The cause of aplastic anemia is:
A. acute blood loss.
B. bone marrow failure.
C. chronic blood loss.
D. inadequate iron intake.
The most common cause of dementia in the United States is:
B. Alzheimer's disease.
C. alcohol abuse.
D. anxiety disorder.
Dr. Zambrano ordered a CEA test for Mr. Logan. Dr. Zambrano may be considering a diagnosis of:
B. carpal tunnel syndrome.
D. congestive heart failure.
The prevention of illness through vaccination occurs due to the formation of:
A. helper B cells.
C. mast cells.
D. memory cells.
A bee stung little Bobby. He experiences itching, erythema, and respiratory distress caused by laryngeal edema and vascular collapse. In the emergency department, Bobby is diagnosed with:
A. allergic rhinitis.
B. allergic sinusitis.
C. anaphylactic shock.
Genital warts are caused by:
A. HAV. :
A patient's history includes the following documentation:
• Small ulcers (chancres) appeared on the genitalia and disappeared after 4 to 6 weeks
• Elevated temperature, skin rash, and enlarged lymph nodes
Which procedure will be used to initially diagnose the patient?
A. Bone marrow test
B. Chest x-ray
C. Serology test
D. Thyroid scan
What cells produce histamine in a type I hypersensitivity reaction?
C. Mast cells
Which one of the following cells produces antibodies?
A. A cells
B. Cytotoxic T cells
C. Helper T cells
D. Plasma cells
Which of the following conditions is NOT a predisposing risk associated with essential
B. Cigarette smoking
C. Low dietary sodium intake
A patient, who is HIV positive, has raised lesions, red or purple in color appearing on the skin, in the mouth, or anywhere on the body. What is the stage of his disease process in today's medical terminology?
D. HIV positive
Each of the following pertains to COPD EXCEPT:
A. chronic bronchitis.
Which of the following is a lethal arrhythmia?
A. Atrial fibrillation
B. Atrial tachycardia
D. Ventricular fibrillation
he drug commonly used to treat bipolar mood swings is:
C. lithium carbonate.
A vision-related pathology that is caused by diabetes is:
A. retinal detachment.
Penicillin is effective in the treatment of all the following diseases EXCEPT:
B. Lyme disease.
C. strep throat.
A. spread through autoinoculation.
B. be caused by Streptococcus.
C. be caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
D. either A or B.
Diagnostic testing for meningitis usually involves:
A. blood cultures.
B. cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
C. stool C&S.
D. testing urine.
Which disease is a malignancy of the lymphatic system?
A. Cystic fibrosis
B. Hodgkin's disease
D. Von Willebrand's disease
Which of the following is a hereditary disease of the cerebral cortex?
A. Huntington Chorea.
B. Lou Gehrig's disease.
C. Bell's Palsy.
D. Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Which of the following autoimmune diseases affects tissues of the nervous system?
A. Goodpasture's syndrome
B. Hashimoto's disease
C. Myasthenia gravis
D. Rheumatoid arthritis
Pain is a symptom of which of the following conditions?
A. First-degree burn (superficial)
B. Second-degree burn (partial thickness)
C. Third-degree burn (full thickness)
D. A and B
A 75-year-old patient has a sore tongue with tingling and numbness of the hands and feet. She has headaches and is fatigued. Following diagnostic workup, the doctor orders monthly injections of vitamin B12. This patient mostly likely has which of the following conditions?
A. Aplastic anemia
B. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
C. Pernicious anemia
D. Sickle cell anemia
Which one of the following is NOT a pathophysiological factor in anemia?
A. Excessive RBC breakdown
B. Lack of RBC maturation
C. Loss of bone marrow function
D. Loss of spleen function
Many bacterial diseases are transmitted directly from person to person. Which of the diseases listed below is a bacterial disease that is transmitted by way of a tick vector?
A. Legionnaires' disease
B. Lyme disease
Necrosis extending down to the underlying fascia is characteristic of a decubitus ulcer in stage:
Scabies, a highly contagious condition that produces intense pruritus and rash, is caused by:
A. head lice.
B. itch mites.
C. jock itch.
A physician prescribes a diuretic for his patient. He could be treating any of the following
A. congestive heart failure.
B. mitral stenosis.
D. pulmonary edema.
All of the following are examples of direct transmission of a disease EXCEPT:
A. contaminated foods.
B. coughing or sneezing.
C. droplet spread.
D. physical contact.
____________ is the most common type of skin cancer and _________ is the most deadly type of skin cancer?
A. Malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma
B. Basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma
C. Oat cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma
D. Squamous cell carcinoma, oat cell carcinoma
John Palmer was in a car accident and sustained severe chest trauma resulting in a tension pneumothorax. Manifestations of this disorder include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. severe chest pain.
