Chapter 1

53 terms by dev_gray 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

The word "Animalcule" was coined by

Tyndall.
Pasteur.
Redi.
van Leeuwenhoek.

van Leeuwenhoek.

Which of these scientist(s) was/were involved in, among other things, investigating the idea of spontaneous generation?

Escherich
van Leeuwenhoek
Redi AND Pasteur
Redi
Pasteur

Redi AND Pasteur

The work of Tyndall and Cohn

supported the idea of spontaneous generation.

was used to explain why others investigating spontaneous generation had obtained results that were opposite of those obtained by Pasteur.

showed that microbes caused disease.

allowed scientists to see microorganisms.

was used to explain why others investigating spontaneous generation had obtained results that were opposite of those obtained by Pasteur

The opposite results obtained by scientists apparently doing the same experiments in investigating spontaneous generation

shows the importance of repeating experiments.

shows the importance of exactly duplicating experimental conditions.

led to further experiments that ultimately furthered knowledge.

All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

Plants are dependent on microorganisms for

providing water.

changing atmospheric nitrogen to a usable form.

providing carbohydrates.

providing oxygen.

changing atmospheric nitrogen to a usable form.

Microorganisms are involved in

causing disease.

curing/treating disease.

preparing food.

cleaning up pollutants.

All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

Microorganisms are involved in

production of medicinal products.

transforming atmospheric nitrogen to a form useful to plants.

food production.

pollution cleanup.

All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct

The outbreak of measles within the last few years was due to

increase in sensitivity of detection techniques.

change in the environment.

a decline in vaccination of children in the previous years.

mutation of the virus.

a decline in vaccination of children in the previous years.

Smallpox

aided European domination of New World Nations.

has not occurred naturally anywhere in the world since 1977.

has potential as a weapon of bioterrorism.

has killed millions of people.

All of the choices are correct

All of the choices are correct

Bacteria are useful to study because

they produce protein in a similar manner to more complex organisms.

they replicate DNA in a similar manner to more complex organisms.

they produce energy in a similar manner to more complex organisms.

they are grown quickly, easily, and cheaply.

All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

Bacteria are present on the body

only during disease-causing infections.

constantly.

only in certain restricted areas.

never.

constantly.

Bacteria

are not found on our bodies.

are only found on small select parts of our bodies.

provide protection to us from disease by covering our bodies, crowding out 'bad' invading bacteria.

always cause disease when growing on our bodies.

provide protection to us from disease by covering our bodies, crowding out 'bad' invading bacteria.

The cell types which lack a membrane bound nucleus are found in the

prokaryotes AND archaea.
protista.
eukaryotes.
archaea.
prokaryotes.

prokaryotes AND archaea.

Which is usually true of Archaea?

They are found as rods, spheres, or spirals.

They reproduce by binary fission.

They contain rigid cell walls.

They are found as single cells.

All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

Some Archaea are commonly found in

meteors.
boiling hot springs.
the Great Salt Lake.
your refrigerator.
boiling hot springs AND the Great Salt Lake.

boiling hot springs AND the Great Salt Lake.

The scientific name of an organism includes its

domain.

first name and last name.

genus and species.

genus and species AND domain.

family and genus.

genus and species.

Outside a cell, viruses are

running a small number of biochemical reactions.

synthesizing proteins necessary for entry into the host.

running a small number of biochemical reactions AND synthesizing proteins necessary for entry into the host.

inactive.

constructing a cell membrane known as an envelope.

inactive.

The system by which organisms are named is referred to as
systematics.
naming.
nomenclature.
cladistics.

nomenclature.

Viruses are often referred to as

infectious agents.
archaebacteria.
eubacteria.
cellular agents.

infectious agents.

Both viruses and viroids are

interdependent with one another for reproduction.

obligate intracellular parasites.

capable of independent reproduction.

larger than most bacteria in size.

obligate intracellular parasites.

Viruses may only be grown

in sterile, cell-free chemical growth media.

in living cells.

at body temperature.

in darkness.

in living cells.

Although it is said that the twentieth century was the Age of Physics, it is predicted that the twenty-first century will be the age of

chemistry.
computers.
microbial biodiversity.
mathematics.

microbial biodiversity.

Viruses, viroids and prions all

operate intracellularly.

may be considered acellular agents of disease.

contain DNA.

infect only animals.

operate intracellularly AND may be considered acellular agents of disease.

operate intracellularly AND may be considered acellular agents of disease.

The scientific name of an organism indicates its domain.

True
False

False

Viruses simultaneously contain DNA, RNA and protein.

True
False

False

Viruses and bacteria are both based on the unit of a cell.

True
False

False

Archaea are very similar to Bacteria and have rigid cell walls made of peptidoglycan.

True
False

False

HIV/AIDS can be categorized as a new or emerging infectious disease. By putting it into this category, we are effectively saying that

the disease has always been in susceptible populations and causing disease, but we lacked the technology to detect it.

the infectious agent is still evolving and changing, unlike with older, more established diseases such as plague or polio.

this disease has been in susceptible populations for centuries, but has only recently achieved infection levels that became detectable.

this infection hasn't been observed in the human population prior to recent (approximately 50 years or sooner) outbreaks.

this infection hasn't been observed in the human population prior to recent (approximately 50 years or sooner) outbreaks.

Why are we concerned at all with monitoring emerging/reemerging diseases?

Because the speed of travel has increased greatly. With increased speed of travel, it is far more likely that a serious pathogenic threat from one area of the world can spread rapidly across the globe in a very fast manner. We need to monitor the occurrence of these illnesses to try to protect populations.

