Sociology - Real World - Ch 14: Health / Illness Issues

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acute diseases

Diseases that have a sudden onset, may be briefly incapacitating, and are either curable or fatal (page 412)

alternative medicine

A group of medical treatments, practices, and products that are used instead of conventional Western medicine (page 433)

bioethics

The study of controversial moral or ethical issues related to scientific and medical advancements (page 434)

chronic diseases

Diseases that develop over a longer period of time and may not be detected until symptoms occur later in their progression (page 413)

complementary medicine

A group of medical treatments, practices, and products that can be used in conjunction with conventional Western medicine (page 433)

cultural competence

To describe the concept of acknowledging and incorporating a patient's cultural background as part of the treatment process; the recognition that patients' beliefs shape their approach to health care (page 432)

curative or crisis medicine

Type of health care that treats the disease or condition once it has manifested (page 413)

deprivation amplification

when our individual disease risks (based on our heredity and physiology) are amplified by social factors (page 424)

epidemic

Occurs when a significantly higher number of cases of a particular disease occur during a particular time period than might otherwise be expected (page 417)

epidemiology

The study of disease patterns to understand the cause of illnesses, how they are spread, and what interventions to take (page 417)

eugenics

An attempt to selectively manipulate the gene pool in order to produce and "improve" human beings through medical science (page 434)

food desert

a community in which the residents have little or no access to fresh, affordable, healthy foods, usually located in densely populated, urban areas (page 422)

integrative medicine

The combination of conventional medicine with complementary practices and treatments that have proven to be safe and effective (page 433)

medicalization

The process by which some behaviors or conditions that were once seen as personal problems are redefined as medical issues (page 416)

palliative care

Type of health care that focuses on symptom and pain relief and providing a supportive environment for critically ill or dying patients, rather than fighting the illness or disease (page 413)

pandemic

Occurs when a significantly higher number of cases of a disease also spreads through an especially large geographical region spanning many countries or even continents (page 417)

preventive medicine

Type of health care that aims to avoid or forestall the onset of disease by taking preventive measures, often including lifestyle changes (page 413)

rescission

The practice by insurance companies of canceling coverage only after a person gets sick (page 431)

sick role

The actions and attitudes that society expects from someone who is ill (page 428)

vector organisms

Animals like mosquitoes, ticks, and birds that carry and spread pathogens (germs or other infectious agents) in a given area (page 419)

all of these answers are correct

Epidemiologists predict that __________ rates may dramatically increase when vector organisms and animals enter new ecosystems due to global climate change.
a. Lyme disease
b. West Nile virus
c. yellow and dengue fevers
d. plague

"re-regionalize" the food system

What is Michael Pollan's idea for better addressing the corporately-dominated food system in America?

Yes, because organizations like the American Medical Association set policy and shape definitions of health and illness throughout the nation.

Is medicine in the U.S. a social institution?

dyads, triads and groups in interaction

What does research on medical interaction generally take into account?

deprivation amplification

The documentary "Unnatural Causes" explores the lives of several Louisville, Kentucky residents at different socio-economic status levels and from various racial backgrounds. It found that poorer Louisville residents suffered greater rates of illness and died earlier than wealthier ones. What is this an example of?

selection

Which theoretical explanation for suicide emphasizes the lure of a place and factors that draw people with suicidal tendencies to it?

are local eaters

Locavores:

will have a higher incidence of depression

Keandre is a lower class American. She lives in public housing, did not finish high school, experiences lapses in employment and has a hard time making financial ends meet. It is likely that she:

Both public issues and personal troubles contribute to poor health and so work needs to be done at both levels to more properly address disease rates.

