A "hip" fracture is actually a fracture of the:
A "silent" heart attack occurs when:
the usual chest pain is not present.
A 13-year-old child is on a home ventilator. The parents called because the ventilator is malfunctioning and the child has increasing respiratory distress. You should:
disconnect the ventilator and use a bag-mask device.
A 16-year-old female complains of vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramping that began several hours ago. During your assessment interview, you should:
inquire about the possibility of pregnancy in private, if possible.
A 17-year-old male was shot in the right anterior chest during an altercation with a gang member. As your partner is applying 100% oxygen, you perform a rapid secondary assessment and find an open chest wound with a small amount of blood bubbling from it. You should:
apply an occlusive dressing to the wound and continue your assessment.
A 19-year-old female was stung multiple times on the legs by fire ants. She states that she is allergic to fire ants, but does not carry her own epinephrine. The patient is conscious and alert and complains of pain to the area of the bites. Her blood pressure is 122/70 mm Hg, her pulse is 100 beats/min and strong, and her respirations are 18 breaths/min and unlabored. You should:
administer oxygen and transport her to the hospital.
A 19-year-old male complains of "not feeling right." His insulin and a syringe are on a nearby table. The patient says he thinks he took his insulin and cannot remember whether he ate. He is also unable to tell you the time or what day it is. The glucometer reads "error" after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:
contact medical control and administer oral glucose.
A 19-year-old male is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless after being struck in the center of the chest with a softball. Based on the mechanism of injury, what MOST likely occurred?
ventricular fibrillation when the impact occurred during a critical portion of the cardiac cycle
A 19-year-old male was stung multiple times by fire ants. He is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock. You administer 100% oxygen and give him epinephrine via subcutaneous injection. Upon reassessment, you determine that his condition has not improved. You should:
repeat the epinephrine injection after consulting with medical control.
A 20-year-old male was accidentally shot in the right upper abdominal quadrant with an arrow during an archery contest. Prior to your arrival, the patient removed the arrow. Your assessment reveals that he is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. The entrance wound is bleeding minimally and appears to be superficial. You should:
assume that the arrow injured an internal organ.
A 20-year-old male was pulled from cold water by his friends. The length of his submersion is not known and was not witnessed. You perform a primary assessment and determine that the patient is apneic and has a slow, weak pulse. You should:
provide rescue breathing, remove wet clothing, immobilize his spine, keep him warm, and transport carefully.
A 22-year-old male was kicked in the abdomen multiple times during an attack by a gang. He is conscious but restless and his pulse is rapid. Your assessment reveals a large area of bruising to the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
preparing for immediate transport.
A 22-year-old male was punched in the abdomen several times. You find him lying on his left side with his knees drawn up. He is conscious and alert and complains of increased pain and nausea when he tries to straighten his legs. His blood pressure is 142/82 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 110 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. In addition to administering high-flow oxygen, you should:
transport him in the position in which you found him.
A 22-year-old male was walking on the beach and had sand blown into his eyes. He complains of pain and decreased vision to his right eye. Treatment should include:
irrigating his right eye laterally.
A 22-year-old male with a history of clinical depression called 9-1-1 and stated that he has attempted to kill himself. Your unit and law enforcement officers arrive at the scene simultaneously. You find the patient lying supine on the living room floor. He is unconscious and cyanotic. An empty bottle of hydromorphone (Dilaudid) is found on an adjacent table. You should:
open the patient's airway and assess his respirations.
A 25-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her chest when her car hit a tree while traveling at a high rate of speed. She has signs and symptoms of shock, which you suspect are the result of intrathoracic bleeding. Which of the following interventions will provide this patient with the greatest chance for survival?
rapid transport to a trauma center
A 26-year-old female presents with heavy vaginal bleeding. She is conscious, but restless. Her blood pressure is 84/54 mm Hg, her pulse is 120 beats/min and weak, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. She tells you that she inserted a tampon about 2 hours ago. You should:
administer high-flow oxygen, place a sterile pad over her vagina, keep her warm, elevate her lower extremities, and transport without delay.
A 27-year-old male was stabbed in the chest during a disagreement at a poker game. As you approach him, you see that a knife is impaled in his chest. Before you make physical contact with the patient, it is MOST important to:
follow standard precautions.
A 28-year-old female patient is found to be responsive to verbal stimuli only. Her roommate states that she was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and has had difficulty controlling her blood sugar level. She further tells you that the patient has been urinating excessively and has progressively worsened over the last 24 to 36 hours. On the basis of this patient's clinical presentation, you should suspect that she:
is significantly hyperglycemic.
A 28-year-old male was struck in the chest with a baseball bat during an altercation. He is conscious and alert and complains of severe chest pain. Your assessment reveals a large area of ecchymosis over the sternum and a rapid, irregular pulse. In addition to applying 100% oxygen, you should:
prepare for immediate transport.
A 29-year-old female presents with confusion and disorientation. Her respirations are rapid and shallow and her pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. She is markedly diaphoretic and has an oxygen saturation of 89%. You should:
provide ventilatory support.
A 29-year-old male complains of a severe headache and nausea that has gradually worsened over the past 12 hours. He is conscious, alert, and oriented and tells you that his physician diagnosed him with migraine headaches. He further tells you that he has taken numerous different medications, but none of them seem to help. His blood pressure is 132/74 mm Hg, his pulse is 110 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 20 breaths/min and adequate. In addition to high-flow oxygen, further treatment should include:
dimming the lights in the back of the ambulance and transporting without lights and siren.
A 29-year-old male with a head injury opens his eyes when you speak to him, is confused as to the time and date, and is able to move all of his extremities on command. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score is:
A 3-year-old female ingested several leaves from a plant in the living room. The child's mother is not sure what type of plant it is, stating that she bought it simply because it was pretty. After completing your initial assessment of the child, you should:
contact the regional poison control center.
A 30-year-old female presents with redness, inflammation, and pain to her leftDuring your assessment, you note that she is having difficulty keeping her eyes open. You should suspect that she is experiencing:
A 30-year-old female presents with severe acute pain to the left upper quadrant of her abdomen. During your assessment, she tells you that she has sickle cell disease. You should suspect that:
her spleen is enlarged because of red blood cell engorgement.
A 30-year-old female was robbed and assaulted by a gang as she was leaving a nightclub. She has massive facial trauma and slow, gurgling respirations. As your partner manually stabilizes her head, you should:
suction her oropharynx for 15 seconds.
A 30-year-old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him 100% oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is:
A 30-year-old male sustained a stab wound to the neck when he was attacked outside a nightclub. During your assessment, you should be MOST alert for:
potential airway compromise.
A 30-year-old male was rescued after being lost in the woods for approximately 18 hours. The outside temperature is 30°F (-1°C). He is immediately placed in the warmed ambulance, where you perform a primary assessment. He is unconscious, pale, and apneic. After initiating artificial ventilations, you should:
assess for a carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds.
A 30-year-old woman with a history of alcoholism presents with severe upper abdominal pain and is vomiting large amounts of bright red blood. Her skin is cool, pale, and clammy; her heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak; and her blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
protect her airway from aspiration.
A 31-year-old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. After assisting her with her prescribed MDI, you should:
reassess the patient and document her response to the medication.
A 33-year-old female presents with lower abdominal quadrant pain. She is conscious and alert, but in moderate pain. While your partner is asking her questions about her medical history, you take her vital signs. When you assess her radial pulse, you are unable to locate it. You should:
assess the rate, regularity, and quality of her carotid pulse.
A 33-year-old restrained driver of a motor vehicle crash is awake and alert, complaining only of neck pain. The vehicle is stable and no hazards are present. When removing this patient from his vehicle, you should:
immobilize him with a vest-style device.
A 35-year-old mildly obese woman is complaining of localized pain in the right upper quadrant with referred pain to the right shoulder. The MOST likely cause of her pain is:
A 37-year-old female with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of 2 days' duration. You apply 100% oxygen and assess her blood glucose level, which reads 320 mg/dL. If this patient's condition is not promptly treated, she will MOST likely develop:
acidosis and dehydration.
A 37-year-old male has an apparent foreign body airway obstruction. He is conscious and alert and is coughing forcefully. His skin is pink, warm, and moist. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
encouraging him to cough and transporting.
A 37-year-old male is having a severe allergic reaction to penicillin. He does not have an epinephrine auto-injector and your protocols do not allow you to carry epinephrine on the ambulance. How should you proceed with the treatment of this patient?
Administer oxygen, transport at once, and request a paramedic intercept.
A 38-year-old female was bitten by fire ants while at the park with her kids. Your primary assessment reveals that she is semiconscious, has profoundly labored breathing, and has a rapid, thready pulse. She has a red rash on her entire body and her face is very swollen. You should:
assist her ventilations with 100% oxygen.
A 38-year-old male was electrocuted while attempting to wire a house. Your assessment reveals that he is unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic. A coworker has shut off the power to the house. You should:
begin CPR and apply the AED.
A 38-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia is reported by neighbors to be screaming and throwing things in his house. You are familiar with the patient and have cared for him in the past for unrelated problems. Law enforcement officers escort you into the residence when you arrive. The patient tells you that he sees vampires and is attempting to ward them off by screaming and throwing things at them. He has several large lacerations to his forearms that are actively bleeding. The MOST appropriate way to manage this situation is to:
restrain the patient with appropriate force in order to treat his injuries.
A 39-year-old female experienced a severe closed head injury. She is unconscious with her eyes slightly open; her pupils are bilaterally dilated and slow to react. In addition to managing problems with airway, breathing, and circulation, you should:
close her eyes and cover them with a moist dressing.
A 39-year-old male accidentally cut his wrist while sharpening his hunting knife. He is conscious and alert with adequate breathing, but is bleeding significantly from the wound. You should:
control the bleeding with direct pressure.
A 39-year-old male sustained a large laceration to his leg during an accident with a chainsaw and is experiencing signs and symptoms of shock. You should:
follow appropriate standard precautions.
A 39-year-old male was struck in the head by a baseball during a game. He is confused, has a large hematoma in the center of his forehead, and cannot remember the events preceding the injury. After manually stabilizing his head and assessing his airway, you should:
administer high-flow oxygen.
A 4-year-old boy had an apparent seizure. He is conscious and calm and is sitting on his mother's lap. His father is sitting in a nearby chair. The child's mother suddenly begins crying uncontrollably, which causes the child to start crying. You should:
consider asking the father to hold the child so you can assess him while your partner tries to calm the mother.
A 4-year-old female has a peanut lodged in the external auditory canal of her rightYou should:
transport her to the emergency department.
A 4-year-old male ingested an unknown quantity of acetaminophen (Tylenol). The child's mother states that the ingestion occurred approximately 20 minutesThe child is conscious and alert and in no apparent distress. After contacting medical control, you should:
administer up to 25 g of activated charcoal.
A 40-year-old male intentionally cut his wrist out of anger after losing hisLaw enforcement has secured the scene prior to your arrival. As you enter the residence and visualize the patient, you can see that he has a towel around his wrist and a moderate amount of blood has soaked through it. You should:
calmly identify yourself to the patient.
A 40-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain following blunt trauma. He is diaphoretic, intensely thirsty, and has a weak and rapid pulse. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
giving him small sips of plain water.
A 40-year-old male was in his woodworking shop when he felt a sudden, sharp pain in his left eye. Your assessment reveals a small splinter of wood embedded in his cornea. You should:
cover both of his eyes and transport to the hospital.
