20th Century Europe

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Triple Alliance

The Triple Alliance was the military alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy that lasted from 1882[1] until the start of World War I in 1914[2]. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any two other great powers, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone. In a supplementary declaration, Italy specified that its undertakings could not be regarded as being directed against the United Kingdom. Shortly after renewing the Alliance in June 1902, Italy secretly extended a similar guarantee to France.[1]

When Germany and Austria-Hungary found themselves at war in August 1914 with the rival Triple Entente of Britain, France, and the latter's ally, Russia, Italy pledged its support to the Central Powers, but subsequently entered the conflict on the side of the Entente against Austria-Hungary in May 1915[2] and Germany in August 1916.

Triple Entente

an informal understanding among Great Britain, France, and Russia based on a Franco-Russian military alliance (1894), an Anglo-French entente (1904), and an Anglo-Russian entente (1907). It was considered a counterbalance to the Triple Alliance but was terminated when the Bolsheviks came into control in Russia in 1917.

Treaty of Verailles

The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty.

Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept sole responsibility for causing the war and, under the terms of articles 231-248 (later known as the War Guilt clauses), to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. The total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks (then $31.4 billion, £6.6 billion) in 1921.[1] This was a sum that many economists deemed to be excessive because it would have taken Germany until 1988 to pay.[2] The Treaty was undermined by subsequent events starting as early as 1932 and was widely flouted by the mid-1930s.[3]

The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was compromise that left none contented: Germany was not pacified or conciliated, nor permanently weakened. This would prove to be a factor leading to later conflicts, notably and directly the Second World War.[4]

Paris Peace Conference

The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Lloyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful. BIG 4

Weimar Republic

The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.

Locarno era

The Locarno treaties promised a new era of reconciliation that seemed fulfilled in the mid-to-late 1920s as the European and world economies recovered and the German electorate turned its back on extremists of the right and left. Locarno had also anticipated Germany's entry into the League. But the prospect of expanding the League Council kicked off an indelicate scramble for Council seats as Britain supported Spain, France supported Poland, and Brazil insisted that it represent Latin America (angering the Argentines). Sweden and Czechoslovakia helped to break the deadlock by magnanimously sacrificing

Italian Fascist Party

Attracted dissatisfied war veterans, nationalist, and those afraid of rising communism. Marched on Rome and installed Mussolini in power.

Freud

who thought that: as membersof social groups, we must control our sexual and aggressive impulses, not just act them out. but sometimes the ego fears losing control of this inner war b/w demands of the id and superego, and the result is a dark cloud of unfocused anxiety, which leaves us feeling unsettled but unsure why.

Lenin

founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924. RED ARMY (LAND,PEACE, BREAD)

bertrand russell

man is the product which had no prevision of the end they were achieving. Destined to extinction in the vast deal of solar system. Accidental collocations of atoms

ludwig wittgenstein

The outlook of logical empiricism began primarily with Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), who later immigrated to England, where he trained his disciples. Wittgenstein argued in his pugnacious Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Essay on Logical Philosophy) in 1922 that philosophy is only the logical clarification pf thoughts, and therefore it becomes the study of language, which expresses thoughts. The great philosophical issues of the ages-God, freedom, morality, and so on-are quite literally senseless, a great waste of time, for statements about them can neither be tested by scientific experiments nor demonstrated by the logics of morality. (929)

virginia woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (pronounced /ˈwʊlf/; 25 January 1882 - 28 March 1941) was an English novelist, essayist, diarist, epistler, publisher, feminist, and writer of short stories, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century.

max weber

German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society.

dada

Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922.[1] The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature—poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Its purpose was to ridicule what its participants considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world. In addition to being anti-war, dada was also anti-bourgeois and anarchistic in nature.

heisenberg

worked on German nuclear project. His uncertainty principal said that it was impossible to take any accurate measurements of any atom without disturbing it, and changing its position.

kafka

Czech novelist who wrote in German about a nightmarish world of isolated and troubled individuals (1883-1924) "metamorphis, trials and castle"

j.m. keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, was a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected modern macroeconomics and social liberalism, both in theory and practice. He advocated interventionist economic policy, by which governments would use fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of business cycles, economic recessions, and depressions. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots

Five Year Plan

The First Five-Year Plan of the USSR was a list of economic goals that was designed to strengthen the country's economy between 1928 and 1932, making the nation both militarily and industrially self-sufficient. "We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it, or they will crush us," Stalin said in 1931, making his motivation in formulating the plan much clearer and more pressing later on. Launched by the Soviet regime in 1928 and administered by the Gosplan, the First Five-Year Plan employed tactics such as keeping detailed records on every item manufactured in the nation and shipping it to where it needed to go at the right time. BUILD UP RUSSIAS HEAVY INDUSTRY

Spanish Civil War

In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

Crimea

the Russian peninsula extending into the Black Sea that the British and French troops landed on to try to capture Sevastapol

Normandy

Beach in France Allies Invaded,Codenamed Operation Overlord, it was the long awaited Allied invasion of France and the opening of the Second Front during World War II. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944. DDAY

Sicily

An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later

The Big Three

Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin; leaders who met between 1943 and 1945 to coordinate attacks on Germany and Japan, and later to discuss plans for postwar Europe and settlement of Germany. After the war, their armies occupied Germany, each with a separate zone, although governed as a single economic unit.

International Monetary Fund

An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.

Truman Doctrine

Policy statement by President Harry S. Truman in 1947 that promised military and economic aid to nations threatened by armed minorities or outside groups. Specifically targeted at Greece and Turkey who were threatened by communist aggression.

Cold War

This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.

Margaret Thatcher

leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.

Eastern Bloc

Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany

German unification

after the failure of the Frankfurt Assembly germans looked to Prussia for leadership, under King William I, who were known for their militarism

yugoslavia

Civil war broke out in Yugoslavia. As the Communist regime fell, Yugoslavia was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia. Fighting soon broke out inside these areas, as Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory. The Serbs instituted a policy of "ethnic" cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.

existentialism

Existentialism's chief theoretical energies are thus devoted to questions about ontology and decision. It traces its roots to the writings of Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche. As a philosophy of human existence, existentialism found its best 20th-century exponent in Karl Jaspers; as a philosophy of human decision, its foremost representative was Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre finds the essence of human existence in freedom—in the duty of self-determination and the freedom of choice—and therefore spends much time describing the human tendency

postmodernism

Post-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture. (p. 900)

treaty of rome (1957)

On 25th March 1957, two treaties were signed in Rome that gave birth to the European Economic Community (EEC) and to European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom): the Treaties of Rome. The signatories of the historic agreement were Christian Pineau on behalf of France, Joseph Luns from the Netherlands, Paul Henri Spaak from Belgium, Joseph Bech from Luxemburg, Antonio Segni from Italy and Konrad Adenauer from the Federal Republic of Germany. The Treaties were ratified by National Parliaments over the following months and came into force on 1st January 1958.

mikhail gorbachev

Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863), Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

Maastricht Treaty

The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, the Netherlands after final negotiations on December 9, 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. It led to the creation of the European Union and was the result of separate negotiations on monetary union and on political union. The Maastricht Treaty has been amended to a degree by later treaties

Bismark's foreign policy

Congress of Berlin. protection against France. goals were to maintain existing borders in Europe and fight socialism and republicanism.

Germans plan to invade France

or Schleiffen Plan. 1. no defense 2. russia would be slow to mobilize 3. 2/3 of german force against France

WW1 and home front

women remained at home and civilians took place in national economy

German colonies after WW1

League of Nations took control of them

New Economic Policy

a modified version of the old capililist system adopted by Lenin in 1921 to replace war communism in Russia; peasants were allowed to sell their produce, and retail stores and small industries could be privately owned, but heavy industry, banking, and mines remained int he hands of the government.

Germany Occupation (1939 and 1941)

territory expansion

Italy Invasion

Us invaded sicily and mussilini was taken out of power

Italy after Mussolini

commitees of national liberation (anti-fascists). germany rescued mussolini from prison who then set up in N italy. civil war broke out

Nazis

German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazi Party became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule. (786)

1973 economic hardship

oil exporting industries raised prices

Inasmuch quote

written bg Nazi Germany after the purge

Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci (Italian pronunciation: [ˈɡramʃi]) (January 22, 1891 - April 27, 1937) was an Italian philosopher, writer, politician and political theorist.

Foucault

French physicist who determined the speed of light and showed that it travels slower in water than in air

Derrida

Deconstruction- no meaing in life. Impossible to convey meaning in text.

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