C. Wright Mills used the term "the sociological imagination" to refer to important interconnections between personal troubles and public issues. What would he have said about deprivation amplification?

medicalization

In the early 1900s, just under 50 percent of births took place at home. Today, around 99 percent of all births take place in hospitals. This is an example of

conflict

Michael Moore's film Sicko explores the U.S. health care system and compares it to other nations' health care systems through the eyes of everyday people. One segment tells the story of a little girl in the United States who needed an expensive surgery to restore her hearing. The insurance company agreed to perform the surgery on one ear, but not both. They reasoned that the child would already hear out of one ear and didn't really need to have hearing in both. The child's parents sent a letter to the insurance company explaining that they were being interviewed by Moore for the film, adding "Has your CEO ever been in a film before?" Shortly after, the insurance company notified the family that the child's surgery had been approved. Which theory best explains this family's experience?

vector organisms

These carry and spread germs in geographic locations around the world.

ecological

Where do you live and how is that related to suicide rates? This theoretical explanation for suicide focuses on how aspects of a geographical location impact suicide rates.

safe sex fatigue

Research on HIV by Rowniak (2009) found that a social transformation has taken place since the inception of improved treatments for AIDS that make it more of a manageable disease than an imminent killer. Specifically, the research found that the response to this "less than a death sentence" diagnosis has caused what some researchers refer to as _______________ that can lead to a rise in infection rates.

the sick role

Talcott Parsons researched this from a structural functionalist perspective:

how health and illness are shaped by social factors

What do sociologists ask you to consider regarding health and illness?

Both public issues and personal troubles contribute to poor health and so work needs to be done at both levels to more properly address disease rates.

C. Wright Mills used the term "the sociological imagination" to refer to important interconnections between personal troubles and public issues. What would he have said about deprivation amplification?

vector organisms

More recently, epidemiologists are studying the role of temperature increases in the spread of diseases globally. Specifically they have found that increases in temperature can also increase pathogen-carrying agents called:

will have a higher incidence of depression.

Keandre is a lower class American. She lives in public housing, did not finish high school, experiences lapses in employment and has a hard time making financial ends meet. It is likely that she:

concentrated epidemic

When a particular disease is concentrated in and transmitted by a specific population within a confined geographic locale, this is referred to as a(n) __________________.

curative or crisis medicine.

Ori went to eat at his favorite restaurant and unfortunately got food poisoning. His illness was treated right away. This treatment would be classified as:

involves small steps that can improve health at both the individual and social levels.

Being a locavore

is something we all could do.

Being a locavore

food desert

According to your textbook, if you live in a(n) ______________ , you are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, or heart disease.

so the work doesn't have any policy advocates.

The study of locavores is relatively new and:

Yes, because organizations like the American Medical Association set policy and shape definitions of health and illness throughout the nation.

Is medicine in the U.S. a social institution?

traditional male gender role expectations

There is evidence that _____________ make(s) men more sick.

historically and socially contingent.

Good health is...

vector organisms

These carry and spread germs in geographic locations around the world.

Both public issues and personal troubles contribute to poor health and so work needs to be done at both levels to more properly address disease rates.

C. Wright Mills used the term "the sociological imagination" to refer to important interconnections between personal troubles and public issues. What would he have said about deprivation amplification?

100

According to your text, Lenae Weichel became a locavore and fed her family from places no more than ________ miles from her home.

the sick role

Talcott Parsons researched this from a structural functionalist perspective:

cultural competence

The concept of acknowledging and incorporating a patient's cultural background as part of the treatment process is called:

have a number of ailments, like arthritis and asthma.

You are an American with a lower socio-economic status. You are a racial minority, live in public housing, and did finish high school but work at a physically labor-intensive job. You are supporting a family of four on your wages. It is likely that you:

climate change

More recently, epidemiologists are studying the role of ______________ in the spread of diseases globally.

will have a higher incidence of depression.

Keandre is a lower class American. She lives in public housing, did not finish high school, experiences lapses in employment and has a hard time making financial ends meet. It is likely that she:

Yes, it is easy and many people do so.