A 40-year-old unrestrained female impacted the steering wheel of her vehicle with her chest when she hit a tree while traveling at 45 mph. She is conscious and alert, but is experiencing significant chest pain and shortness of breath. Which of the following injuries did this patient likely NOT experience?
A 43-year-old man is experiencing a severe nosebleed. His blood pressure is 190/110 mm Hg and his heart rate is 90 beats/min and bounding. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
pinching the patient's nostrils and having him lean forward.
A 44-year-old male sustained a laceration to his left ear during a minor car accident. Your assessment reveals minimal bleeding. Appropriate care for this injury includes:
padding between the ear and the scalp.
A 45-year-old male was working on his roof when he fell approximately 12?,landing on his feet. He is conscious and alert and complains of an ache in his lower back. He is breathing adequately and has stable vital signs. You should:
immobilize his spine and perform a focused secondary exam.
A 47-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain of 3 hours' duration. His abdomen is distended and guarded. Your MOST important consideration for this patient should be to:
be alert for signs and symptoms of shock.
A 48-year-old male is found unconscious in the garden by his wife. When you arrive at the scene and assess the man, you find that he is unresponsive, has severely labored breathing, and has hives over his entire trunk. You should:
maintain his airway and assist his ventilations.
A 48-year-old male was stung on the leg by a jellyfish while swimming in the ocean. He is conscious and alert, but complains of intense pain at the wound site. Specific treatment for this patient includes:
irrigating the wound with vinegar and immersing his leg in hot water.
A 49-year-old male presents with confusion, sweating, and visual hallucinations. The patient's wife tells you that he is a heavy drinker and she thinks he had a seizure shortly before your arrival. This patient is MOST likely experiencing:
A 49-year-old male with an extensive cardiac history presents with 2 hours of crushing chest pain and shortness of breath. He is pale and diaphoretic and tells you that he feels like he is going to die. His medications include nitroglycerin, sildenafil (Viagra), and enalapril (Vasotec). His blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
ask him if he took his Viagra within the past 24 hours.
A 49-year-old man has been removed from his overturned tanker, which was carrying a hazardous material. The tank ruptured and he was exposed to the material. When rescue personnel bring him to the decontamination area, they note that he is unconscious and has slow, shallow breathing. They should:
cut away all of the patient's clothing and do a rapid rinse to remove as much of the contaminating matter as they can.
A 50-year-old female is entrapped in her passenger car after it struck a tree. As the rescue team is preparing to extricate her, you quickly assess her and determine that she is breathing shallowly and that her radial pulse is absent. You should:
maintain spinal stabilization as she is extricated.
A 50-year-old male is found unconscious in his car. There were no witnesses to the event. When gathering medical history information for this patient, the EMT should:
determine if the patient has a medical alert bracelet or wallet card.
A 50-year-old male was splashed in the eyes with radiator fluid when he was working on his car. During your assessment, he tells you that he wears soft contact lenses. You should:
carefully remove the contact lenses and then irrigate his eyes with saline.
A 50-year-old male was stung by a honeybee approximately 15 minutesHe presents with respiratory distress, facial swelling, and hypotension. After placing him on oxygen and administering his epinephrine via auto-injector, you note that his breathing has improved. Additionally, his facial swelling is resolving and his blood pressure is stable. Your next action should be to:
record the time and dose of the injection, and transport promptly.
A 52-year-old male presents with a fever of 102.5°F and a severe headache. As you assess him, you note the presence of multiple blisters on his face and chest, which are all identical in shape and size. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
A 52-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her face when her truck collided with another vehicle. She has obvious swelling to her face and several dislodged teeth. A visual exam of her mouth reveals minimal bleeding. She is conscious and alert with a blood pressure of 130/80 mm Hg, a pulse of 110 beats/min, and respirations of 22 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. You should:
apply supplemental oxygen, immobilize her spine, attempt to locate the dislodged teeth, suction as needed, and transport.
A 54-year-old male experienced an avulsion to his penis when his foreskin got caught in the zipper of his pants. He was able to unzip his pants and remove the foreskin prior to your arrival. Your assessment reveals that he is in severe pain and that the avulsion is bleeding moderately. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
applying direct pressure with a dry, sterile dressing.
A 56-year-old female is found supine in a narrow hallway of her mobile home. She complains of severe weakness and dizziness, and states that she is unable to walk. There is no evidence of trauma and the patient states that she did not fall. How should you and your partner move this patient to a more spacious area?
A 56-year-old male has an incomplete avulsion to his right forearm. After controlling any bleeding from the wound, you should:
replace the avulsed flap to its original position and cover it with a sterile dressing.
A 56-year-old male is found semiconscious by his wife. Your assessment reveals that his respirations are rapid and shallow, his pulse is rapid and irregular, and his blood pressure is low. The patient's wife states that he complained of left arm pain and nausea the day before, but would not allow her to call 9-1-1. The MOST likely cause of this patient's present condition is:
A 58-year-old male presents with confusion, right-sided weakness, and slurred speech. His wife is present and is very upset. As your partner is applying oxygen, it is MOST important for you to:
ask his wife when she noticed the symptoms.
A 58-year-old man complains of chest discomfort and nausea. He is conscious and alert; his blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg, his pulse is 104 beats/min, and his respirations are 16 breaths/min. Your partner has applied supplemental oxygen. Prior to assisting the patient with one of his prescribed nitroglycerin tablets, you ask him if he takes medication to treat erectile dysfunction and he tells you that he does. You should:
ask him what he takes, how much, and when he last took it.
A 59-year-old male presents with a sudden onset of severe lower back pain. He is conscious and alert, but very restless and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals a pulsating mass to the left of his umbilicus. You should:
administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport.
A 59-year-old male presents with severe vomiting and diarrhea of 3 days' duration. He is confused and diaphoretic, and his radial pulses are absent. His blood pressure is 78/50 mm Hg. After applying 100% supplemental oxygen, you should:
prepare for immediate transport.
A 59-year-old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's condition?
A 6-month-old male presents with 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. He is conscious, but his level of activity is decreased. The infant's mother tells you that he has not had a soiled diaper in over 12 hours. The infant's heart rate is 140 beats/min and his anterior fontanelle appears to be slightly sunken. You should suspect:
A 6-year-old female was riding her bicycle and struck a clothesline with her throat. She is breathing, but with obvious difficulty. Your assessment reveals a crackling sensation in the soft tissues of her neck and facial cyanosis. In addition to the appropriate airway management, the intervention that will MOST likely improve her chance of survival is:
rapidly transporting her to the hospital.
A 60-year-old male is found to be unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic. You should:
begin CPR until an AED is available.
A 62-year-old male presents with crushing chest pain, which he describes as being the same kind of pain that he had with a previous heart attack. He has prescribed nitroglycerin but states that he has not taken any. After administering 100% oxygen and contacting medical control, you should:
assist him with his nitroglycerin unless his systolic blood pressure is less than 100 mm Hg.
A 62-year-old man with a history of congestive heart failure presents with severe respiratory distress and an oxygen saturation of 82%. When you auscultate his lungs, you hear widespread rales. He is conscious and alert, is able to follow simple commands, and can only speak in two- to three-word sentences at a time. You should:
apply a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, monitor his blood pressure, and observe him for signs of improvement or deterioration.
A 66-year-old male presents with bizarre behavior. His daughter states that he did not seem to recognize her and was very rude toThe patient is conscious, and has a patent airway and adequate breathing. You should:
ask the daughter how her father normally behaves.
A 66-year-old male presents with dark red rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. He is conscious and alert; however, his skin is cool and clammy and his heart rate is elevated. Further assessment reveals that his blood pressure is 112/60 mm Hg. Which of the following questions would be MOST pertinent to ask him?
Have you experienced recent abdominal trauma?
A 67-year-old female with severe chest pain becomes unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic during transport. You should:
stop the ambulance, begin CPR, and attach the AED as soon as possible.
A 67-year-old male presents with weakness, dizziness, and melena that began approximately 2 daysHe denies a history of trauma. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient is experiencing:
A 70-year-old female was recently discharged from the hospital following a total hip replacement. Today, she presents with restlessness, tachycardia, and a blood pressure of 100/64 mm Hg. Her skin is warm and moist. You should be MOST suspicious that she is experiencing:
A 73-year-old man presents with a generalized rash, which he thinks may have been caused by an antibiotic that he recently began taking. He has a history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and emphysema. He is conscious and alert, his blood pressure is 144/94 mm Hg, and his pulse is 64 beats/min and regular. You auscultate his breath sounds and hear scattered wheezing, although he is not experiencing respiratory distress. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:
contact medical control if needed, transport the patient, and monitor him for signs of deterioration.
A 74-year-old woman complains of heaviness in her chest, nausea, and sweating that suddenly began about an hour ago. She is conscious and alert, but anxious. Her blood pressure is 144/84 mm Hg and her heart rate is 110 beats/min. She took two of her prescribed nitroglycerin (0.4-mg tablets) before your arrival but still feels heaviness in her chest. You should:
recall that geriatric patients often have slower absorption and elimination times, which may necessitate modification of the dosing of certain drugs.
A 75-year-old male with a terminal illness has died at home. As you and your partner enter the residence, a family member becomes verbally abusive, pushes you, and states that you took too long to get there. You should:
retreat and notify law enforcement personnel.
A 75-year-old male with type 1 diabetes presents with chest pain and a general feeling of weakness. He tells you that he took his insulin today and ate a regular meal approximately 2 hours ago. You should treat this patient as though he is experiencing:
a heart attack.
A 76-year-old male experienced sudden pain to his left thigh when he was standing in line at the grocery store. Your assessment reveals ecchymosis and deformity to the distal aspect of his left femur, just above the knee. Distal circulation and sensory and motor functions are intact. The MOST appropriate method of splinting this injury involves:
applying padded board splints to both sides of the leg.
A 77-year-old woman slipped and fell on a throw rug and landed on her left hip. She denies striking her head or losing consciousness. Assessment of her left leg reveals that it is shortened and externally rotated. Distal pulses, sensory, and motor functions are intact. You should:
place her onto a scoop stretcher, pad around her left hip with pillows, and secure her to the scoop with straps.
A 78-year-old female presents with an acute change in her behavior. The patient's son tells you that his mother has type 2 diabetes and was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease 6 monthsThe patient's speech is slurred and she is not alert to her surroundings. You should:
inquire about the possibility of head trauma.
A Colles fracture involves a fracture of the:
A ____________ is a musculoskeletal injury in which there is partial or temporary separation of the bone ends as well as partial stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments.
A burn that is characterized by redness and pain is classified as a:
A by-product of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation is:
A common cause of shock in an infant is:
dehydration from vomiting and diarrhea.
A conscious and alert 29-year-old female with a history of asthma complains of difficulty breathing that began after her morning jog. The temperature outside is 40°F (5°C). On exam, you hear bilateral expiratory wheezing. After providing 100% oxygen, you should:
determine if she has been prescribed a beta-agonist inhaler.
A construction worker fell approximately 30 feet. He is semiconscious with rapid, shallow respirations. Further assessment reveals deformity to the thoracic region of his spine. His blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg, his pulse is 66 beats/min and weak, and his skin is warm and dry. In addition to spinal immobilization and rapid transport, the MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
assisted ventilation, thermal management, and elevation of the lower extremities.
A construction worker fell approximately 30' and landed in a pile of steel rods. Your assessment reveals that he is pulseless and apneic and has a 10? steel rod impaled in his left leg. You should:
control the bleeding, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), stabilize the steel rod, immobilize his spine, and transport immediately.
