History III

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The young women who worked in the New England textile mills in the 1820s and 1830s

were able to save their wages for later personal use or to help out their families back on the farm.

Members of the business class attempted to overcome disorder and lawlessness among urban wage earners in early nineteenth-century America by

forming regional and national organizations in order to institutionalize charity and combat evil systematically.
.

The nativist clubs that formed in response to the growth of Catholicism in the United States called for all of the following except

an amendment to the Constitution forcing Catholics to renounce the pope or lose their right to vote.

"Fall line" towns, whose growth surged with the advent of the Industrial Revolution, included all of the following except

Cincinnati, Ohio.

Moral reformers associated with the Benevolent Empire failed in their attempts to

have the federal government ban all commercial activity, including the transportation of mail, on Sundays.

The rapid growth of western cities such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and New Orleans resulted from their

location at points where goods had to be transferred from one mode of transport to another.

The members of the early nineteenth-century American middle class developed an ideology of work that

embraced a secular ideal of business success.

By the 1830s, most laborers in the urban northeast lived in

crowded boardinghouses and tiny apartments.

One social change resulting from the Industrial Revolution in early nineteenth-century America was that members of the upper class

openly distanced themselves by values and lifestyle from wage earners in contrast to the shared cultural and religious values that had united the gentry and ordinary folk in the eighteenth century.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the emergence of the textile industry in the United States?

American textile producers improved on British technology.

New York City became the economic center of the United States by the 1830s because it

secured control of foreign trade with Europe and South America.

During the 1840s and 1850s, Roman Catholic churches in the United States

provided community services and a sense of group identity for most Irish and many German immigrants.

The new industrial system that manufacturers developed in the early nineteenth century

brought workers together under one roof in a factory.

The Waltham plan

strictly supervised the behavior of its factory workers.

Why did Charles Grandison Finney achieve his greatest success as a revivalist by preaching in Rochester, New York, in 1830?

He won over influential merchants and manufacturers who pledged to reform their own lives and those of their workers.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the consumption of alcoholic beverages by workers during the 1820s?

Many workers used alcohol as an escape from the routine of work and smuggled whiskey into the workplace.

The clergyman most directly associated with the rise of the Benevolent Empire and with the phrase "the moral government of God" was

Lyman Beecher.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the effect of canals and steamboats on the flow of goods and information during the 1830s?

The canals and steamboats cut in half most travel and communication time.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the American party system by the early 1840s?

The practice of Americans voting for a particular party along ethnic and religious lines began to emerge.

Jackson's attack on the Second Bank after the election of 1832

was the first time a president had claimed that his electoral victory gave him the power to act independently of Congress.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the American political system before the 1820s?

Local notables dominated it by managing local elections through devices such as loaning money and treating workers or tenants to drinks.

How did John C. Calhoun's arguments in the nullification crisis fit into American constitutional and political history?

They revived arguments made by the Antifederalists in the debate over the Constitution's ratification and by Jefferson and Madison in their Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1798.

The candidate who won the greatest number of electoral votes in 1824 was

Andrew Jackson.

While a U.S. senator for New York, Martin Van Buren created the first national campaign organization in support of Jackson's candidacy by

orchestrating state and local politicians, supervising a national newspaper campaign, and sponsoring meetings of voters to maintain public support.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Andrew Jackson's intentions toward Native Americans?

He meant to remove all Native Americans east of the Mississippi, even those who had adapted to white society.

The "corrupt bargain," the political intrigue that resulted when the presidential election of 1824 was decided in the House of Representatives, consisted of

John Quincy Adams's apparent deal with Henry Clay, whereby Clay's supporters in the House would vote for Adams, who would then name Clay his secretary of state.

As president, John Quincy Adams supported

a national bank to promote a uniform currency and to control credit.

For political advice, President Jackson relied on

an informal group of advisors, called the Kitchen Cabinet.

In his tract The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, John C. Calhoun anonymously

claimed that because the Constitution had been ratified in state conventions, a state could determine whether a federal law should apply within the borders of that state.

Martin Van Buren's most significant contribution to American political history in the 1820s was his

pioneering work in making party discipline an effective tool for governing in a democracy.

During the 1840s, the Democratic Party vigorously recruited supporters among

subsistence farmers in the North and smallholders in the South.

Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the Second Bank in 1832 primarily because

he thought it was subversive to the rights of states and to the liberties of the people.

By the early 1830s, ordinary Americans believed that the Second Bank of the United States

possessed unwarranted power to force bank closures.

In 1832, a South Carolina state convention

declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the presidential campaign of 1840?

The Whigs' campaign was a carnival of speeches, parades, and mass meetings to demonstrate the common-man qualities of their presidential candidate.