You live in a small condominium and you are pretty stretched for time and money. Could you feasibly be a locavore?

medicalization

As the process of the _____________ develops, we will be less likely to treat someone who has a mental health issue as something they should just "deal with" or "get over" individually. Instead, we will be more likely to think of the issue as having to do with a disease.

food desert

According to your textbook, if you live in a(n) ______________ , you are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, or heart disease.

all of these answers are correct

Epidemiologists predict that __________ rates may dramatically increase when vector organisms and animals enter new ecosystems due to global climate change.
a. Lyme disease
b. West Nile virus
c. yellow and dengue fevers
d. plague

Being a locavore:

involves small steps that can improve health at both the individual and social levels.

"re-regionalize" the food system

What is Michael Pollan's idea for better addressing the corporately-dominated food system in America?

how health and illness are shaped by social factors

What do sociologists ask you to consider regarding health and illness?

benefit corporations and produce the cheapest quality food in large amounts.

Noted journalist and University of California, Berkeley professor Michael Pollan found that the current food production and distribution system in the United States is designed to:

conflict

Michael Moore's film Sicko explores the U.S. health care system and compares it to other nations' health care systems through the eyes of everyday people. One segment tells the story of a little girl in the United States who needed an expensive surgery to restore her hearing. The insurance company agreed to perform the surgery on one ear, but not both. They reasoned that the child would already hear out of one ear and didn't really need to have hearing in both. The child's parents sent a letter to the insurance company explaining that they were being interviewed by Moore for the film, adding "Has your CEO ever been in a film before?" Shortly after, the insurance company notified the family that the child's surgery had been approved. Which theory best explains this family's experience?

epidemic

When the incidence of a particular infectious disease is drastically larger than first estimated, this is referred to as a(n) ________________.

no, because organic companies can be part of conglomerates with little interest in social or environmental consciousness

Yasmina loves to eat healthy. She believes that eating only organic food is the best way to live because organic food companies are socially conscious just like her. Is Yasmina correct in her beliefs?

a food desert

You live in a densely populated American city, are non-white, and survive on a low income. According to Chapter 14 of your text, it is likely you live in:

historically and socially contingent.

Good health is:

localizing national food policy and supporting a locavore agenda

When Michael Pollan talks about "re-regionalizing" the food system in America, what does he mean?

cultural competence

The concept of acknowledging and incorporating a patient's cultural background as part of the treatment process is called:

involves small steps that can improve health at both the individual and social levels.

Being a locavore:

acute diseases

_______________ come on suddenly and are often contagious.

a food desert

You live in a densely populated American city, are non-white, and survive on a low income. According to Chapter 14 of your text, it is likely you live in:

Marcia will live a longer, happier life than Mario.

Marcia, a female, and Mario, a male, are both 50-year-old Hispanics. Marcia has a lower socio-economic status than Mario but both of them adhere closely to traditional gender role expectations. According to information from Chapter 14, what prediction could we make about them?

symbolic interactionism

Jorge has learned that he has a mental illness. Since then, he has begun to act according to the illness, in ways that he thinks others expect someone with a mental illness to act. Which theory of health and illness best explains his situation?

100

According to your text, Lenae Weichel became a locavore and fed her family from places no more than ________ miles from her home.

The hospital experience is often dehumanizing and the power of the institutions to define diagnoses is heavily skewed.

What have both classic and more recent studies of hospital experiences found?

plague

Epidemiologists predict that __________ rates may dramatically increase when vector organisms and animals enter new ecosystems due to global climate change.

involves small steps that can improve health at both the individual and social levels.

Being a locavore:

climate change

More recently, epidemiologists are studying the role of ______________ in the spread of diseases globally.

medicalization

As the process of the _____________ develops, we will be less likely to treat someone who has a mental health issue as something they should just "deal with" or "get over" individually. Instead, we will be more likely to think of the issue as having to do with a disease.

the institutional setting is where doctor-patient relationships occur and the interactions set who has power or status.

tudies of doctor-patient relations find:

Large-scale agribusiness dominates the American food landscape. According to your text, which of the following is a response to the situation as it stands now?