A construction worker fell approximately 30? and landed in a pile of steel rods. Your assessment reveals that he is pulseless and apneic and has a 10= steel rod impaled in his left leg. You should:
control the bleeding, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), stabilize the steel rod, immobilize his spine, and transport immediately.
A crackling sound produced by air bubbles under the skin is called:
A critical aspect of the rapid extrication technique is to:
maintain stabilization of the spine at all times.
A critical function of the safety officer is to:
stop an emergency operation whenever a rescuer is in danger.
A critical incident stress debriefing should be conducted no longer than ________ hours following the incident.
A disposable oxygen humidifier should be considered for ambulance services that often transport patients on runs longer than:
A dissecting aortic aneurysm occurs when:
the inner layers of the aorta become separated.
A driver involved in a rollover motor vehicle crash will MOST likely experience serious injuries or death if he or she:
is ejected or partially ejected.
A drug is contraindicated for a patient when it:
may cause harm or have no positive effect.
A dysbarism injury refers to the signs and symptoms related to changes in:
A factory worker was splashed in the eyes with a strong acid chemical. He complains of intense pain and blurred vision. Your ambulance does not carry bottles of sterile saline or water. You should:
irrigate both eyes continuously for 20 minutes with plain water.
A female patient with a suspected spinal injury is breathing with a marked reduction in tidal volume. The MOST appropriate airway management for her includes:
assisting ventilations at an age-appropriate rate.
A flail chest occurs when:
a segment of the chest wall is detached from the thoracic cage.
A folding or portable stretcher is MOST beneficial when:
a second patient must be transported on the squad bench of the ambulance.
A football player was struck by another player in the right flank area just below the posterior rib cage. He complains of severe pain and point tenderness to the area. Your assessment reveals that there is a small amount of blood in his underwear. You should be MOST suspicious for:
blunt injury to the kidney.
A fractured femur can result in the loss of ______ or more of blood into the soft tissues of the thigh.
A generalized seizure is characterized by:
severe twitching of all the body's muscles.
A hematoma develops when:
large blood vessels beneath the skin are damaged.
A high-pitched inspiratory sound that indicates a partial upper airway obstruction is called:
A hiker was injured when he fell approximately 20' from a cliff. When you arrive at the scene, a member of the technical rescue group escorts you to the patient, who is positioned on a steep incline. The MOST appropriate method of immobilizing and moving the patient to the ambulance is to:
immobilize his spine with a long backboard and place him in a basket stretcher.
A hiker was injured when he fell approximately 20? from a cliff. When you arrive at the scene, a member of the technical rescue group escorts you to the patient, who is positioned on a steep incline. The MOST appropriate method of immobilizing and moving the patient to the ambulance is to:
immobilize his spine with a long backboard and place him in a basket stretcher.
A history of pelvic inflammatory disease or tubal ligations increases a woman's risk for:
an ectopic pregnancy.
A hypnotic drug is one that:
is a jagged cut caused by a sharp object or blunt force trauma.
A man finds his 59-year-old wife unconscious on the couch. He states that she takes medications for type 2 diabetes. He further tells you that his wife has been ill recently and has not eaten for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive. You should:
open and maintain her airway and assess breathing.
A mucosal atomizer device (MAD) is used to deliver certain medications via the:
A nuchal cord is defined as an umbilical cord that:
is wrapped around the baby's neck.
A partial-thickness burn involves the outer layer of skin and a portion of the:
A patient in a semireclined position with the head elevated to facilitate breathing is in the ___________ position:
A patient in respiratory arrest at the scene of a mass-casualty incident would typically be classified as a fourth priority (black tag; expectant) patient, unless:
there are enough resources to provide care for him or her.
A patient should be placed in the recovery position when he or she:
is unconscious, uninjured, and breathing adequately.
A patient who cannot remember the events that preceded his or her head injury is experiencing:
A patient who is complaining of seeing flashing lights, specks, or "floaters" in his or her field of vision has MOST likely experienced:
a detached retina.
A patient who is experiencing aphasia is:
unable to produce or understand speech.
A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:
A patient who presents with profound cyanosis following a chest injury:
requires prompt ventilation and oxygenation.
A patient who presents with rapid breathing, nausea and vomiting, ringing in the ears, and a high fever should be suspected of ingesting a significant quantity of:
A patient who was bitten by a mosquito and presents with signs and symptoms of illness should be suspected of having:
West Nile virus.
A patient with an altered mental status is:
not thinking clearly or is incapable of being aroused.
A patient with atherosclerotic heart disease experiences chest pain during exertion because the:
lumen of the coronary artery is narrowed and cannot accommodate increased blood flow.
A patient with high blood pressure would be expected to have skin that is:
flushed and red.
A patient with profuse sweating is referred to as being:
A patient without a history of seizures experiences a sudden convulsion. The LEAST likely cause of this seizure is:
A patient's refusal for EMS treatment and/or transport must be:
an informed refusal.
A percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) restores blood flow to the ischemic myocardium by:
dilating the affected coronary artery with a small inflatable balloon.
A persistent or nonvolatile chemical agent can:
remain on a surface for more than 24 hours.
A person is said to be obese when he or she is ________ over his or her ideal weight.
20% to 30%
A person who experiences a calcaneus fracture after jumping and landing on his or her feet would MOST likely experience an accompanying fracture of the:
A person who routinely misuses a substance and requires increasing amounts to achieve the same effect is experiencing a:
A pleural effusion is MOST accurately defined as:
fluid accumulation outside the lung.
A properly sized blood pressure cuff should cover:
two thirds the length from the armpit to the crease in the elbow.
A rapid, irregular pulse following blunt trauma to the chest is MOST suggestive of a:
A reflex arc occurs when:
a sensory nerve detects an irritating stimulus and bypasses the brain by sending a direct message to the motor nerve.
A service dog is easily identified by its:
A sign of kidney damage following blunt trauma is:
A significant number of patients with cerebral palsy also have:
a seizure disorder.
A specific legal document that directs relatives and caregivers regarding the medical treatment that may be given to patients who cannot speak for themselves is called a(n):
A spontaneous pneumothorax would MOST likely occur as the result of:
exertion of a person with a congenital lung defect.
A strangulated hernia is one that:
loses its blood supply due to compression by local tissues.
A subluxation occurs when:
a joint is incompletely dislocated.
A supervisor who has more than seven people reporting to him or her:
has exceeded an effective span of control and should divide tasks and delegate the supervision of some tasks to another person.
A supracondylar or intercondylar fracture is also known as a fracture of the:
A technique used to gain insight into a patient's thinking, which involves repeating in question form what the patient has said, is called:
A teenage boy who was involved in a bicycle accident has a puncture wound where the bicycle kickstand impaled his leg. The MOST appropriate method for treating this injury is to:
unbolt the kickstand from the bike frame and stabilize it with bulky dressings.
A tight-fitting motorcycle helmet should be left in place unless:
it interferes with your assessment of the airway.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when:
the normal body processes destroy a clot in a cerebral artery.
A tube from the brain to the abdomen that drains excessive cerebrospinal fluid is called a:
A type _____ ambulance features a conventional, truck cab-chassis with a modular ambulance body that can be transferred to a newer chassis as needed.
A unique consideration when dealing with a hybrid vehicle is that:
the battery has higher amperes than a traditional vehicle battery.
A ventilation/perfusion (V/Q ratio) mismatch occurs when:
a disruption in blood flow inhibits the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs, even though the alveoli are filled with fresh oxygen.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is MOST accurately defined as:
any agent used to bring about mass death, casualties, or massive infrastructural damage.
A young female is unconscious after intentionally ingesting a large amount of aspirin. You will MOST likely find her respirations:
deep and rapid.
A young female presents with costovertebral angle tenderness. She is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. Which of the following organs is MOST likely causing her pain?
A young female was involved in a motor vehicle crash. She complains of pain to her left eye, which appears to have a piece of glass impaled in it. Further assessment reveals a large laceration to her left forearm with active venous bleeding. As your partner manually stabilizes the patient's head, you should:
apply direct pressure to her arm wound.
A young male sustained a gunshot wound to the abdomen during an altercation with a rival gang member. As your partner is assessing and managing his airway, you should control the obvious bleeding and then:
assess for an exit wound.
A young male was shot in the abdomen by an unknown type of gun. He is semiconscious, has shallow breathing, and is bleeding externally from the wound. As you control the external bleeding, your partner should:
assist the patient's ventilations.
Abdominal thrusts in a conscious child or adult with a severe upper airway obstruction are performed:
until he or she loses consciousness.
Abnormal variations in pupil size and reaction would MOST likely be observed in a patient with:
a brain injury.
According to the "E" in the DOPE mnemonic, which of the following actions should you perform to troubleshoot inadequate ventilation in a patient with a tracheostomy tube?
Check the mechanical ventilator for malfunction.
According to the American College of Surgeons, an adult trauma patient meets Level I criteria if he or she:
has a GCS score of less than or equal to 8 with a mechanism attributed to trauma.
According to the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), you should consider air medical transport of a trauma patient if:
traffic conditions hamper the ability to get the patient to a trauma center by ground within the ideal time frame for the best clinical outcome.
According to the CDC, recommended immunizations and tests include a:
tetanus-diphtheria booster every 10 years.
According to the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA):
all health care facilities must provide a medical assessment and required treatment, regardless of the patient's ability to pay.
According to the JumpSTART triage system, if a pediatric patient has a respiratory rate of 40 breaths/min, you should:
assess for a distal pulse.
According to the JumpSTART triage system, if a pediatric patient is not breathing, you should:
immediately check for a pulse.
According to the JumpSTART triage system, infants or children not developed enough to walk or follow commands, including children with special needs:
should be taken to the treatment area for immediate secondary triage.
According to the National EMS Scope of Practice Model, an EMT should be able to:
assist a patient with certain prescribed medications.
According to the National EMS Scope of Practice Model, an EMT would require special permission from the medical director and the state EMS office in order to:
perform blood glucose monitoring.
According to the START triage system, what should you do if a patient is found to have a respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min?
Assess for bilateral radial pulses.
According to the START triage system, what should you do if you encounter an unresponsive patient who is not breathing?
Open the airway and reassess breathing status.
According to the START triage system, which of the following patients should be triaged as an immediate priority (red tag)?
unresponsive with a respiratory rate of 34 breaths/min
According to the rule of palm method for estimating the extent of a patient's burns, the palm of the patient's hand is equal to _____ of his or her total BSA.
According to the terminal drop hypothesis:
mental function is presumed to decline in the 5 years preceding death.
Acting in such a way as to make another person fear immediate bodily harm is called:
Activated charcoal administration is contraindicated in patients who have ingested:
acids or alkalis.
Activated charcoal is an example of a(n):
Activated charcoal is frequently suspended in sorbitol, a complex sugar that:
facilitates movement through the digestive system.
Activated charcoal is given to patients who have ingested certain substances because it:
binds to the substance and prevents absorption.
Activities such as walking, talking, and writing are regulated exclusively by the:
somatic nervous system.
Acute pulmonary edema would MOST likely develop as the result of:
toxic chemical inhalation.
After ________ minutes without oxygen, brain damage is likely.
After a baby is born, it is important to:
ensure that it is thoroughly dried and warmed.
After administering 0.3 mg of epinephrine via auto-injector to a 22-year-old female with an allergic reaction, you note improvement in her breathing and dissipation of her hives. However, she is still anxious and tachycardic. You should:
monitor her closely but recall that anxiety and tachycardia are side effects of epinephrine.