Cancer derived from epithelial tissue is classified as a(n) :
Sex-linked genetic diseases :
A. are transmitted during sexual activity.
B. involve a defect on a chromosome.
C. occur equally between males and females.
D. occur only in males.
A stapedectomy is a common treatment for:
B. multiple sclerosis.
In systemic circulation, which of the following carry oxygenated blood?
A. Right vena cava
B. Renal arteries
C. Pulmonary arteries
D. Left ventricle
Which of the following sequences correctly depicts the flow of blood through the heart to the lungs?
A. Right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, pulmonary artery
B. Right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs
C. Right ventricle, right atrium, lungs, pulmonary artery
D. Right ventricle, right atrium, pulmonary artery, lungs
Diastole occurs when:
A. cardiac insufficiency is present.
B. the atria contracts.
C. the ventricles contract.
D. the ventricles fill.
The most fatal type of lung cancer is:
B. large cell cancer.
C. small cell cancer.
D. squamous cell cancer.
Gas exchange in the lungs takes place at the:
Oxygen is carried in the blood:
A. bound to hemoglobin.
B. in the form of carbonic acid.
Which of the following anatomical parts is involved in both the respiratory and digestive systems?
B. Nasal cavity
A disease of the ear that causes vertigo is:
C. Meniere's disease.
D. A and C
_________ causes of softening of the bone in children:
A. Raynaud's disease
B. Reye's syndrome
A pathological diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma is made. The examined tissue was removed from the:
C. oral cavity.
Most carbon dioxide is carried in the:
A. blood as CO 2 gas.
B. blood bound to hemoglobin.
C. blood plasma in the form of carbonic acid.
D. red blood cells.
The key diagnostic finding for typical pneumonia is:
A. abnormal blood electrolytes.
B. elevated WBC.
C. lung consolidation x-ray.
D. positive sputum culture.
The presence of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs is characteristic of:
B. Crohn's disease.
Full-blown AIDS sets in as:
A. CD4 receptors increase.
B. helper T-cell concentration decreases.
C. HIV virus concentration decreases.
D. immunity to HIV increases.
Which of the following BEST describes tuberculosis?
A. A chronic, systemic disease whose initial infection is in the lungs
B. An acute bacterial infection of the lung
C. An ordinary lung infection
D. A viral infection of the lungs
Treatments for sensorineural hearing loss include:
A. cochlear implants.
C. removal of impacted cerumen.
Mary Mulholland has diabetes. Her physician has told her about some factors that put her more at risk for infections. Which of the following factors would probably NOT be applicable?
B. Increased glucose in body fluids
C. Increased blood supply
D. A and C
Most of the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients occurs in the:
A. ascending colon.
C. small intestine.
The Phalen's wrist flexor test is a noninvasive method for diagnosing:
A. carpal tunnel syndrome.
B. Down syndrome.
C. severe acute respiratory syndrome.
D. Tourette's syndrome.
Ulcerations of the small intestine are characteristic of:
B. Crohn's disease.
D. Graves' disease.
The patient's pathology report revealed the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. This is indicative of:
A. Hodgkin's disease.
C. non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
The most common rickettsial disease in the U.S. is:
B. Lyme disease.
C. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Early detection programs apply screening guidelines to detect cancers at an early stage, which provides the likelihood of increased survival and decreased morbidity. Which of the following would NOT be a diagnostic or screening test for colorectal cancer?
A. Double contrast barium enema
C. Fecal occult blood test
D. Upper GI x-ray
Prevention programs identify risk factors and use strategies to modify attitudes and behaviors to reduce the chance of developing cancers. Which of the following would NOT be an identified risk factor for colorectal cancer?