Become a locavore

Blacks and Hispanics

Rosenbaum (2008) found that it was more common for _________________ in New York City to live in substandard housing in marginalized neighborhoods.

localizing national food policy and supporting a locavore agenda

When Michael Pollan talks about "re-regionalizing" the food system in America, what does he mean?

contagion

Many countries around the world have national policies or guidelines on how to report suicides. These policies range from not using the term "suicide" to describe a death, to being careful to use words that do not in any way romanticize the act or show it in a positive light. Policies may also restrict the amount of news coverage of suicides. Which theoretical stance would best explain these types of policies and guidelines?

chronic diseases

In the 1990s legal researcher Erin Brockovich helped win a lawsuit against Pacific Gas and Electric Company because they had been poisoning the water in the small town of Hinkley, California for 30 years. Toxic Chromium 6 leached into the water system and sickened many Hinkley residents with ailments like liver damage and cancer. How would the illnesses of the Hinkley residents be classified?

Epidemiologists

_____________ gather and analyze data on particular illnesses, how, where and to whom they are spread, as well as how to stop their spread.

the American College Health Association

One organization that conducts large-scale research studies specifically on American college students to determine health behaviors and develop support programs and services for them on a wide variety of health-related issues is __________________.

ecological

Single-industry resource towns built around either excavating raw materials like coal or lumber or transporting them by train tend to spring up suddenly. Many people move there to work for the company and the rate of change is fast: One day there is a forest, the next, a growing town built around mobile homes in the bush. There are often few if any other things to besides work. Rates of depression tend to be high. Which theoretical explanation for suicide would explain the higher rates of depression that can lead to suicide in places like this?

contagion

Many countries around the world have national policies or guidelines on how to report suicides. These policies range from not using the term "suicide" to describe a death, to being careful to use words that do not in any way romanticize the act or show it in a positive light. Policies may also restrict the amount of news coverage of suicides. Which theoretical stance would best explain these types of policies and guidelines?

benefit corporations and produce the cheapest quality food in large amounts.

Noted journalist and University of California, Berkeley professor Michael Pollan found that the current food production and distribution system in the United States is designed to:

Acute diseases

_______________ come on suddenly and are often contagious.

There is higher risk of diabetes, obesity, or heart disease.

Which of the following is an effect of food deserts for minorities?

cultural competence

The concept of acknowledging and incorporating a patient's cultural background as part of the treatment process is called:

a sweeping overhaul of the U.S. health care system.

The 2010 Health Care Reform Act (formally called the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act") represents:

Both public issues and personal troubles contribute to poor health and so work needs to be done at both levels to more properly address disease rates.

C. Wright Mills used the term "the sociological imagination" to refer to important interconnections between personal troubles and public issues. What would he have said about deprivation amplification?

food desert

According to your textbook, if you live in a(n) ______________ , you are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, or heart disease.

localizing national food policy and supporting a locavore agenda

When Michael Pollan talks about "re-regionalizing" the food system in America, what does he mean?

medicalization

As the process of the _____________ develops, we will be less likely to treat someone who has a mental health issue as something they should just "deal with" or "get over" individually. Instead, we will be more likely to think of the issue as having to do with a disease.

a food desert

You live in a densely populated American city, are non-white, and survive on a low income. According to Chapter 14 of your text, it is likely you live in:

deprivation amplification

When our individual, genetic, and physiological illness and disease risks are exacerbated by social factors like the neighborhood where we live, race, ethnic and class inequality, and corporate and governmental policies and practices, this is referred to sociologically as:

safe-sex fatigue

Research on HIV by Rowniak (2009) found that a social transformation has taken place since the inception of improved treatments for AIDS that make it more of a manageable disease than an imminent killer. Specifically, the research found that the response to this "less than a death sentence" diagnosis has caused what some researchers refer to as _______________ that can lead to a rise in infection rates.