After administering activated charcoal to a patient, it is MOST important to:
be alert for vomiting.
After applying a pressure dressing to a laceration on a patient's arm, you notice that blood is slowly beginning to saturate it. You should:
place additional dressings over the wound.
After assessing your patient, you determine that his condition is stable. You provide the appropriate treatment and then load him into the ambulance. While en route to the hospital, you should:
turn your emergency lights off and obey all traffic laws.
After assisting your patient with his or her nitroglycerin, you should:
reassess the blood pressure within 5 minutes to detect hypotension.
After primary triage, the triage supervisor should communicate all of the following information to the medical branch officer, EXCEPT:
the recommended transport destination for each patient.
After receiving online orders from medical control to perform a patient care intervention, you should:
repeat the order to medical control word for word.
After recognizing that an incident involves a hazardous material, you should contact the hazardous materials team and then:
take measures to ensure the safety of yourself and others.
After sizing up the scene of a patient with a possible infectious disease, your next priority should be to:
take standard precautions.
After squeezing the end of a child's finger or toe for a few seconds, blood should return to the area within:
After the first 60 minutes of experiencing a significant injury:
the body's ability to compensate for shock decreases.
Age-related changes in the renal system result in:
a decreased ability to clear wastes from the body and a decreased ability to conserve fluids when needed.
Air bags are designed to:
decrease the severity of deceleration injuries.
Air bags, in conjunction with properly worn seatbelts, are MOST beneficial when a person is involved in a:
Airborne substances are diluted with:
Albuterol is a generic name for:
Alkalosis is a condition that occurs when:
blood acidity is reduced by excessive breathing.
All information recorded on the PCR must be:
All necessary life functions are coordinated in what part of the brain?
All of the following are hollow abdominal organs, EXCEPT for the:
All of the following biologic agents or diseases can be transmitted from person to person, EXCEPT:
All of the following body structures are lined with mucous membranes, EXCEPT for the:
All of the following conditions would make you suspect shock, EXCEPT:
All of the following terms are used to describe a cold body part that is not frozen, EXCEPT:
All of the following will help minimize the risk of gastric distention when ventilating an apneic patient with a bag-mask device, EXCEPT:
increasing the amount of delivered tidal volume.
An 81-year-old female fell and struck her head. You find the patient lying on her left side. She is conscious and complains of neck and upper back pain. As you are assessing her, you note that she has a severely kyphotic spine. What is the MOST appropriate method of immobilizing this patient?
Leave her on her side and use blanket rolls to immobilize her to the long backboard.
An EMS provider who has extensive training in various aspects of advanced life support (ALS) is called a(n):
An EMT may injure his or her back, even if it is straight, if the:
back is bent forward at the hips.
An acute accelerated drop in the hemoglobin level, which is caused by red blood cells breaking down at a faster rate than normal, occurs during a(n) __________ crisis.
An adult at rest should have a respiratory rate that ranges between:
12 and 20 breaths/min.
An alert patient presents with a regular pattern of inhalation and exhalation and breath sounds that are clear and equal on both sides of the chest. These findings are consistent with:
adequate air exchange.
An apneic infant or child should be ventilated a maximum of _______ times per minute.
An appropriate demonstration of professionalism when your patient is frightened, demanding, or unpleasant is to:
continue to be nonjudgmental, compassionate, and respectful.
An area of swelling or enlargement in a weakened arterial wall is called:
An attack on an abortion clinic would MOST likely be carried out by a(n):
An elderly patient has fallen and hit her head. You assess her level of consciousness as unresponsive using the AVPU scale. Your initial care should focus on:
airway, breathing, and circulation.
An elderly patient may understate or minimize the symptoms of his or her illness because:
he or she fears hospitalization.
An epidural hematoma is MOST accurately defined as:
bleeding between the skull and dura mater.
An important aspect in the assessment of a patient who experienced a previous brain injury involves:
speaking with the patient and family to establish what is considered normal for the patient.
An important aspect in the treatment of a patient with severe abdominal pain is to:
provide emotional support en route to the hospital.
An increase in heart rate and contractility occurs due to stimulation of:
An index of suspicion is MOST accurately defined as:
your awareness and concern for potentially serious underlying and unseen injuries or illness.
An indicator of an expanding intracranial hematoma or rapidly progressing brain swelling is:
a rapid deterioration of neurologic signs.
An infant or child with respiratory distress will attempt to keep his or her alveoli expanded at the end of inhalation by:
An infant or small child's airway can be occluded if it is overextended or overflexed because:
the occiput is proportionately large and the trachea is flexible.
An infant or small toddler would MOST likely gain trust in an individual who:
provides an organized, routine environment.
An infant with a total blood volume of 800 mL would start showing signs of shock when as little as ______ of blood is lost.
An infant's blood pressure typically increases with age because:
blood pressure directly corresponds to body weight.
An infectious disease is MOST accurately defined as:
a medical condition caused by the growth and spread of small harmful organisms within the body.
An injury that separates various layers of soft tissue, resulting in complete detachment or a flap of skin, is called a(n):
An intoxicated 40-year-old male is found lying face down. How would you document his body's position?
An open pneumothorax occurs when:
air enters the pleural space from outside the body.
An organ or tissue may be better able to resist damage from hypoperfusion if the:
body's temperature is considerably less than 98.6°F (37.0°C).
An oropharyngeal airway should not be used in children who have ingested a caustic or petroleum-based product because it may:
cause the child to vomit.
An oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled when the pressure inside it is less than:
An unconscious patient found in a prone position must be placed in a supine position in case he or she:
requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Anaphylaxis is MOST accurately defined as an:
extreme allergic reaction that may affect multiple body systems.
Angina pectoris occurs when:
myocardial oxygen demand exceeds the supply.
Any unresponsive trauma patient should be assumed to have:
an accompanying spinal injury.
Approximately 25% of severe injuries to the aorta occur during:
As a triage supervisor, you:
must not begin treatment until all patients have been triaged.
As a woman approaches menopause:
her menstrual periods may become irregular and vary in severity.
As an EMT, it is important to remember that the signs and symptoms of cumulative stress:
may not be obvious or present all the time.
As an EMT, the performance of your duties will be compared to that of:
As an EMT, you may be authorized to administer aspirin to a patient with chest pain based on:
your local EMS protocols.
As the bronchus divides into smaller bronchioles, the terminal ends of these smaller passages form the:
As the first arriving emergency responder at the scene of a suspected terrorist or WMD incident, you should request additional resources as needed and then:
function as the incident commander until additional personnel arrive.
As the single EMT managing an apneic patient's airway, the preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the:
mouth-to-mask technique with a one-way valve.
As you and your partner report for duty, you check your ambulance and begin talking about the possibility of a terrorist attack. The MOST effective and appropriate way to determine the likelihood of this happening is to:
know the current threat level issued by the Department of Homeland Security.
As you and your team are removing an unconscious patient from her wrecked car, you note that she has closed deformities to both of her legs and a deformity to her left humerus. You should:
support the injured extremities and continue removal.
As you are wheeling your patient through the emergency department doors, you receive another call for a major motor vehicle crash. You should:
respond only after giving a verbal patient report to a nurse or physician.
Aspirin is beneficial to patients suspected of having a heart attack because it:
prevents the aggregation of platelets.
Assessing a person's neurovascular status following a musculoskeletal injury includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
evaluating proximal pulses.
Assessing the blood pressure and oxygen saturation of a patient with a behavioral crisis should be performed:
if doing so will not worsen his or her emotional distress.
Assessment of a patient with hypoglycemia will MOST likely reveal:
At a very large incident, the __________ section is responsible for managing the tactical operations usually handled by the IC on routine EMS calls.
At the onset of an acute asthma attack, patients commonly experience difficulty breathing and:
At the scene of a mass-casualty incident, you identify a patient as an organ donor. When triaging the other patients, you:
may have to assign the donor patient a lower triage priority.
At the scene of an automobile crash, a utility pole has been broken, and power lines are lying across the car. The patients inside the car are conscious. You should:
mark off a danger zone around the downed lines.
Atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride are antidotes for:
nerve gas agents.
Autism is MOST accurately defined as a:
pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impairment of social interaction.
Bacterial vaginosis is a condition that occurs when:
normal bacteria in the vagina are replaced by an overgrowth of other bacterial forms.
Basic life support (BLS) is defined as:
noninvasive emergency care that is used to treat conditions such as airway obstruction, respiratory arrest, and cardiac arrest.
Because a tracheostomy tube bypasses the nose and mouth:
secretions can build up in and around the tube.
Because hearing-impaired patients typically have more difficulty hearing high-frequency sounds, it is important for you to:
lower the pitch of your voice.
Because of the complexity of the older patient and the vagueness of his or her complaint, you should:
attempt to differentiate between chronic and acute problems.
Because the depth of an open abdominal wound is often difficult to determine:
prompt transport to the hospital is essential.
Because the stinger of a honeybee remains in the wound following a sting:
it can continue to inject venom for up to 20 minutes.
Before giving activated charcoal, you should:
obtain approval from medical control.
Bleeding from the nose following head trauma:
is a sign of a skull fracture and should not be stopped.
Bleeding within the brain tissue itself is called a(n):
Blood levels of medications may rise in the elderly, sometimes to toxic levels. This is MOST likely due to:
Blood stasis, changes in the vessel wall, and certain medications affect the:
ability of the blood to effectively clot.
a potent bacterial neurotoxin.
Breath-holding syncope is caused by a decreased stimulus to breathe and occurs when:
a swimmer hyperventilates prior to entering the water.
Bruising to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen following blunt trauma is MOST suggestive of injury to the:
Burns are classified according to:
depth and extent.
Burns associated with lightning strikes are typically:
By what mechanism is a person injured when he or she falls from a significant height?
Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy; the kinetic energy is then converted into the work of bringing the body to a stop.
CPAP is indicated for patients who:
have pulmonary edema and can follow verbal commands.
CPR will NOT be effective if the patient is:
Capillary refill time is MOST reliable as an indicator of end-organ perfusion in children younger than:
Capillary sphincters are:
circular muscular walls that regulate blood flow through the capillaries.
Cardiac monitoring, pharmacological interventions, and other advanced treatment skills are functions of the:
Cardiac output (CO) is affected by:
stroke volume and heart rate.
Cardiac output may decrease if the heart beats too rapidly because:
there is not enough time in between contractions for the heart to refill completely.
Cardiogenic shock may result from all of the following, EXCEPT:
Causes of delirium in the older patient include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Cerebral palsy is a condition that results from damage or injury to the:
Characteristic anatomic features of Down syndrome include:
a round head with a flat occiput.
Characteristics of a safe ambulance operator include:
a positive attitude about the ability to tolerate other drivers.
Chemicals that are responsible for the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction to a bee sting include:
histamines and leukotrienes.
Chronic renal failure is a condition that:
is often caused by hypertension or diabetes.
Classic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
cool, clammy skin; weakness; tachycardia; and rapid respirations.
Clinical signs of compensated shock include all of the following, EXCEPT:
absent peripheral pulses.
Clinical signs of labored breathing include all of the following, EXCEPT:
shallow chest movement.
Command functions under the ICS include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common causes of acute psychotic behavior include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common causes of syncope in older patients include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common complications associated with central venous catheters include all of the following, EXCEPT:
rupture of a central vein.
Common factors that influence how a patient reacts to the stress of an illness or injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:
distrust of the EMT.