A. Alcohol use
B. Physical inactivity
C. High-fiber diet
In general, excessive RBC breakdown could result in:
A. Crohn's disease.
B. elevated BUN.
C. high bilirubin levels.
D. peptic ulcers.
The most common bloodborne infection in the United States is:
A. Helicobacter pylori.
B. hepatitis A.
C. hepatitis C.
The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is:
A. alcoholic hepatitis.
C. fatty liver.
Portal hypertension can contribute to all of the following EXCEPT:
B. dilation of blood vessels lining the intestinal tract.
C. esophageal varices.
D. kidney failure.
Which of the following is a liver function test?
A. AST (SGOT)
Which of the following is a risk factor involved in the etiology of gallstones?
A. Being overweight
B. Being an adolescent
C. Low-fat diets
D. Presence of peptic ulcer
A serum potassium level of 2.8 would indicate:
A. Addison disease.
C. diabetic ketoacidosis.
A procedure performed with an instrument that freezes and destroys abnormal tissues (including seborrheic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas) is:
Which of the organs listed below has endocrine and exocrine functions?
Which of the following is an effect of insulin?
A. Decreases glycogen concentration in liver
B. Increases blood glucose
C. Increases the breakdown of fats
D. Increases glucose metabolism
The causative organism for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a:
Before leaving the hospital, all newborns are screened for an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of defective enzymatic conversion in protein metabolism. With early detection and a protein-restricted diet, brain damage is prevented. This disease is:
A. cystic fibrosis.
B. hereditary hemochromatosis.
D. Tay-Sachs disease.
Diabetic microvascular disease occurs:
A. as a direct result of elevated serum glucose.
B. as a result of elevated fat in blood.
C. due to damage to nerve cells.
D. only in type 1 diabetics.
Older age, obesity, family history of diabetes are all characteristics of:
A. type I diabetes.
B. type II diabetes.
C. type III diabetes.
D. type IV diabetes.
An elevated serum amylase would be characteristic of:
A. acute pancreatitis.
B. gallbladder disease.
C. postrenal failure.
D. prerenal failure.
Clinical manifestations of this disease include polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss, and hyperglycemia. Which of the following tests would be ordered to confirm the disease?
A. Fasting blood sugar
C. Glucose tolerance test
D. Postprandial blood sugar
Common kidney stone treatments that allow small particles to be flushed out of the body through the urinary system include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
B. fluid hydration.
C. ureteroscopy and stone basketing.
D. using medication to dissolve the stone(s).
When a decubitus ulcer has progressed to a stage in which osteomyelitis is present, the ulcer has extended to the:
D. subcutaneous tissue.
The patient has no visible bleeding, but remains anemic. Her physician is concerned about possible gastrointestinal bleeding. Which of the following tests might be ordered?
A. DEXA scan
B. Guaiac smear test
C. Pap smear test
D. Prostatic-specific antigen test
Which of the following tests is NOT part of a liver panel?
B. Alkaline phosphatase
Maria Giovanni is in the hospital recovering from surgery. Based on her symptoms, her doctors are concerned about the possibility that she has developed a pulmonary embolism. Which of the following procedures will provide the definitive diagnosis?
A. Chest x-ray
B. Lung scan
C. Pulmonary angiography
D. None of the above
A condition that involves the fifth cranial nerve, also known as "tic douloureux," causes intense pain in either the eye and forehead; lower lip, the section of the cheek closest to the ear, and the outer segment of the tongue; or the upper lip, nose, and cheek.
A. Bell palsy
C. Trigeminal neuralgia
D. Tourette disorder
Which of the following is a congenital condition that is the most severe neural tube defect?
C. Severe combined immunodeficiency
D. Spina bifida occulta
Which of the following tubes conveys sperm from the seminal vesicle to the urethra?
A. Ejaculatory duct
D. Vas deferens
The most common type of vaginitis is:
D. A and B. Medical Science
The childhood viral disease that unvaccinated pregnant women should avoid because it may be passed to the fetus, causing congenital anomalies such as mental retardation, blindness, and deafness, is:
In ______________ anemia, the red blood cells become shaped like elongated, crescents in the presence of low oxygen concentration.
B. folic acid
C. sickle cell
D. vitamin B12
. ______________ is usually the first symptom of benign prostate hyperplasia.
A. Abdominal pain
B. Burning pain during urination
C. Difficulty in urinating
D. Pelvic pain
The hypothalamus, thalamus, and pituitary gland are all parts of the:
C. exocrine system.
D. limbic system.
Which of the following BEST summarizes the current treatment of cervical cancer?