The abolitionist women who equated women's traditional family roles with slavery

avoided arousing public outrage by advancing their ideas within a religious context.

The "gag rule," passed by the House of Representatives in 1836,

stipulated that antislavery petitions received by the House would be automatically tabled.

In its campaign to end slavery, the American Anti-Slavery Society

distributed pamphlets and collected signatures on antislavery petitions.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the new urban culture of large U.S. cities such as New York during the early 1800s?

Popular entertainment, in particularly minstrelsy, was an important aspect of new urban culture.

Which of the following was not an objection raised by non-Mormons of Illinois against Joseph Smith and his followers?

Mormons owned slaves.

In her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Margaret Fuller

argued that every woman deserved psychological and social independence because the identity bestowed by her independent relationship with God transcended gender.

The Book of Mormon was

Joseph Smith's translation from ancient gold plates that were revealed to him by an angel.

Angelina and Sarah Grimké

became famous—and widely criticized—for delivering antislavery lectures before mixed male-female meetings.

In his 1829 pamphlet addressed to "colored citizens," the free African American David Walker

justified slave rebellion and warned white Americans that violence and retribution would come if justice were delayed.

The most outstanding contribution of American mechanics to the Industrial Revolution was the development of

machines capable of making parts for other machines.

One social change resulting from the Industrial Revolution in early nineteenth-century America was that members of the upper class

openly distanced themselves by values and lifestyle from wage earners in contrast to the shared cultural and religious values that had united the gentry and ordinary folk in the eighteenth century.

Which of the following statements best characterizes the living conditions of most Irish immigrants?

They were particularly susceptible to the frequent epidemics of infectious diseases such as cholera.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the life of Irish Catholic immigrants in the United States in the late 1840s and the 1850s?

They built the same kind of social and cultural networks that other Americans had developed, which helped to sustain them in the face of Protestant hostility.

Why did Charles Grandison Finney achieve his greatest success as a revivalist by preaching in Rochester, New York, in 1830?

He won over influential merchants and manufacturers who pledged to reform their own lives and those of their workers.

The clergyman most directly associated with the rise of the Benevolent Empire and with the phrase "the moral government of God" was

Lyman Beecher.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes immigration during the 1840s and 1850s?

Most of the Irish who arrived were poverty-stricken peasants.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Jackson's veto of the bill rechartering the Second Bank of the United States in 1832?

It was a popular move, blending constitutional arguments, an appeal to patriotism, and class rhetoric.

A more unified African American culture began to emerge in the early decades of the nineteenth century because

the rapid transfer of slaves from other regions into the Lower Mississippi Valley significantly minimized cultural differences.

Which of the following reasons does not explain how the federal government played a major role in expanding slavery during the early 1800s?

The federal government expanded participation in the International Slave Trade after 1807.

In what ways was the domestic slave trade crucial to the southern economy?

The trade provided tens of thousands of new workers to build plantations.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African American marriages and childbearing in the early nineteenth century?

Most married slaves who were not separated by sale lived in stable unions and had most of their children while they were together.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the gang-labor system of cotton plantation labor?

Gang labor included white overseers and black drivers.

Sugar plantations in Louisiana were characterized by all of the following factors except

a high rate of African American slave fertility.

White planters provided the human cargo of the domestic slave trade through all of the following ways except

selling slaves to the federal government.

In the tobacco-growing regions, the lives of the planter aristocracy consisted of

following the aristocratic model of disinterested benevolence.

Which of the following factors most accurately describes the means utilized by white planters to transport African Americans slaves through the domestic slave trade?

Planters relied upon both coastal and inland networks of transport.

White southerners failed to diversify the southern economy for all of the following reasons except

they blamed white northerners for economically exploiting white southerners.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the cotton planter class of the southwest?

The goal of the planter class was to make money.

Which of the following groups was not directly affected by the expansion of southern cotton slavery during the early 1800s?

Irish immigrants

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the plantation labor system of the southern cotton industry?

African American slaves worked from sunup to sundown and from one end of the year to the other.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the experiences of free blacks in early nineteenth-century United States?

Most held low-wage jobs as farm workers, day laborers, or laundresses.

The plantation elite was characterized by all of the following criteria except

plantation elites owned more than 1,000 slaves.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes blacks' resistance to slavery by the 1820s?

In their situation, most blacks had no choice but to build the best possible lives for themselves.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African American marriage customs in the slave South?

Many slave couples, following African custom, jumped over a broomstick in a public ceremony to signify their union.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the domestic slave trade?

The domestic slave trade expanded after the War of 1812.

Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin

increased opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act and prompted northern legislatures to challenge federal authority.