Common names for activated charcoal include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common side effects of epinephrine include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common side effects of nitroglycerin include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common signs and symptoms of a chest injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common signs and symptoms of a sprain include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common signs and symptoms of acute hyperventilation syndrome include:
tachypnea and tingling in the extremities.
Common signs and symptoms of an airway burn include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Common signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction include all of the following, EXCEPT:
drying of the eyes.
Common signs of a skull fracture include all of the following, EXCEPT:
superficial scalp lacerations.
Communicating with hearing-impaired patients can be facilitated by doing all of the following, EXCEPT:
elevating the tone of your voice and exaggerating word pronunciation.
Compared to adults, infants and children are at higher risk for hypothermia for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
a relatively small surface area.
Complications associated with chest compressions include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Compression injuries to the abdomen that occur during a motor vehicle crash are typically the result of:
a poorly placed lap belt.
Continual reassessment of the scene at a suspected terrorist or WMD incident is MOST important because:
a secondary explosive device may detonate.
Continuing education in EMS serves to:
maintain, update, and expand your knowledge and skills.
Contraction or tensing of the abdominal muscles in an effort to ease pain is called:
Critical burns in children include:
partial-thickness burns covering more than 20% of the body surface.
Cross-contamination occurs when:
an EMT is exposed to a victim who has not yet been decontaminated.
DTs is a syndrome associated with withdrawal from:
Deformity caused by a fracture would MOST likely be masked by:
Delivering a patient to the hospital involves all of the following activities, EXCEPT:
giving a verbal report to the triage clerk.
Deoxygenated blood from the body returns to the:
Despite numerous, sincere efforts to convince a 40-year-old man to consent to EMS treatment and transport, he refuses. After explaining the potential consequences of his refusal and determining that he has decision-making capacity, you ask him to sign an EMS refusal form, but he refuses to do that as well. You should:
ask a family member, law enforcement officer, or bystander to sign the form verifying that the patient refused to sign.
Diabetes is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.
Diabetes is MOST accurately defined as a:
disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.
Diabetic coma is a life-threatening condition that results from:
hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and dehydration.
Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when:
insulin is not available in the body.
removing a patient from a dangerous position.
Distraction injuries of the spine are MOST commonly the result of:
Distributive shock occurs when:
widespread dilation of the blood vessels causes blood to pool in the vascular beds.
During an EMS call, you should take standard precautions:
upon exiting the ambulance, but before actual patient contact.
During an altercation in a bar, two patrons got into a fist fight. The first patient, a 44-year-old female, was struck in the mouth and refuses EMS care. The second patient, a 39-year-old female, has a small laceration to her left knuckle and also refuses EMS care. Which of the following statements regarding this scenario is MOST correct?
The 39-year-old female is at high risk for an infection.
During delivery of the baby's head, you should suction the mouth before the nose because:
suctioning the nose first may cause the baby to gasp and aspirate fluid.
During delivery, it is MOST important to position your partner at the mother's head because:
the mother may become nauseated and vomit.
During the alert and dispatch phase of EMS communications, the dispatcher's responsibilities include all of the following, EXCEPT:
discouraging the caller from providing care until the EMS unit arrives.
During the attempted resuscitation of an infant with suspected SIDS:
allow the family to observe if they wish.
During the natural process of aging, the number of functional cilia in the respiratory system decreases, resulting in:
a decreased ability to cough.
During the primary assessment of a semiconscious 70-year-old female, you should:
ensure a patent airway and support ventilation as needed.
During transport of a 40-year-old female with acute abdominal pain, you note that she has stopped talking to you and has become extremely diaphoretic. You should:
repeat the primary assessment.
During two-rescuer CPR, the compressor and ventilator switch positions. While rescuer one is finishing his or her cycle of 30 compressions, rescuer two should:
move to the opposite side of the patient's chest.
During your assessment of a 19-year-old male, you are told that he is being treated with factor VIII. This indicates that:
he has hemophilia A.
During your assessment of a 22-year-old male who was assaulted, you note widespread contusions and abrasions to his face, chest, and abdomen. His pulse is rapid and weak, and his skin is cool and clammy. You should:
administer oxygen and prepare for rapid transport.
During your assessment of a 29-year-old female with significant deformity to her left elbow, you are unable to palpate a radial pulse. Your transport time to the hospital is approximately 40 minutes. You should:
apply gentle manual traction in line with the limb and reassess for a pulse.
During your assessment of a 50-year-old male who was found unconscious in an alley, you note that he has slow, shallow respirations; significant bradycardia; facial cyanosis; and pinpoint pupils. As your partner begins assisting the patient's ventilations, he directs your attention to the patient's arms, which have multiple needle tracks on them. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
a heroin overdose.
During your assessment of a 6-month-old male with vomiting and diarrhea, you note that his capillary refill time is approximately 4 seconds. From this information, you should conclude that his:
peripheral circulation is decreased.
During your assessment of a patient who experienced a blast injury, you note that he has a depressed area to the front of his skull. This injury MOST likely occurred:
during the tertiary phase.
During your assessment of a patient who experienced blunt trauma to the abdomen, you notice bruising around the umbilicus. This is a sign of:
During your assessment of a patient who was shot in the abdomen, you notice a large entrance wound with multiple small puncture wounds surrounding it. This wound pattern is MOST consistent with a:
During your assessment of a patient with a head injury, you note that he opens his eyes when you pinch his trapezius muscle, is mumbling, and has his arms curled in toward his chest. You should assign him a GCS score of:
During your assessment of a patient with blunt chest trauma, you note paradoxical movement of the left chest wall. As your partner is administering oxygen to the patient, you should:
stabilize the chest wall with a bulky dressing.
During your assessment of a young female with nontraumatic vaginal bleeding, you note that her level of consciousness is decreased, her respirations are rapid and shallow, her skin is cool and moist, and her pulse is rapid and weak. You should:
assist her ventilations with a bag-mask device.
During your primary assessment of a 19-year-old unconscious male who experienced severe head trauma, you note that his respirations are rapid, irregular, and shallow. He has bloody secretions draining from his mouth and nose. You should:
suction his oropharynx for up to 15 seconds.
During your primary assessment of a semiconscious 30-year-old female with closed head trauma, you note that she has slow, shallow breathing and a slow, bounding pulse. As your partner maintains manual in-line stabilization of her head, you should:
instruct him to assist her ventilations while you perform a rapid assessment.
During your rapid secondary assessment of a 19-year-old female with multiple trauma, you note bilateral humeral deformities and a deformity to the left midshaft femur. Her skin is diaphoretic and her pulse is rapid and weak. Your partner has appropriately managed her airway and is maintaining manual stabilization of her head. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
immobilizing her to a backboard and rapidly transporting.
During your treatment of a woman in cardiac arrest, you apply the AED, analyze her cardiac rhythm, and receive a "no shock advised" message. This indicates that:
she is not in ventricular fibrillation.
During your visual inspection of a 19-year-old woman in labor, you see the baby's head crowning at the vaginal opening. What should you do?
Apply gentle pressure to the baby's head as it delivers.
EMRs such as fire fighters, law enforcement officers, and park rangers, are an integral part of the EMS system because:
the presence of a person trained to initiate basic life support (BLS) care cannot be ensured.
EMT training in nearly every state meets or exceeds the guidelines recommended by the:
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Each ovary produces an ovum in alternating months and releases it into the:
Each pelvic bone is formed by the fusion of the:
ilium, ischium, and pubis.
Early bruising following abdominal trauma often manifests as:
red areas of skin.
Early signs and symptoms of intra-abdominal bleeding include:
pain and distention.
Early signs and symptoms of viral hepatitis include all of the following, EXCEPT:
jaundice and abdominal pain.
Early signs of respiratory distress in the pediatric patient include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Eclampsia is MOST accurately defined as:
seizures that result from severe hypertension.
Elderly patients with abdominal problems may not exhibit the same pain response as younger patients because of:
age-related deterioration of their sensory systems.
Elevation of the rib cage during inhalation occurs when:
the intercostal muscles contract.
End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring is clearly indicated for patients who present with:
Epinephrine is indicated for patients with an allergic reaction when:
wheezing and hypotension are present.
Equipment and supplies that are carried on an ambulance should be stored:
according to the urgency and frequency of their use.
Erosion of the protective layer of the stomach or duodenum secondary to overactivity of digestive juices results in:
Evaluation of the interior of a crashed motor vehicle during extrication will allow the EMT to:
identify contact points and predict potential injuries.
Excessive eating caused by cellular "hunger" is called:
Exposure to _________ would MOST likely result in immediate respiratory distress.
External bleeding from a vein is relatively easy to control because:
veins are under a lower pressure.
Facial injuries should be identified and treated as soon as possible because:
of the risk for airway problems.
Factors that increase the risk for developing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) include:
prolonged hospitalization, especially in an intensive care unit.
Factors that should be considered when assessing a patient who has fallen include all of the following, EXCEPT:
the speed of the fall.
Findings during the social assessment of an older patient include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Following a blunt injury to the head, a 22-year-old female is confused and complains of a severe headache and nausea. On the basis of these signs and symptoms, you should be MOST concerned with the possibility of:
Following a head injury, a 20-year-old female opens her eyes spontaneously, is confused, and obeys your commands to move her extremities. You should assign her a GCS score of:
Following a stab wound to the left anterior chest, a 25-year-old male presents with a decreased level of consciousness and signs of shock. Which of the following additional assessment findings should increase your index of suspicion for a cardiac tamponade?
a rapid, irregular pulse
Following blunt abdominal trauma, a 30-year-old male complains of referred pain to the left shoulder. This finding is called the:
Following blunt trauma to the abdomen, a 21-year-old female complains of left upper quadrant abdominal pain with referred pain to the left shoulder. Your assessment reveals that her abdomen is distended and tender to palpation. On the basis of these findings, you should be MOST suspicious of injury to the:
Following blunt trauma to the chest, an 18-year-old female presents with respiratory distress, reduced tidal volume, and cyanosis. Her blood pressure is 80/50 mm Hg and her pulse is 130 beats/min and thready. You should:
provide some form of positive-pressure ventilation.
Following blunt trauma to the face, a 21-year-old male complains of a severe headache and decreased ability to move his eyes. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
a blowout fracture.
Following delivery of a pulseless and apneic infant who has a foul odor, skin sloughing, and diffuse blistering, you should:
provide emotional support to the mother.
Following direct trauma to the upper part of the anterior neck, a young male presents with labored breathing, loss of voice, and subcutaneous emphysema in the soft tissues around his neck. You should suspect a(n):
Following proper decontamination, a 30-year-old male is brought to you. He is semiconscious and has rapid, shallow respirations. A quick visual assessment reveals no obvious bleeding. You should:
begin some form of positive-pressure ventilation.
Force acting over a distance defines the concept of:
Fractures of the pelvis in older patients often occur as the result of a combination of:
osteoporosis and low-energy trauma.
From a mental health standpoint, an abnormal or disturbing pattern of behavior is a matter of concern if it lasts for at least:
From what internal female organ is the fetus expelled during delivery?
Functions of dressings and bandages include all of the following, EXCEPT:
immobilization of the injury.
Functions of the liver include:
production of substances necessary for blood clotting.
Functions of the skin include all of the following, EXCEPT:
the production of key antibodies.
Gas exchange in the lungs is facilitated by:
adequate amounts of surfactant.
Gastric distention will MOST likely occur:
if you ventilate a patient too fast.
Gastrointestinal bleeding should be suspected if a patient presents with:
General guidelines for carrying a patient on a stretcher include:
constant communication with your partners.
