in which the resources of two belligerents differ in essence and in the struggle, interact and attempt to exploit each other's characteristic weaknesses

"axis of evil"

when Bush lumped Iraq and Saddam into this and believed it helped and harbored terrorists

William Clinton

an American democratic politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001; he leaned towards "being in the center"

George H. W. Bush

an American republican politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1992 and continued Reagan's policies and Reaganomics

J. Danforth Quayle

served as the 44th Vice President of the United States, serving with President George H. W. Bush

H. Ross Perot

he rose as a significant third party candidate. A tech-company billionaire who spent his own money campaigning, he ran on one main issue: the U.S. must get the debt under control--he caused the split votes letting Democrats win

Ruth Bader Ginsburg

second female justice (after Sandra Day O'Connor) and the first Jewish female justice

Carol Mosely-Braun

an American politician and lawyer who represented Illinois in the United States Senate from 1993 to 1999. She was the first and to date only African-American woman elected to the United States Senate

Donna Shalala

she served for eight years as Secretary of Health and Human Services under President Bill Clinton

Henry Cisneros

an American politician and businessman. He came into the national spotlight as the mayor of San Antonio, Texas from 1981 to 1989--the second Hispanic mayor of a major American city. A Democrat, Cisneros served as the 10th Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in the administration of President Bill Clinton

Ron Brown

he was the United States Secretary of Commerce, serving during the first term of President Bill Clinton. He was the first African American to hold this position

Janet Reno

the first woman to serve as Attorney General

Hillary Clinton

wife of President Bill Clinton, she was also the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 and also headed the committee of health-care reform

Newt Gingrich

an American republican politician that developed the "Contract with America", became Speaker of the House

Robert Dole

ran for 1996 presidential election as the Republican nominee-- from the WWII generation and his campaign was uninspiring. To the younger baby boom generation, electing Dole would seem to be moving backward

John McCain

ran for the Republican presidential nomination in 2000 but lost a heated primary season contest to George W. Bush

Madeleine Albright

first woman to become the United States Secretary of State. She was nominated by US President Bill Clinton--Clinton and her worked unsuccessfully to broker another Middle East peace agreement

Monica Lewinsky

an American woman with whom United States President Bill Clinton admitted to having had an "improper relationship" while she worked at the White House in 1995 and 1996

Kenneth Starr

an American lawyer and educational administrator who has also been a federal judge. He is best known for his controversial investigation of figures during the Clinton administration

William Rehnquist

an American lawyer, jurist, and political figure who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States

Ralph Nader

the third "Green Party" nominee that consisted mostly of environmentalists and extreme liberals--hurt the Democrat votes this time

Al Gore

nominated by the Democrats in 2000 presidential election. Gore had a Clinton paradox—the good was that he could lay claim to the prosperity of the Clinton years, the bad was that aligning too close with Clinton also aligned with his scandals

George W. Bush

an American politician and businessman who was the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009--very conservative

Richard Cheney

an American politician and businessman who was the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, under President George W. Bush

James Jeffords

a former U.S. Senator from Vermont. Sworn into the Senate in 1989, he served as a Republican until 2001, when he left the party to become an Independent and began caucusing with the Democrats

Osama bin Laden

leader of the Al-Qaeda who was responsible for majority of the terrorist attacks

Colin Powell

was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U.S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first African American to serve in that position

Saddam Hussein

the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003

John Ashcroft

an American attorney and politician who served as the 79th U.S. Attorney General (2001-05), in the George W. Bush Administration during the war on terror

Arnold Schwarzenegger

an Austrian and American former professional bodybuilder, actor, producer, director, businessman, investor, and politician. Schwarzenegger served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011

John Kerry

an American politician who is the 68th and current United States Secretary of State and was the presidential nominee of the Democratic Party in the 2004 Presidential Election but lost to incumbent George W. Bush

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