A. A new three-shot vaccination series protects against the types of HPV that cause most cervical cancer cases.
B. All stages have extremely high cure rates.
C. Early detection and treatment of cervical cancer does not improve patient survival rates.
D. Over 99% of cases are linked to long-term HPV infections.
Children at higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) include those:
A. with sleep apnea.
B. with respiratory problems.
C. who are premature infants.
D. all of the above.
Increasing peristalsis of intestines, increasing salivation, and slowing heart rate are examples of:
A. automatic nervous system responses.
B. higher brain function.
C. parasympathetic nervous system responses.
D. sympathetic nervous system responses.
Photophobia or visual aura preceding a headache is characteristic of:
D. myasthenia gravis
A. is an autoimmune disease.
B. most commonly affects males.
C. usually cannot be treated.
D. usually affects the elderly.
"Pill-rolling" tremor is a characteristic symptom of:
B. Guillain-Barre syndrome.
C. myasthenia gravis.
D. Parkinson disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis typically affects the:
A. intervertebral disks.
B. hips and shoulders.
C. knees and small joints of the hands and feet.
D. large, weight-bearing joints.
Henry experienced sudden sharp chest pain that he described as heavy and crushing. His pain and past medical history caused Dr. James to suspect that Henry was having a myocardial infarction. Which of the following tests is a more specific marker for a MI?
D. Troponin I
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a useful diagnostic test for
D. rheumatoid arthritis.
A patient is on Coumadin therapy. Which of the following tests is commonly ordered to monitor the patient's Coumadin levels?
A. Bleeding time
B. Blood smear
C. Partial thromboplastin time
D. Prothrombin time
A toxic goiter has what distinguishing characteristic?
A. Iodine deficiency
B. Parathyroid involvement
C. Presence of muscle spasm
D. Thyroid hyperfunction
How can Graves' disease be treated?
A. Antithyroid drugs
B. Radioactive iodine therapy
D. All of the above
Fractures occur in patients with osteoporosis due to:
A. falling from loss of balance.
B. fibrous joint adhesions tearing apart small bones.
C. loss of bone mass.
D. tendency to fall from lack of joint mobility
United States health care providers are concerned about a possible pandemic of avian flu because:
A. there is no vaccine currently available.
B. it is caused by a group of viruses that mutate very easily.
C. the causative virus is being spread around the world by migratory birds.
D. all of the above.
A sweat test was done on a patient with the following symptoms: frequent respiratory infections, chronic cough, and foul-smelling bloody stools. Which of the following diseases is probably suspected?
A. Cystic breast disease
B. Cystic fibrosis
C. Cystic lung disease
D. Cystic pancreas
Margaret Vargas needs to have her mitral valve replaced. Her surgeon will discuss which of the following issues with her before the surgery?
A. A mechanical valve will require that she take a "blood thinner" for the rest of her life.
B. A biological valve (usually porcine) will last 10 to 15 years.
C. A mechanical valve increases the risk of blood clots that can cause stroke.
D. All of the above.
Cervical cerclage is a procedure used to help prevent:
A. breathing restrictions.
Sam Spade has been injured in a MVA. The organ in his body, situated at the upper left of his abdominal cavity, under the ribs, that is part of his lymphatic system has been ruptured and he is bleeding internally. Sam needs a surgical procedure known as a:
Henrietta Dawson presents with a chief complaint of pain and weakness in her arms and neck. After an H&P and review of diagnostic tests that include a myelogram, her doctor diagnoses a herniated nucleus pulposus at the _________ level of her spine:
Ingrid Anderson presents with a skin infection that began as a raised itchy bump, resembling an insect bite. Within 1 to 2 days, it developed into a vesicle. Now it is a painless ulcer, about 2 cm in diameter, with a black necrotic area in the center. During the history, her doctor learns that she has recently returned from an overseas vacation and becomes concerned that she may have become infected with anthrax. He will prescribe an:
Etiologies of dementia include:
A. brain tumors.
D. all of the above
Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment of the:
A. medial nerve.
B. radial nerve.
C. tibial nerve.
D. ulnar nerve.
The organism transmitted by a mosquito bite that causes malaria is a:
Contributing factors of mental disorders include:
D. all of the above.