General guidelines for managing a patient with a behavioral emergency include:
being prepared to spend extra time with the patient.
General techniques for communicating with hearing-impaired patients include:
positioning yourself approximately 18? directly in front of the patient.
General treatment for a woman with vaginal bleeding and shock following sexual assault includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
carefully removing any foreign bodies from the vagina.
Glipizide, a non-insulin-type medication, is another name for:
Gloves, a mask, eye protection, and a face shield should be used:
when performing endotracheal intubation.
Harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sounds are characteristic of:
Hazards that are associated with a structural fire include all of the following, EXCEPT:
carbon dioxide deficiency.
Heat loss from the body through respiration occurs when:
warm air is exhaled into the atmosphere.
found within the red blood cells and is responsible for carrying oxygen.
Hemoptysis is defined as:
coughing up blood.
Hepatitis B is more virulent than hepatitis C, which means that it:
has a greater ability to produce disease.
Heroin is an example of a(n):
High humidity reduces the body's ability to lose heat through:
How does CPAP improve oxygenation and ventilation in patients with certain respiratory problems?
It forces the alveoli open and pushes more oxygen across the alveolar membrane.
Hydroplaning of the ambulance on wet roads would MOST likely occur at speeds of greater than _____ mph.
Hyperthermia differs from fever in that it is an increase in body temperature:
caused by the inability of the body to cool itself.
Hypoglycemic crisis tends to develop more often and more severely in children because:
they do not always eat correctly and on schedule.
Hypoperfusion is another name for:
Hypotension in a child with blunt or penetrating trauma is particularly significant because:
it often indicates the loss of half of his or her blood volume.
Hypotension, hypoventilation, and pinpoint pupils would be expected following an overdose of:
Hypovolemic shock caused by severe burns is the result of a loss of:
Hypovolemic shock occurs when:
the body cannot compensate for rapid blood loss.
If a baby is born at 7:52, the second Apgar score should be calculated at:
If a defibrillator manufacturer claims that its device terminates ventricular fibrillation on the first shock 95% of the time, you should:
recognize that this does not mean it will save more lives.
If a dislocated shoulder has spontaneously reduced before your arrival, the only way to confirm the injury is by noting:
the patient history.
If a mask cannot be placed on a coughing patient, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that you maintain a distance of at least ________ feet if possible.
If a patient with a chest injury is only able to inhale small amounts of air per breath, he or she:
must increase his or her respiratory rate to maintain adequate minute volume.
If a person is standing near a building that explodes, which of the following injuries would he or she MOST likely experience as a result of the pressure wave?
If a person's tidal volume decreases, but his or her respiratory rate remains unchanged:
minute volume will decrease.
If a pregnant patient requires spinal immobilization, you should secure her to the backboard and then:
elevate the right side of the board with rolled towels or blankets.
If a technical rescue team is required at the scene, but is not present when you arrive, you should:
check with the incident commander to ensure that the team is en route.
If a woman with vaginal bleeding reports syncope, the EMT must assume that she:
is in shock.
If an EMT candidate has been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor, he or she should:
contact the state EMS office and provide them with the required documentation.
If an action or procedure that was performed on a patient is not recorded on the written report:
it was not performed in the eyes of the law.
If direct pressure with a sterile dressing fails to immediately stop severe bleeding from an extremity, you should apply:
a tourniquet proximal to the injury.
If gastric distention is interfering with your ability to adequately ventilate a patient, you may have to:
apply manual pressure to the abdomen.
If one or more occupants in the same vehicle are killed in a crash, the EMT should:
suspect that all living occupants experienced the same serious trauma.
If suctioning of the tracheostomy tube is necessary, the EMT should:
attempt to use the patient's suction device first because it is probably already sized correctly.
If the situation allows, a child should be transported in a car seat if he or she weighs less than _____ lb.
If you do not have the appropriate size cervical collar, you should:
use rolled towels to immobilize the patient's head.
If you properly assess and stabilize a patient at the scene, driving to the hospital with excessive speed:
will decrease the driver's reaction time.
Immediate death from blunt chest trauma following a motor vehicle crash is MOST often the result of:
traumatic aortic rupture.
Immediately after giving an epinephrine injection, you should:
properly dispose of the syringe.
Immediately upon arriving at the scene of an emergency call involving a traumatic injury, you should notify the dispatcher of your arrival and then:
observe the scene for safety hazards.
In MOST cases, cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is caused by:
In ___________ administration, you are administering medication to yourself or your partner.
In a healthy individual, the brain stem stimulates breathing on the basis of:
increased carbon dioxide levels.
In addition to ensuring his or her own safety, the EMT's responsibility when caring for a patient with a behavioral emergency is to:
diffuse and control the situation and safely transport the patient.
In addition to looking for severe bleeding, assessment of circulation in the conscious patient should involve:
checking the radial pulse and noting the color, temperature, and condition of his or her skin.
In addition to obtaining a SAMPLE history and asking questions related to the chief complaint, what else should you inquire about when assessing a patient with a potentially infectious disease?
In an acute injury setting, neurogenic shock is commonly accompanied by:
In an apparent suicide attempt, a 19-year-old female ingested a full bottle of amitriptyline (Elavil). At present, she is conscious and alert and states that she swallowed the pills approximately 30 minutes earlier. Her blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg, her pulse is 140 beats/min and irregular, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. When transporting this patient, you should be MOST alert for:
seizures and cardiac arrhythmias.
In anticipation of receiving a fertilized ovum, the lining of the uterine wall:
becomes engorged with blood.
In contrast to a Level III trauma center, a Level I trauma center must:
have general surgeons that are in-house 24 hours a day.
In contrast to a behavioral crisis, a psychiatric emergency occurs when a person:
demonstrates agitation or violence or becomes a threat to himself or herself, or to others.
In contrast to a cerebral concussion, a cerebral contusion:
involves physical injury to the brain tissue.
In contrast to a full-term infant, a premature infant:
has an even proportionately larger head.
In contrast to adults, deterioration to cardiac arrest in infants and children is usually associated with:
severe hypoxia and bradycardia.
In contrast to an automated implanted cardioverter/defibrillator, an internal cardiac pacemaker:
regulates the patient's heart rate if it falls below a preset value.
In contrast to bleeding caused by external trauma to the vagina, bleeding caused by conditions such as polyps or cancer:
may be relatively painless.
In contrast to conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss is caused by:
In contrast to delirium, dementia:
is usually considered irreversible.
In contrast to insulin shock, diabetic coma:
can only be corrected in the hospital setting.
In contrast to monophasic defibrillation, biphasic defibrillation:
requires a lower energy setting.
In contrast to secure attachment, anxious-avoidant attachment occurs when a child:
shows little emotional response to a parent or caregiver following repeated rejection.
In contrast to the assessment of a trauma patient, assessment of a medical patient:
is focused on the nature of illness, the patient's chief complaint, and his or her symptoms.
In contrast to the brown recluse spider, the black widow spider:
is large and has a red-orange hourglass mark on its abdomen.
In contrast to the parietal peritoneum, the visceral peritoneum:
is supplied by nerves of the autonomic nervous system, which are less able to localize pain or sensation.
In contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system:
slows the heart and respiratory rates.
In contrast to viral hepatitis, toxin-induced hepatitis:
is not a communicable disease.
In general, injected poisons are impossible to dilute or remove because they:
are usually absorbed quickly into the body.
In general, medivac helicopters should be utilized when:
a patient has a time-dependent injury or illness and traffic conditions would cause a significant delay in definitive care.
In infants and children, a capillary refill time (CRT) that is greater than ______ second(s) is a sign of poor peripheral perfusion.
In late adults, the amount of air left in the lungs after expiration of the maximum amount of air:
increases, which hampers diffusion of gases because of stagnant air that remains in the alveoli.
In nontrauma patients, an early indicator of internal bleeding is:
dizziness upon standing.
In older patients, the first indicator of nontraumatic internal bleeding may be:
weakness or dizziness.
In order for efficient pulmonary gas exchange to occur:
oxygen and carbon dioxide must be able to freely diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane.
In order for electricity to flow through the body and cause damage:
a complete circuit must exist between the electrical source and the ground.
In order for sweating to be an effective cooling mechanism:
it must be able to evaporate from the body.
In order to avoid exacerbating a patient's injury, it is especially important to use extreme caution when providing positive-pressure ventilation to patients with a:
In order to evaluate hazards present at the scene and determine the number of patients, you should:
perform a 360° walk-around of the scene.
In order to facilitate a safe and coordinated move, the team leader should:
use preparatory commands to initiate any moves.
In preconventional reasoning, children:
act almost purely to avoid punishment and to get what they want.
In preparing for a disaster, EMS systems should have enough supplies for at least a ______ period of self-sufficiency.
In responsive patients that are older than 1 year of age, you should palpate the pulse at the ________ artery.
In the eyes of the court, an incomplete or untidy patient care form indicates:
that inadequate patient care was administered.
In the presence of ileus, the only way the stomach can empty itself is by:
In the presence of oxygen, the mitochondria of the cells convert glucose into energy through a process called:
In two-rescuer adult CPR, you should deliver a compression to ventilation ratio of:
In what manner should you act and speak with a patient?
calm and confident
In which of the following patients should you remove an impaled object?
a pulseless and apneic patient with a knife impaled in the back
In which of the following situations is an emergency patient move indicated?
The EMT is unable to protect the patient from scene hazards.
In which of the following situations would a direct ground lift be the MOST appropriate method of moving a patient?
a conscious patient complaining of abdominal pain
In which of the following situations would external bleeding be the MOST difficult to control?
femoral artery laceration and a blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg
In which of the following situations would it be MOST appropriate to utilize an air medical transportation service?
61-year-old man with signs and symptoms of a stroke and your ground transport time is 50 minutes
Individuals with chronic alcoholism are predisposed to intracranial bleeding and hypoglycemia secondary to abnormalities in the:
Infants are often referred to as "belly breathers" because:
their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.
Information included in a radio report to the receiving hospital should include all of the following, EXCEPT:
a preliminary diagnosis of the patient's problem.
Inhalation occurs when the:
diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure.
Initial signs and symptoms associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers include:
headache and sore throat.
Initial treatment to dislodge a severe foreign body airway obstruction in a responsive infant involves:
Injuries or conditions that would be classified as first priority (red tag; immediate) include all of the following, EXCEPT:
fractures of multiple long bones.
Injury to a hollow abdominal organ would MOST likely result in:
leakage of contents into the abdominal cavity.
Insulin functions in the body by:
enabling glucose to enter the cells.
Insulin shock will MOST likely develop if a patient:
takes too much of his or her prescribed insulin.
Internal injuries caused by gunshot wounds are difficult to predict because:
the bullet may tumble or ricochet within the body.
Interoperability, an important feature of the NIMS, refers to the ability of:
agencies of different types or from different jurisdictions to communicate with each other.
Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:
Irritation or damage to the pleural surfaces that causes sharp chest pain during inhalation is called:
Ischemic heart disease is MOST accurately defined as:
decreased blood flow to one or more portions of the myocardium.
It is 10:30 PM and you have requested air medical transport for a critically injured patient. When you arrive at the designated landing zone, you should:
survey the area for power lines or other hazards.
It is MOST important for the EMT to remember that suicidal patients may:
be homicidal as well.
It is MOST important to determine a patient's weight when asking questions pertaining to a toxic ingestion because:
activated charcoal is given based on a patient's weight.
It is especially important to assess pulse, sensation, and movement in all extremities as well as pupillary reactions in patients with a suspected ___________ problem.
