According to Merton's Anomie/Strain theory, which group is most likely to commit crime?
Initial contact, investigation, arrest, custody
Discretion by police officers occurs during the first four stages of the criminal justice process. In order, what are those stages?
top layer of the CJ cake
A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard.
The greater the proportion of ____________ in the population, the higher the crime rate and the greater the number of persistent offenders.
Which of the following crimes is not included on the list of Part I index crimes documented in the Uniform Crime Reports?
consensus, interactionist, and conflict perspectives
Our course definition of crime takes into account which of the following?
west and south
Which regions of the country usually have significantly higher rates of crime?
Which of the following would not constitute a specialty court?
U.S. Special Jurisdiction Court
The federal governments' three tiered hierarchy of court jurisdiction includes all of the following except?
decide whether the defendant is guilty using a bench trial
When a jury trial is waived, the judge must
Drafting legislative language to be forwarded to congressional sponsors
Which of the following is not one of the judicial functions of a judge?
they are restricted to hearing minor or less serious civil and criminal cases
Courts of limited jurisdiction and named as such because:
Police reform was prompted by which case
Legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea
Intoxication and age are examples of what
The Durham Rule is associated with the ________ defense
1/2 ; all
Approximately _____ of the states have three-strikes laws but nearly ____ of them require the third felony be a serious one
affecting the perception of the general public
Sentencing for the purpose of general deterrence has most to do with
Correctional agency and the judge
Who determines the actual length of incarceration in the indeterminate sentence?
The _____ Amendment contains the confrontation clause
They can be used to excuse jurors for no particular reason
Which of the following is true of peremptory challenges during jury selection?
There is no court supervision of these programs
Which of the following statements is false regarding diversion programs?
productive interaction with the community being served
Community oriented policing links police effectiveness to:
While there are many goals of patrol, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to:
hiring of bilingual officers to patrol ethnic neighborhoods
Which of the following police operations best exemplifies community oriented policing?
issue arrest warrants
not one of the major purposes of police patrol?
not a focus of community policing
Reactive patrol is necessary
Which of the following is not a fundamental assumption of the broken windows model?
An officer approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, she checks everyone's ID and arrests all who are underage. This example best typifies which officer style?
As a result of the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, police departments ______ the use of mandatory arrest policies for domestic violence.
To stand trial, a criminal defendant must be considered to be?
When did the concept of incarcerating convicted offenders as a form of punishment become the norm for corrections?
silence and confinement
What was the key to discipline in the Auburn system?
desire to help and treat children
The juvenile justice system developed as a result of?
Rehabilitation services can be accessed while in the community
Which of the following is an advantage of diversion programs?
The probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is imposed
What happens when probation is revoked?
actually shorter than
For misdemeanors, probation usually extends for the entire period of a would-be jail sentence, whereas felonies are more likely to warrant probationary periods that are _________ the suspended prison sentence
What entity initially sets down the conditions or rules of behavior that must be followed by the probationer?
Private prisons _____ the cost of incarceration
rehabilitation, Elimination of Three Strikes, increase use of probation
Some of the possible solutions for prison overcrowding
health problems for inmates, threats to safety, stressed inmates
Prison overcrowding can lead to these
Failure of community release programs, conviction rates, Mandatory sentencing laws
regarding future prison trends