The practice of placing students in groups based on academic ability or achievement..
African American English
Dialect of some African American communities characterized by certain pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical constructions different from those of Standard English.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, The (ADA)
Legislation in the United States that extends civil rights protection of persons with disabilities to private-sector employment, all public services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication including physical accessibility and the removal of barriers to hotels, restaurants, grocery stores, and parks if that can be accomplished without great difficulty or expense.
Stimulus that increases the likelihood that a particular response will follow.
Process of observing a sample of a student's behavior and drawing inferences about the student's knowledge and abilities.
Disorder marked by inattention, inability to inhibit inappropriate thoughts and behaviors, or both.
Autism spectrum disorders
Disorders marked by impaired social cognition, social skills, and social interaction, presumably due to a brain abnormality; extreme forms often associated with significant cognitive and linguistic delays and highly unusual behaviors.
Overall psychological atmosphere of the classroom.
Characteristic way in which a learner tends to think about a task and process new information; typically comes into play automatically rather than by choice.
Knowledge and skills accumulated from prior experience, schooling, and culture.
Extent to which assessment tasks either offend or unfairly penalize some students because of their ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status.
Situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior.
Behaviors and belief systems that members of a long-standing social group share and pass along to successive generations.
Sense of confusion when a student encounters a culture with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned.
Form of a language that has certain unique pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group.
Practice of individualizing instructional methods, and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals, to align with each student's existing knowledge, skills, and needs.
Idea that people act more "intelligently" when they have physical, symbolic, or social assistance.
The principle that government must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Emotional and behavioral disorders
Emotional states and behaviors that consistently and significantly disrupt academic learning and performance.
Entity view of intelligence
Belief that intelligence is a "thing" that is relatively permanent and unchangeable.
People who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence.
Awareness of one's membership in a particular ethnic or cultural group, and willingness to adopt behaviors characteristic of the group.
Fair and nondiscriminatory evaluation
Nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation to determine if child has disability and needs special education; nondiscriminatory evaluation with regard to race, culture, or native language, with placement decisions made on basis of multiple test scores and observations.
Ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations.
Free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
Special education and related services that (a) have been provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction and without charge; (b) meet the standards of the state educational agency; (c) include an appropriate preschool, elementary, or secondary school education in the state involved; and (d) are provided in conformity with the individualized education program.
Examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences to determine one or more purposes (functions) that the behavior might serve for the learner.
Unusually high ability in one or more areas, to the point where students require special educational services to help them meet their full potential.
Consistently observed differences (on average) among diverse groups of students (e.g., students of different genders or ethnic backgrounds).
The practice of educating all students, including those with severe and multiple disabilities, in neighborhood schools and general education classrooms.
Incremental view of intelligence
Belief that intelligence can improve with effort and practice.
Variability in abilities and characteristics (intelligence, personality, etc.) among students at a particular age and within any group.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
U.S. legislation granting educational rights to people with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities from birth until age 21; initially passed in 1975, it has been amended and reauthorized in 1997 and again in 2004. IDEA operates under six basic principles: zero reject, nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation, free and appropriate public education, least restrictive environment, due process, and parent and student participation in shared decision making with regard to educational planning.
Individualized education program (IEP)
Written document required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (P.L. 94-142) for every child with a disability; includes statements of present performance, annual goals, instructional objectives, specific educational services needed, extent of participation in the general education program, evaluation procedures, and relevant dates, and must be signed by parents as well as educational personnel.
Ability to modify and adjust behaviors to accomplish new tasks successfully; involves many different mental processes and may vary in nature depending on one's culture.
General measure of current cognitive functioning, used primarily to predict academic achievement over the short run.
Score on an intelligence test, determined by comparing a student's performance on the test with the performance of others in the same age group. For most tests, it is a standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
Least restrictive environment
Educational setting for special needs child that most closely resembles a regular school program and also meets child's special educational needs.
Long-term change in mental representations or associations due to experience.
Deficiency in one or more specific cognitive processes despite relatively normal cognitive functioning in other areas.
Disability characterized by significantly below-average general intelligence and deficits in practical and social skills.
Instructional concepts that integrate perspectives and experiences of numerous diverse groups and representing various cultures, ethnicities, ages, gender, and religions.
Multiple Intelligences (Theory of)
A theory that claims people are "intelligent" in many different areas, including cognitive, emotional, and social domains.
In assessment, data regarding the typical performance of various groups of students on a standardized test or other norm-referenced measure of a particular characteristic or ability.
Positive behavioral support (PBS)
Systematic intervention that addresses chronic misbehaviors by (a) identifying the purposes those behaviors might serve for a student and (b) providing more appropriate ways for a student to achieve the same ends.
Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
A federal law that prohibits the denial of participation in, benefits of, or discrimination in any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance because of a documented disability, history of a disability, or the appearance of having a disability.
Form of English generally considered acceptable at school, as reflected in textbooks and grammar instruction.
Student at risk
Student who has a high probability of failing to acquire the minimum academic skills necessary for success in the adult world.
Student with special needs
Student who is different enough from peers that he or she requires specially adapted instructional materials and practices.
Group that resists the ways of the dominant culture and adopts its own norms for behavior.
Genetic predisposition to respond in particular ways to one's physical and social environments.
Triarchic theory of intelligence
View of intelligence; proponents argue that that intelligent behavior arises from a balance between analytical, creative, and practical abilities.
Ability to imagine and mentally manipulate two-and three-dimensional figures.