Because globalization (greater trade and travel between countries) leads to more chances for spread of illnesses into new areas and populations. Monitoring these illnesses will help us to protect people.

These represent growing threats to human health that will require new scientific research and resources to effectively combat.

All of the above.

All of the above.

Within a lab, a scientist has two samples-the first is a prion sample, while the second is a viroid sample. But those pesky labels have come off of the flasks! She wants to run a simple analysis to determine which one is which. What type of molecule would she look for to determine which one is which?

polysaccharides
DNA
lipids
protein

protein

An illness outbreak occurs in New York City birds in the late 1990s. After a lengthy scientific investigation, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) determine that the agent causing the birds to die is the West Nile virus. Outbreaks of this illness have been observed in several other countries in Asia and the Middle East across the last 50 years, but not in the United States. With this information, what would be the best categorization of this infectious agent/disease?

This is clearly a reemerging infection. It's been around for a long time, and it is reappearing in a susceptible population again.

This is clearly a nosocomial infection. It's transmitted from animals to human beings in urban environments.

This is clearly an emerging infection. It hasn't been around that long, and it has made a jump across continents into a new susceptible population.

This is clearly not a concern to human beings-maybe it's emerging in animals, maybe it's reemerging, maybe it's nosocomial. But who cares? It's only in birds.

This is clearly an emerging infection. It hasn't been around that long, and it has made a jump across continents into a new susceptible population.

A microbiologist obtained two pure isolated biological samples: one of a virus, and one of a viroid. The labels came off during a move from one lab to the next, however. The scientist felt she could distinguish between the two samples by analyzing for the presence of a single type of molecule. What type of molecule would she be looking for to differentiate between the two?

DNA
protein
lipids
RNA

protein

A scientist discovers a new species near coral reefs in Australia. On basic microscopic examination and after conducting a few simple experiments, he finds that this single-celled species is photosynthetic (using sunlight for energy), has a rigid cell wall structure with no peptidoglycan, uses a flagellum for motion, and contains a variety of internal structures that are bound by plasma membranes. Given this information, this new species is most likely a ______ cell in the _____ subcategory.

bacterial; eubacterial

eukaryotic; fungus

archaebacterial; fungus

eukaryotic; algae

eukaryotic; protozoan

eukaryotic; algae

The idea of Spontaneous Generation postulated that

organisms could evolve into the next generation of organisms.

organisms could spontaneously combust.

organisms could spontaneously arise from other living organisms.

living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.

living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.

The Golden Age of Medical Microbiology

occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s.

started in the 1990s with the advent of genetic engineering.

is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed.

was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.

occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s, is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed AND was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.

occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s, is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed AND was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.

Lyme Disease is an example of a disease

that is due to a greater degree of interaction between humans and tick-carrying animals.

that is due to a decline in vaccinations.

that is due to a mutation in the human genome.

that is due to climate change leading to a greater mosquito population.

that is due to a greater degree of interaction between humans and tick-carrying animals.

Smallpox

has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings.

still occasionally occurs in Third World Countries.

probably only had a human reservoir.

was dealt with by vaccination.

has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings, AND was dealt with by vaccination.

has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings, AND was dealt with by vaccination.

Bacteria are good models to use because they

are large in size.

share many biochemical/physiological properties with more complicated organisms.

can be assembled into multicellular organisms.

have complicated growth requirements.

share many biochemical/physiological properties with more complicated organisms.

The prokaryotic cell scheme is found in

Bacteria.

Archaea.

Eucarya.

All of the choices are correct.

Bacteria AND Archaea.

Bacteria AND Archaea.

Viruses

are obligate intracellular parasites.

are single-celled organisms.

consist of only proteins.

are in the Domain Archaea.

are obligate intracellular parasites AND are single-celled organisms.

are obligate intracellular parasites.

Prions

are only composed of RNA.

are only composed of DNA.

are only composed of protein.

cause diseases in plants.

are only composed of RNA AND cause diseases in plants.

are only composed of protein.

Bacteria and Eucarya both contain membrane-bound organelles.

True
False

False

Viruses, viroids, and prions are obligate intracellular agents.

True
False

True

The size of an organism determines its domain.

True
False

False

Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by

herbivores.
carnivores.
termites.
microorganisms.

microorganisms.

Which group(s) below contain single-celled and multicellular organisms?

Algae

Fungi

Protozoa

All of the choices are correct

algae AND fungi

algae AND fungi

A new organism was found that was unicellular and 1 cm long. The "large" size of this organism alone would

mean that it could not be a bacterium.

mean that it had to be a protista.

mean little.

mean that it had to be in the domain Eukarya.

mean little.

Spontaneous generation referred to the idea that organisms came from other organisms.

True
False

False

The scientist usually considered the first to see microorganisms, which he called "animalcules", was

Redi
van Leeuwenhoek
Pasteur
Tyndall

van Leeuwenhoek

Diseases such as ulcers and cardiovascular disease

have been shown to be, or may be due to, a bacterial infection.

are solely due to lifestyle.

are solely due to genetics.

are due to new mutations in bacteria.

have been shown to be, or may be due to, a bacterial infection

Which is/are the correct form(s)?

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

staphylococcus aureus

S. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus AND S. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus AND S. aureus

Viroids

are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of RNA.

are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of DNA.

are known to cause neurodegenerative diseases in animals.

are composed of protein encasing DNA.

are known to cause neurodegenerative diseases in animals AND are composed of protein encasing DNA.

are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of RNA.

Viroids are naked (lacking a protein shell) pieces of DNA that infect plants.

True
False

False

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set