It is not uncommon for young females who experience their first menstrual period to:
experience abdominal cramping, which may be misinterpreted.
Large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is generated when:
the cells function with adequate oxygen.
Law enforcement personnel request your assistance for a 30-year-old man who they pulled over for erratic driving. The patient became acutely violent while he was being questioned, which required one of the officers to subdue him with a Taser. When you arrive and assess the patient, you find that he is very agitated and is experiencing apparent hallucinations. His skin is flushed and diaphoretic. You should:
limit physical contact with the patient as much as possible and avoid interrupting him if he is attempting to communicate with you.
Law enforcement personnel request your assistance to assess a 31-year-old female who was sexually assaulted. When you arrive at the scene, you find the patient sitting on a curb outside her apartment. She is conscious, alert, and crying. When you ask her what happened, she tells you that she does not want to be treated or transported to the hospital. She further tells you that all she wants to do is clean up. You should:
provide emotional support and visually assess her for obvious trauma.
Laypeople are often trained to perform all of the following skills, EXCEPT:
insertion of an oropharyngeal airway.
Level _____ hazardous materials would cause irritation on contact but only mild residual injury, even without treatment.
Major risk factors for AMI include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Many older victims of physical abuse may make false statements or lie about the origin of their injuries because:
they fear retribution from the abuser.
Medical control gives you an order that seems inappropriate for the patient's condition. After confirming that you heard the physician correctly, you should:
advise the physician that the order is unclear and ask for clarification.
Medications encased in a gelatin shell taken by mouth are called:
Minimum airway and ventilation equipment that should be carried on every ambulance include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Combitubes or laryngeal mask airways.
Minimum staffing in the patient compartment of a basic life support (BLS) ambulance includes:
at least one EMT.
Most cases of anthrax begin with:
Most cases of external bleeding from an extremity can be controlled by:
applying local direct pressure.
Most medical models base a pregnant woman's due date:
on the first day of her last menstrual cycle.
Most patients are instructed by their physician to take up to _______ doses of nitroglycerin before calling EMS.
Most patients who die of anaphylaxis do so within the first __________ following exposure.
Most patients with abdominal pain prefer to:
lie on their side with their knees drawn into the abdomen.
Most poisonings occur via the __________ route.
Most prehospital cardiac arrests occur as the result of:
a cardiac arrhythmia.
Most terrorist attacks:
require multiple terrorists working together.
Motor nerve neuropathy is characterized by:
loss of balance, muscle weakness, and spasms.
Muscle control and body coordination are controlled by the:
Narrowing of the coronary arteries due to a buildup of fatty deposits is called:
Nerve agents, a class of chemicals called organophosphates, were first discovered while in search of a superior:
Neurogenic shock occurs when:
failure of the nervous system causes widespread vasodilation.
Normal respiratory rates should not exceed _______ breaths per minute in children and _______ breaths per minute in infants.
Normal skin color, temperature, and condition should be:
pink, warm, and dry.
Obtaining continuing medical education is the responsibility of the:
Once a cervical collar has been applied to a patient with a possible spinal injury, it should not be removed unless:
it causes a problem managing the ABCs.
Once entrance and access to the patient have been provided, you should:
perform a primary assessment.
One of the primary waste products of normal cellular metabolism that must be removed from the body by the lungs is:
Organic brain syndrome is MOST accurately defined as:
a dysfunction of the brain caused by abnormal physical or physiological function.
PID typically does NOT affect the:
Pain that is localized to the lower back and/or lower abdominal quadrants is MOST suggestive of:
an aortic aneurysm.
Pain that may be perceived at a distant point on the surface of the body, such as the back or shoulder, is called:
Pain that moves from its point of origin to another body location is said to be:
Pain that radiates to the right lower quadrant from the umbilical area, nausea and vomiting, and anorexia are MOST indicative of:
Palpating the carotid pulse is not recommended in infants because:
you may inadvertently compress the trachea.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), rales, and dependent edema are clinical indicators of:
congestive heart failure.
Patients develop septic shock secondary to:
poor vessel function and severe volume loss.
Patients who have experienced even minor-appearing head injuries should be suspected of having a brain injury, especially if they:
are taking blood-thinning medications.
Patients with acute abdominal pain should not be given anything to eat or drink because:
substances in the stomach increase the risk of aspiration.
Patients with full-thickness (third-degree) burns generally do not complain of pain because:
the nerve endings have been destroyed.
Patients with rib fractures will commonly:
breathe rapidly and shallowly.
Patients with thrombophilia are at an increased risk for:
Patients with tuberculosis pose the greatest risk for transmitting the disease when they:
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes experience polyuria because:
excess glucose in the blood is excreted by the kidneys.
People at risk for suicide include all of the following, EXCEPT:
married males older than 30 years.
Perfusion is MOST accurately defined as the:
circulation of blood within an organ in adequate amounts to meet the body's metabolic needs.
Peritonitis may result in shock because:
fluid shifts from the bloodstream into body tissues.
Peritonitis, an intense inflammatory reaction of the abdominal cavity, usually occurs when:
hollow abdominal organs are damaged and spill their contents.
Phases of an ambulance call include all of the following activities, EXCEPT:
emergency care provided at the scene.
Phosphorus or elemental sodium should be brushed off of the skin instead of irrigated with water because:
these chemicals may ignite upon contact with water.
Physiologic manifestations of stress include:
perspiration, increased blood glucose levels, and dilated pupils.
Placing a pregnant patient in a supine position during the third trimester of pregnancy:
may decrease the amount of blood that returns to the heart.
Pleural fluid is contained between the:
visceral and parietal pleurae.
Pneumothorax is defined as:
accumulation of air in the pleural space.
Portable and mounted suction units must be powerful enough to generate a vacuum of at least ____ mm Hg when the tubing is clamped.
Potentially life-threatening consequences of PID include:
ovarian abscess and ectopic pregnancy.
Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a patient, you must ensure that the:
reservoir bag is fully inflated.
Prior to defibrillating a patient with an AED, it is MOST important that you:
ensure that no one is touching the patient.
Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
ensuring the absence of a gag reflex.
Pulmonary edema and impaired ventilation occur during:
Pulmonary hemorrhage and inner ear damage are examples of __________ blast injuries.
Putrefaction is defined as:
decomposition of the body's tissues.
Reassessment of a patient with a medical complaint should begin by:
repeating the primary assessment.
Rough handling of a hypothermic patient with a pulse may cause:
Sedentary behavior while healing from a hip fracture would MOST likely predispose the older patient to:
Several attempts to adequately open a trauma patient's airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver have been unsuccessful. You should:
carefully perform the head tilt-chin lift maneuver.
Shortly after loading your patient, a 50-year-old man with abdominal pain, into the ambulance, he tells you that he changed his mind and does not want to go to the hospital. He is conscious and alert and has no signs of mental incapacitation. You are suspicious that the man has a significant underlying condition and feel strongly that he should go to the hospital. Which of the following statements regarding this situation is correct?
A mentally competent adult can withdraw his or her consent to treat at any time.
Significant trauma to the face should increase the EMT's index of suspicion for a(n):
spinal cord injury.
Significant vital sign changes will occur if the typical adult acutely loses more than ______ of his or her total blood volume.
Signs and symptoms of a hypertensive emergency would MOST likely be delayed in patients who:
have chronic hypertension.
Signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include all of the following, EXCEPT:
bulging intercostal muscles.
Signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include all of the following, EXCEPT:
collapsed jugular veins.
Signs and symptoms of an air embolism include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Signs and symptoms of preeclampsia include:
headache and edema.
Signs of a sudden severe upper airway obstruction include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Signs of agitated delirium include:
diaphoresis, tachycardia, and hallucinations.
Signs of late heatstroke include:
a weak, rapid pulse.
Skeletal muscle is also referred to as __________ muscle.
Skeletal muscle is attached to the bone by tough, ropelike fibrous structures called:
Solid abdominal organs include the:
spleen, kidneys, and pancreas.
Spina bifida is MOST accurately defined as:
a birth defect caused by incomplete closure of the spinal column.
Status epilepticus is characterized by:
prolonged seizures without a return of consciousness.
Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors results in:
constriction of the blood vessels.
Structures of the lower airway include all of the following, EXCEPT the:
Subcutaneous emphysema is an indication that:
air is escaping into the chest wall from a damaged lung.
Subcutaneous injections deliver the medication:
between the skin and the muscle.
Substance abuse is MOST accurately defined as:
knowingly misusing a substance to produce a desired effect.
Successful treatment of a stroke depends on whether:
thrombolytic therapy is given within 3 hours after symptoms began.
Sudden death following AMI is MOST often caused by:
Supine hypotensive syndrome occurs when:
the pregnant uterus compresses the inferior vena cava.
Supplemental oxygen via nonrebreathing mask should be administered to patients:
with difficulty breathing and adequate tidal volume.
Syncope in the older patient is:
caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain.
Syrup of ipecac is no longer recommended to treat patients who have ingested a poisonous substance because it:
may result in aspiration of vomitus.
Temporary, widespread vasodilation and syncope caused by a sudden nervous system reaction MOST accurately describes:
Ten days after treating a 34-year-old patient with tuberculosis, you are given a tuberculin skin test, which yields a positive result. This MOST likely indicates that:
you were exposed to another infected person prior to treating the 34-year-old patient.
The "Golden Period" begins when an injury occurs and ends when:
the patient receives definitive care.
The AED has delivered a shock to an elderly male in cardiac arrest. Following 2 minutes of CPR, you reanalyze the patient's cardiac rhythm and receive a "no shock advised" message. After further resuscitation, you restore a palpable carotid pulse. Your next action should be to:
reassess airway and breathing and treat accordingly.
The Adam's apple is:
the upper part of the larynx that is formed by the thyroid cartilage.
The BEST way to reduce your risk of contracting a work-related disease following exposure is to:
activate your department's infection control plan as soon as possible.
The Centennial Park bombing during the 1996 Summer Olympics is an example of:
The EMT must assume that any unwitnessed water-related incident is accompanied by:
possible spinal injury.
The EMT should be MOST concerned when a child presents with fever and:
The EMT's role at the scene of a search and rescue attempt is to:
stand by at the command post until the person is located.
The FIRST rule of safe lifting is to:
keep your back in a straight, vertical position.
The FIRST step in the START triage system is to:
move all walking patients to a designated area.
The JumpSTART triage system is intended to be used for children younger than _____ years or who appear to weigh less than _____.
8, 100 lb
The MOST appropriate treatment for a patient with a mild upper airway obstruction includes:
administering oxygen and transporting immediately.
The MOST common and serious complication of a significant head injury is:
The MOST common and usually the most serious ambulance crashes occur at:
The MOST common cause of dehydration in pediatric patients is:
vomiting and diarrhea.
The MOST common error associated with the use of the AED is:
failure of the EMT to ensure the battery is charged.
The MOST commonly abused drug in the United States is:
The MOST critical treatment for a tension pneumothorax involves:
assisting the patient's breathing with increased tidal volume.
The MOST effective way to preserve your own body heat when functioning in cold, wet weather is to:
wear at least three layers of clothing.
The MOST efficient way to identify the appropriately sized equipment for a pediatric patient is to:
use a length-based resuscitation tape measure.
The MOST important treatment for patients with a head injury, regardless of severity, is to:
establish an adequate airway.
The MOST reliable sign of a head injury is:
a decreased level of consciousness.
The MOST serious consequence of a poorly planned or rushed patient move is:
injury to you or your patient.
