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Defend Earth from alien invaders
These transfer heat from tropical to polar regions, distribute nutrients, scatter organisms and influence weather and climate.
Surface currents are powered by the sun and ______________
Circular flow pattern of water caused by deflection of water by continents and the ocean basin.
Due to the warmth of the water, the molecules are slightly expanded in this region.
Due to the cold temperature of the water, the water molecules are slightly closer together in this region.
Currents flowing on surface in opposite direction to main currents.
Countercurrents beneath surface currents. Can influence conditions at the ocean surface.
There are five of these boundary currents. They carry cold water towards the equator.
These boundary currents are shallow and broad with boundaries that are not well defined.
Eddies do not tend to form in these boundary currents.
In these boundary currents, the flow is from East to West or West to East. They link eastern and western boundary currents.
The West Wind Drift is an example of this type of boundary current.
These are the fastest flowing boundary currents.
These boundary currents move warm water from the equator towards the poles.
The Gulf Stream is an example of this type of boundary current.
This measurement of volume of water flow is equal to 1 million metres cubed per second.
These boundary currents are narrow and deep and have sharp boundaries. Eddies can form.
surface winds drive surface currents, and each layer of water drags the layer below, but the Coriolis Force changes each layer's direction slightly to make a spiral effect
Gyres in balance between gravity and the Coriolis Effect.
Which direction do gyres flow in the Northern hemisphere?
Which direction do gyres flow in the Southern hemisphere?
Waves transmit _______________.
Waves with ___________ wavelengths move the fastest.
The slowest moving waves.
The fastest moving waves
Wave generated as a result of a seismic event.
Number of waves passing a fixed point per second.
Nearly friction free transfer of energy from molecule to molecule in a circular path.
A wave of moving energy in which the wave form moves in one direction along the surface of the transmission medium.
highest part of a progresive wave
lowest part of a progressive trough
Horizontal distance between two consecutive wave crests or wave troughs
Vertical distance between a wave crest and an adjacent wave trough
These waves move through water greater than 1/2 their wavelength.
These waves move through water shallower than 1/20 their wavelength
These waves travel though water deeper than 1/20 but shallower than 1/2 their wavelength
These waves are the first to form when the wind blows.
Waves with a tiny wavelength less than 1.73cm. The restoring force is surface tension.
These waves have a wavelength greater than 1.73cm. The restoring force is gravity and momentum. Wind waves are one example of these waves.
These waves tend to be less than 3m high, and have wavelengths between 60 - 150m in the ocean.
mature wind waves of one wavelength that form orderly undulations of the ocean surface
Progessing groups of swell with the same origin and wave length are known as this.
Uninterupted distance over which the wind blows without significant change in direction.
The length of time the wind blows, the fetch and this are three factors that affect wind wave development.
Maximum ratio of wave height to wavelength seen in the open ocean. Also known as wave steepness.
Waves with a ratio greater than 1:7 will do this.
The subtraction of wave energy as waves meet producing smaller waves.
The addition of wave energy as waves meet producing larger waves.
A result of constructive and destructive interference that is seen on shore when waves do not all appear with a uniform size. Some are larger, some are smaller.
A single wave crest much higher than usual caused by constructive interference.
This type of tidal cycle is found commonly in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
This type of tidal cycle is found commonly in the Gulf of Mexico.
A breaking wave in which the upper section topples forward and away from the bottom, forming an air-filled tube.
A breaking wave whose crest slides down the face of the wave.
A wave that surges ashore without breaking.
Slowing and bending of progressive waves in shallow water.
Bending of waves around obstacles.
The reflection of progressive waves by a vertical barrier. Reflection occurs with little loss of energy.
a wave in which water oscillates without causing progressive wave forward movement. there is no net transmission of energy in a standing wave
the regular rise and fall of the ocean's surface influenced by the moon's gravity pulling on earth
Tide caused by gravitational and inertial interaction of the moon and Earth.
24 hours 50 mins
Greek astronomer and navigator who first wrote about the connection between moon and the height of the tide.
High water position corresponding to a tidal crest
Low water position corresponding to a tidal trough
These tides occur when the earth, moon and sun are in a straight line.
These tides occur when the earth, moon and sun are at right angles.
caused by the gravitational and inertial interaction of the sun and earth
These tides result in little variation in the height of tides.
These tides are a time of greatest variation between high and low tides.
A "no-tide" point in an ocean caused by basin resonances, friction, and other factors around which tide crests rotate. About a dozen amphidromic points exist in the world ocean. Sometimes called a node.
A high, often breaking wave generated by a tide crest that advances rapidly up an estuary or river.
is the difference in height between successive high and low tides
The reference level (0.0) from which tidal height is measured.
a time of no current, occurs at high and low tides when current change direction
water rushing into an enclosed area because of the rise in sea level as a tide crest approaches
Water rushing out of an enclosed harbor or bay because of the fall in sea level as a tide trough approaches.
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