Acute diseases

_______________ come on suddenly and are often contagious.

chronic / acute

Whereas the top causes of death in the United States are ________________, those in the developing world are continually affected by the threat of _______________.

vector organisms

More recently, epidemiologists are studying the role of temperature increases in the spread of diseases globally. Specifically they have found that increases in temperature can also increase pathogen-carrying agents called:

the use of genetic profiles

The 2010 entering freshman class at the University of California, Berkeley was invited to give a saliva sample to test for genetic markers. Eventually, the University was forced to shut down the study due to ethical concerns. What might have been a main ethical concern of this study?

so the work doesn't have any policy advocates.

The study of locavores is relatively new and:

are local eaters

Locavores are:

no, because organic companies can be part of conglomerates with little interest in social or environmental consciousness

Yasmina loves to eat healthy. She believes that eating only organic food is the best way to live because organic food companies are socially conscious just like her. Is Yasmina correct in her beliefs?

Yes, it is easy and many people do so.

You live in a small condominium and you are pretty stretched for time and money. Could you feasibly be a locavore?

're-regionalize' the food system

What is Michael Pollan's idea for better addressing the corporately-dominated food system in America?

It may be at odds with doctors' professional codes.

You've seen the TV program, Royal Pains, about concierge medicine, and it looks great to you. If you were able to have such a doctor, you'd have a personal relationship with your doctor, he would come to your house whenever you called, he'd have access to all the best that medical practice has to offer, and he'd see you for more than the 10-minute office visit your regular doctor gives you. What do medical ethicists think about concierge medicine?

deprivation amplification

The documentary "Unnatural Causes" explores the lives of several Louisville, Kentucky residents at different socio-economic status levels and from various racial backgrounds. It found that poorer Louisville residents suffered greater rates of illness and died earlier than wealthier ones. What is this an example of?

benefit corporations and produce the cheapest quality food in large amounts.

Noted journalist and University of California, Berkeley professor Michael Pollan found that the current food production and distribution system in the United States is designed to:

epidemiologist

Malaria is a serious health concern in Cambodia. In some villages, especially those surrounded by forests, the rate of malaria infection is 40 percent. Due to your extensive professional experience with the study of social disease patterns, you have been asked to research the problem for the World Health Organization. You are most likely a:

vector organisms

These carry and spread germs in geographic locations around the world.

excellent

Dean is an upper middle class American. He lives in an affluent area, holds a bachelor's degree, and has a great job. It is likely that his health status is:

Yes, because organizations like the American Medical Association set policy and shape definitions of health and illness throughout the nation

Is medicine in the U.S. a social institution?

localizing national food policy and supporting a locavore agenda

When Michael Pollan talks about "re-regionalizing" the food system in America, what does he mean?

vector organisms

More recently, epidemiologists are studying the role of temperature increases in the spread of diseases globally. Specifically they have found that increases in temperature can also increase pathogen-carrying agents called:

will have a higher incidence of depression.

Keandre is a lower class American. She lives in public housing, did not finish high school, experiences lapses in employment and has a hard time making financial ends meet. It is likely that she:

a food desert

You live in a densely populated American city, are non-white, and survive on a low income. According to Chapter 14 of your text, it is likely you live in:

have a number of ailments, like arthritis and asthma.

You are an American with a lower socio-economic status. You are a racial minority, live in public housing, and did finish high school but work at a physically labor-intensive job. You are supporting a family of four on your wages. It is likely that you:

epidemiologist

Malaria is a serious health concern in Cambodia. In some villages, especially those surrounded by forests, the rate of malaria infection is 40 percent. Due to your extensive professional experience with the study of social disease patterns, you have been asked to research the problem for the World Health Organization. You are most likely a:

medicalization and the social construction of health and illness.

A popular television program called The Swan aimed to turn less visually appealing people into more socially acceptable ones by radically changing their appearance through plastic surgery, as well as through clothing, style, and make-up artistry. This is an example of

curative or crisis medicine.