At the end of the War with Mexico, Free-Soilers

shifted their party's focus away from the sinfulness of slavery and toward the need to keep the West open for settlement by white yeoman farmers.

Under land grants issued by the Mexican government, a large American settlement in Texas was established by

Stephen F. Austin.

In asking Congress to declare war on Mexico, Polk charged that Mexico

had invaded American territory and shed American blood on American soil.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?

Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

Why did radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison bitterly criticize the free-soil movement?

He considered it essentially racist because its aim was not to oppose slavery but to preserve the West for white settlement only.

Which of the following is not a reason why the Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency in 1860?

He had already defeated Stephen A. Douglas in the senatorial election in 1858.

The Dred Scott decision

persuaded many Republicans that the Supreme Court and President Buchanan were part of the "Slave Power" conspiracy.

The Wilmot Proviso of 1846

prohibited slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico.

During his four terms as an Illinois state legislator, Lincoln

promoted education, state banking, and internal improvements.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

purchased more than one-third of Mexico's territory for $15 million.

From 1854 to 1856, the fundamental principle on which all Republicans agreed was

an absolute opposition to the expansion of slavery into any new territories.

The concept of Manifest Destiny included the assumption that

the citizens of the United States were destined by God to dominate the "inferior" peoples of the continent.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the American invasion of Mexico in 1846?

The Americans captured Matamoros, Monterrey, Tampico, and most of northeastern Mexico.

Support for John Brown's attempt to ignite a slave rebellion was publicly expressed by

Henry David Thoreau.

In the 1857 Dred Scott decision, which position was not held by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney?

Both the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska Act were constitutional.

Why did radical abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison bitterly criticize the free-soil movement?

He considered it essentially racist because its aim was not to oppose slavery but to preserve the West for white settlement only.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes popular sovereignty as a response to the question of the extension of slavery?

It was championed by senators Lewis Cass and Stephen A. Douglas to allow voters in western territories to decide for themselves whether or not they wanted to legalize slavery.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?

Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

The American Party, or Know-Nothings,

originated in anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic societies of the 1840s.

Proannexation Democrats engineered the annexation of Texas in 1845 by

approving it through a joint resolution, which required only a majority vote in both houses of Congress.

In 1854, why did Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduce a bill to extinguish Native American rights in the Great Plains and organize the northern segment of the Louisiana Purchase into a large territory called Nebraska?

He wanted Chicago to become the eastern terminus of a transcontinental railroad.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

denied alleged runaways a jury trial or the right to testify.

Why did the Irish immigrate to the United States during the 1840s and 1850s?

They fled a famine caused by severe overpopulation and a devastating blight on the potato crop.

Andrew Jackson changed the federal system of office holding by

introducing the principle of rotation in office to discourage long tenure.

The abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison

attacked the U.S. Constitution because it condoned slavery.

In his 1829 pamphlet addressed to "colored citizens," the free African American David Walker

justified slave rebellion and warned white Americans that violence and retribution would come if justice were delayed.

Publications such as Godey's Lady's Book and Catharine Beecher's Treatise on Domestic Economy

instructed women on how to make their homes more moral and efficient and reinforced middle-class domesticity.

The resolutions that feminists adopted at Seneca Falls in 1848

drew on republican ideology and were patterned directly on the Declaration of Independence.

As a result of Turner's Rebellion, the Virginia legislature

debated but rejected a bill providing for gradual emancipation and colonization.

Most early transcendentalists

were members of wealthy and privileged New England families.

In her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe

depicted slavery as a destroyer of slave families and a degrader of slave women.

Joseph Smith originally organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in

New York State.

By the early 1840s, Garrison and his supporters in the American Anti-Slavery Society

advocated a broad-based reform program, embracing women's participation in the society, pacifism, and the abolition of prisons and asylums.

Free blacks in the South

generally acknowledged unity with the enslaved population.

Between 1800 and 1860 white planters moved to the lower South to

invest in agricultural development.

What were the trends in slaves' living conditions in the early nineteenth century?

As blacks formed stronger social, family, and cultural ties, they were in a better position to resist the breakup of families through sale by their owners.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the class of propertyless whites in the South?

They worked hard physical jobs as day laborers and enjoyed little respect from other whites.

The domestic slave trade affected the African American family unit before 1865 by

separating family members through sale and trade.

Which of the following events was a major slave revolt or alleged conspiracy by black slaves or free blacks in the South before 1865?

The Gabriel and Martin Prosser conspiracy of 1800

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the demands for work generally placed upon slaves in the early nineteenth century?

Many slaves—especially in South Carolina—were assigned and expected to complete a specific task each day; if they finished early, they could have the rest of the day for themselves.

In his so-called Freeport Doctrine, Stephen A. Douglas

asserted that settlers could exclude slavery from a territory by not adopting local legislation to protect it.