Ori went to eat at his favorite restaurant and unfortunately got food poisoning. His illness was treated right away. This treatment would be classified as:

cultural competence

The concept of acknowledging and incorporating a patient's cultural background as part of the treatment process is called:

vector organisms

More recently, epidemiologists are studying the role of temperature increases in the spread of diseases globally. Specifically they have found that increases in temperature can also increase pathogen-carrying agents called:

a food desert

You live in a densely populated American city, are non-white, and survive on a low income. According to Chapter 14 of your text, it is likely you live in:

will have a higher incidence of depression.

Keandre is a lower class American. She lives in public housing, did not finish high school, experiences lapses in employment and has a hard time making financial ends meet. It is likely that she:

mandating caps on greenhouse gas emissions.

Diseases know no national borders. Noting a certain increase in serious global health concerns related to climate change, networks of epidemiologists have put out a global alarm about:

pandemic

When an epidemic spreads across national borders, continents, or around the world, it is referred to as a _____________________.

epidemic

When the incidence of a particular infectious disease is drastically larger than first estimated, this is referred to as a(n) ________________.

Dana is more likely than Rio to suffer from depression.

Dana, a female, and Rio, a male, both are 60 years old and from the same socio-economic background. Based on information from Chapter 14 of your text, what health prediction could we make about them?

conflict

Michael Moore's film Sicko explores the U.S. health care system and compares it to other nations' health care systems through the eyes of everyday people. One segment tells the story of a little girl in the United States who needed an expensive surgery to restore her hearing. The insurance company agreed to perform the surgery on one ear, but not both. They reasoned that the child would already hear out of one ear and didn't really need to have hearing in both. The child's parents sent a letter to the insurance company explaining that they were being interviewed by Moore for the film, adding "Has your CEO ever been in a film before?" Shortly after, the insurance company notified the family that the child's surgery had been approved. Which theory best explains this family's experience?

preventive diseases

____________ develop over an extended time period and are often not discovered until the later stages of the disease. They can sometimes be related to a person's environment or even personal lifestyle choices.

contagion

Many countries around the world have national policies or guidelines on how to report suicides. These policies range from not using the term "suicide" to describe a death, to being careful to use words that do not in any way romanticize the act or show it in a positive light. Policies may also restrict the amount of news coverage of suicides. Which theoretical stance would best explain these types of policies and guidelines?

the sick role

Talcott Parsons researched this from a structural functionalist perspective:

have a number of ailments, like arthritis and asthma.

You are an American with a lower socio-economic status. You are a racial minority, live in public housing, and did finish high school but work at a physically labor-intensive job. You are supporting a family of four on your wages. It is likely that you:

There is higher risk of diabetes, obesity, or heart disease.

Which of the following is an effect of food deserts for minorities?

selection

The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is an icon of the city by the bay and a world renowned tourist destination. It is also the number one suicide magnet in the world. Which theoretical explanation for suicide would best explain the high rates of suicide at the bridge?

a food desert

A neighborhood where there is no grocery store, but more liquor, convenience and drug stores, and fast food outlets is referred to as a:

Become a locavore

Large-scale agribusiness dominates the American food landscape. According to your text, which of the following is a response to the situation as it stands now?

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

What is a group of medical treatments and products that includes practices like acupuncture, homeopathy, hypnosis, and meditation, as well as traditional healers like shamans and movement therapies like pilates, called?

chronic diseases

In the 1990s legal researcher Erin Brockovich helped win a lawsuit against Pacific Gas and Electric Company because they had been poisoning the water in the small town of Hinkley, California for 30 years. Toxic Chromium 6 leached into the water system and sickened many Hinkley residents with ailments like liver damage and cancer. How would the illnesses of the Hinkley residents be classified?

benefit corporations and produce the cheapest quality food in large amounts.

Noted journalist and University of California, Berkeley professor Michael Pollan found that the current food production and distribution system in the United States is designed to:

There is higher risk of diabetes, obesity, or heart disease.

Which of the following is an effect of food deserts for minorities?

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