The Compromise of 1850 did not include which of the following?

Abolition of slavery in the Oregon Territory

Women in the North and South worked in all of the following occupations except

winning state and national political office to occupy seats vacated by men fighting at the front.

The Battle of Antietam (September 1862) resulted in

the bloodiest single day in American military history.

Lee went on the offensive and invaded Maryland in August and September 1862 because

he hoped that a victory over Union forces on northern soil would humiliate Lincoln's government.

The enlistment of African Americans in the Union army and their deployment in battle was delayed because

most Union generals doubted that they would make good soldiers.

The movement toward secession in the winter of 1860-1861 was most rapid in

South Carolina.

In his attack on Atlanta in the summer of 1864, Sherman's Union forces

waged a prolonged campaign that besieged the city in July and, after several vicious battles, took the city in early September.

The Alabama was a Confederate

warship built in Great Britain that, when released on the high seas in the summer of 1862, captured or sank more than one hundred Union merchant ships.

In the election of 1864, Lincoln

was swept to victory by Sherman's victory at Atlanta.

The Alabama was a Confederate

warship built in Great Britain that, when released on the high seas in the summer of 1862, captured or sank more than one hundred Union merchant ships.

During the early years of the Civil War, the term contraband came into use to signify which of the following?

Freedom-seeking slaves who fled from Confederate masters to Union armies

The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which Lincoln promulgated on September 22, 1862,

had no immediate, practical effect on the life of any slave.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the place of emancipation in the Union's war aims in 1861 and 1862?

Some Republican leaders began to redefine the war as a struggle not only against Confederate armies, but also against the institution of slavery.

The Battle of Antietam (September 1862) resulted in

the bloodiest single day in American military history.

Upon becoming president on March 4, 1861, Lincoln

stated that secession was illegal and that he intended to enforce federal law throughout the Union.

The states of the Lower South seceded and organized a provisional government of the Confederate States of America headed by Jefferson Davis

before Buchanan left the White House and Lincoln was inaugurated.

General Ulysses S. Grant changed the Union military strategy by

advancing all of the Union armies simultaneously, instead of targeting a specific city, place, or territory.

After the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln

declared the battle a Union victory to rally public support in the North.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the experiences of African American soldiers in the Union army?

Black soldiers were paid $3 less per month and won equal pay only by threatening to lay down their arms.

Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act in April 1866 after learning of

a race riot in Memphis.

Many of the "carpetbaggers" who moved to the South during Reconstruction were

former Union army officers who decided that the South was a pleasant or promising place to resettle.

Which of the following was not a provision of the Reconstruction Act of 1867?

Federal funding for schools for southern blacks

Which of the following does not help to explain the diminishing effectiveness of Reconstruction in the South?

The expanded presence of federal troops and officials in 1875 to 1877 brought about an escalation in southern terrorist retaliation.

The first Grand Wizard or leader of the Ku Klux Klan was former Confederate general

Nathan Bedford Forrest.

The Fifteenth Amendment

forbade states from denying any citizen the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition as a slave.

Passed by Congress in 1866, the Civil Rights Act

defined the citizenship rights of freedmen and authorized the federal government to bring suit in federal courts against anyone who violated those rights.

In response to the contested results in the election of 1876,

Congress appointed a fifteen-member bipartisan electoral commission to decide which set of electoral votes was valid.

The Ten Percent Plan that Lincoln announced in December 1863

stipulated that a state could return to the Union when 10 percent of those who voted in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty to the Union.

After the Civil War, many African Americans

joined newly founded African American churches.

The Freedmen's Bureau

was responsible for resettlement and distribution of confiscated land and regulated labor contracts between freedmen and planters.

In the election of 1876,

the Democratic candidate won the popular vote, but Republican officials in three southern states certified Republican victories, resulting in two sets of electoral votes being sent to Congress.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the contributions of African Americans to Republican victories in the South during Reconstruction?

Core support for Republicans came from African Americans, who constituted a majority of registered voters in several southern states.

The sharecropping system in the post-Civil War South

joined laborers and land owners in a common sharing of risks and returns.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the impeachment of Andrew Johnson?

Radical Republicans failed to impeach Johnson, but damaged him so badly politically that for the rest of his presidency, he had to allow Reconstruction to proceed under the direction of Congress.

In the Reconstruction South, the Ku Klux Klan

was, by 1870, operating as a military force serving the Democratic Party.

Under President Johnson's restoration plan, high-ranking Confederate leaders and wealthy Southerners excluded from amnesty

could be pardoned by the president.

In response to Congress's Reconstruction programs, most former slave owners did all of the following except

flee to other slave societies.

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