The MOST significant complication associated with facial injuries is:
The MOST significant complication associated with oropharyngeal suctioning is:
hypoxia due to prolonged suction attempts.
The MOST significant hazard associated with splinting is:
delaying transport of a critically injured patient.
The MOST significant risk factor for a hemorrhagic stroke is:
The PASG is absolutely contraindicated in patients who have:
The ________ nerves control the diaphragm.
The _________ contain(s) about 75% of the brain's total volume.
The _________ is both the mechanical weight-bearing base of the spinal column and the fused central posterior section of the pelvic girdle.
The _________ is the best-protected part of the CNS and controls the functions of the cardiac and respiratory systems.
The __________ area is where incoming ambulances meet and await further instructions at the scene of a mass-casualty incident.
The __________ cartilage is a firm ring that forms the inferior part of the larynx.
The ___________ is made up of the maxilla and zygoma, as well as the frontal bone of the cranium.
The ___________ of the heart is the inferior portion of the left ventricles.
The ____________ deals with the well-being of the EMT, career progression, and EMT compensation.
human resources department
The ability of a person's cardiovascular system to compensate for blood loss is MOST related to:
how rapidly he or she bleeds.
The ability of cardiac muscle cells to contract spontaneously without a stimulus from a nerve source is called:
The adult epinephrine auto-injector delivers ______ mg of epinephrine, and the pediatric auto-injector delivers ______ mg.
The amniotic fluid serves to:
insulate and protect the fetus.
The anterior aspect of the cerebrum controls:
The anterior fontanelle fuses together between the ages of:
9 and 18 months.
The atlas is the:
first cervical vertebra, which articulates with the skull.
The average pulse rate of individuals between 19 and 60 years of age is typically:
The axial skeleton is composed of the:
skull, face, thorax, and vertebral column.
The backup system of respiratory control, which is based on low concentrations of oxygen in the blood, is called the:
The body's functions that occur without conscious effort are regulated by the _________ nervous system.
The body's natural cooling mechanism, in which sweat is converted to a gas, is called:
The body's natural protective mechanisms against heat loss are:
vasoconstriction and shivering.
The bony prominence on the lateral/superior aspect of the thigh is called the:
The cervical spine is MOST protected from whiplash-type injuries when the:
headrest is appropriately positioned.
The chemical attacks that occurred in Tokyo between 1994 and 1995 were carried out by a(n):
violent religious group.
The chief component of connective tissues and bones that deteriorates as people age is called:
The continuous quality improvement (CQI) process is designed to:
identify areas of improvement and provide remedial training if needed.
The decline in cardiac function that commonly occurs in late adulthood is MOST often related to:
The determination that prompt surgical care in the hospital is more important than performing time-consuming procedures in the field on a major trauma patient is based MOSTLY on:
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract during:
The diving reflex may allow a person to survive extended periods of submersion in cold water secondary to:
bradycardia and a slowing of the metabolic rate.
The driver of a sport utility vehicle lost control and struck a utility pole head-on. The driver was killed instantly. The passenger, a young female, is conscious and alert and has several small abrasions and lacerations to her left forearm. Treatment for the passenger should include:
transport to a trauma center.
The effects of epinephrine are typically observed within _________ following administration.
The electrical impulse generated by the heart originates in the:
sinoatrial (SA) node.
The extremity lift would NOT be appropriate to use on a patient:
with a deformed humerus.
The eyeball itself is referred to as the:
The first step in assessing a patient with a behavioral emergency is to:
ensure your safety.
The five sections of the spinal column, in descending order, are the:
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal.
The foreign substance responsible for causing an allergic reaction is called a(n):
The frontal and parietal bones of the skull are especially susceptible to:
compressed skull fractures.
The general adaptation syndrome is characterized by which of the following phases?
alarm response, reaction and resistance, and recovery
The germinal layer of the epidermis contains pigment granules that are responsible for skin:
The greatest danger in displaying a personal bias or "labeling" a patient who frequently calls EMS is:
overlooking a potentially serious medical condition.
The hallmark sign of compartment syndrome is:
pain out of proportion to the injury.
The head and brain receive their supply of oxygenated blood from the:
The hepatitis B vaccine program, a component of the infection control plan, addresses all of the following issues, EXCEPT:
family history of hepatitis.
The human body should be functioning at its optimal level between the ages of:
19 and 25 years.
The ideal procedure for moving an injured patient from the ground to a backboard is:
the four-person log roll.
The iliac arteries immediately subdivide into the:
The impedance threshold device (ITD) may improve circulation during CPR by:
limiting the amount of air that enters the lungs during the recoil phase between chest compressions, which results in negative intrathoracic pressure and improved cardiac filling.
The index of suspicion is MOST accurately defined as:
your concern for potentially serious underlying injuries.
The inferior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart from all of the following areas, EXCEPT the:
The inner surface of the eyelids and the exposed surface of the eye itself are covered by a delicate membrane called the:
The jaw-thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of patients with suspected:
cervical spine injuries.
The kidneys and pancreas are called retroperitoneal organs because they:
are located behind the abdominal cavity.
The kidneys help to regulate blood pressure by:
removing sodium, and thus water, from the body.
The largest portion of the brain, which is commonly referred to as the "gray matter," is called the:
The leading cause of death in the geriatric patient is:
The leaf-shaped flap of tissue that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is called the:
The left cerebral hemisphere controls:
the right side of the body.
The left ventricle has the thickest walls because it:
pumps blood into the aorta and systemic circulation.
The low normal systolic blood pressure for a 30-year-old is:
90 mm Hg.
The lower jawbone is called the:
The main benefit of using a mechanical piston or load-distributing band device for chest compressions is:
the elimination of rescuer fatigue that results from manual compressions.
The main objective of traffic control at the scene of a motor vehicle crash is to:
warn oncoming traffic and prevent another crash.
The major side effect associated with ingestion of activated charcoal is:
The manner in which the EMT must act or behave when caring for a patient is called the:
standard of care.
The mastoid process is located approximately:
1= posterior to the external opening of the ear.
The means by which a terrorist will spread a particular agent is called:
The medical term for an extremely low blood glucose level is:
The meninges, along with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates in between each meningeal layer, function by:
acting as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord.
The mesentery is:
a membranous fold that attaches the intestines to the walls of the body.
The most basic functions of the body, such as breathing, blood pressure, and swallowing, are controlled by the:
The most superior portion of the sternum is called the:
The musculoskeletal system refers to the:
bones and voluntary muscles of the body.
The nasal cannula is MOST appropriately used in the prehospital setting:
when the patient cannot tolerate a nonrebreathing mask.
The normal blood glucose level, as measured by a glucometer, is between:
80 and 120 mg/dL.
The normal respiratory rate for a newborn should not exceed ______ breaths/min.
The onset of menstruation is called menarche and usually occurs in women who are:
between 11 and 16 years of age.
The opening in the center of the iris, which allows light to move to the back of the eye, is called the:
The optic nerve endings are located within the:
The parietal peritoneum lines the:
walls of the abdominal cavity.
The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli is _______ mm Hg, while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is _______ mm Hg.
The patient care report (PCR) ensures:
continuity of care.
The person who is responsible for authorizing EMTs to perform emergency medical care in the field is the:
The phenomenon of pressure waves emanating from the bullet, causing damage remote from its path, is known as:
The phrenic nerves control the diaphragm and exit the spinal cord at:
C3, C4, and C5.
The physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs is called:
The physical examination of a sexual assault victim should be:
limited to a brief survey for life-threatening injuries.
The poison control center will be able to provide you with the most information regarding the appropriate treatment for a patient with a drug overdose if the center:
is aware of the substance that is involved.
The posterior tibial pulse can be palpated:
behind the medial malleolus.
The presence of tachycardia following a significant abdominal injury:
should be assumed to be a sign of shock.
The presence of thick meconium in the amniotic fluid indicates:
that the baby's airway may be obstructed.
The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately _______ pounds per square inch (psi).
The primary organ responsible for absorption of products of digestion is the:
The primary prehospital treatment for most medical emergencies:
addresses the patient's symptoms more than the actual disease process.
The primary purpose for splinting a musculoskeletal injury is to:
prevent further injury.
The principal clinical difference between a stroke and hypoglycemia is that patients with hypoglycemia:
usually have an altered mental status or decreased level of consciousness.
The process of binding or sticking to a surface is called:
The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood of the capillaries is called:
The process of removing dirt, dust, blood, or other visible contaminants from a surface or equipment is called:
The proper depth of chest compressions on a 9-month-old infant is:
one third to one half the diameter of the chest.
The proper technique for using the power grip is to:
lift with your palms up.
The pulse rate of a child from ages 6 to 12 years is approximately:
70 to 120 beats/min.
The purpose of a jump kit is to:
contain anything that you might need during the first 5 minutes of patient care.
The purpose of defibrillation is to:
stop the chaotic, disorganized contraction of the cardiac cells.
The purpose of the incident command system (ICS) is to:
ensure responder and public safety, achieve incident management goals, and ensure the effective use of resources.
The purpose of the pin-indexing system that has been established for compressed gas cylinders is to:
ensure that the correct regulator is used for the cylinder.
The reasons for rescue failure can be referred to by the mnemonic FAILURE. According to this mnemonic, the "U" stands for:
underestimating the logistics of the incident.
The rescue team is in the process of extricating a 40-year-old male from his truck. The patient's wife, who was uninjured in the crash, is calmly observing the extrication and asks you if her husband will be all right. You should:
ensure that she is in a safe area, away from the scene.
The respiratory distress that accompanies emphysema is caused by:
chronic stretching of the alveolar walls.
The right coronary artery supplies blood to the:
right ventricle and inferior wall of the left ventricle.
The scene size-up at a motor vehicle crash or other incident:
is an ongoing process until the incident is terminated.
The sebaceous glands produce sebum, a material that:
waterproofs the skin and keeps it supple.
The secondary assessment of a medical patient:
is not practical if the patient is critically ill or your transport time is short.
The signs and symptoms of insulin shock are the result of:
decreased blood glucose levels.
The simplest yet most effective method of preventing the spread of an infectious disease is to:
wash your hands in between patient contacts.
The single most significant factor that contributes to suicide is:
The six-pointed Star of Life® emblem identifies vehicles that:
meet federal specifications as licensed or certified ambulances.
The skin and underlying tissues of the face:
have a rich blood supply and bleed profusely.
The slow onset of progressive disorientation, shortened attention span, and loss of cognitive function is known as:
The small, rounded, fleshy bulge immediately anterior to the ear canal is called the:
The smaller vessels that carry blood away from the heart and connect the arteries to the capillaries are called the:
The spinal cord exits the cranium through the:
The stinger from a honeybee should be:
scraped away from the skin.
The suture of the anterior fontanelle is typically closed by _____ months of age, and the suture of the posterior fontanelle is typically closed by _____ months of age.
The systemic veins function by:
returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
The term "behavioral crisis" is MOST accurately defined as:
any reaction that interferes with activities of daily living or is deemed unacceptable by others.
The term "bloody show" is defined as:
the small amount of pink-tinged mucus that is discharged from the vagina after expulsion of the mucous plug.
The term "hyphema" is defined as:
blood in the anterior chamber of the eye.
The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the:
The three major parts of the brain are the:
cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.
The tip of a central venous catheter rests in the:
The tough, fibrous outer meningeal layer is called the:
The two MOST common signs of anaphylaxis are:
wheezing and widespread urticaria.
The two MOST efficient ways for the body to eliminate excess heat are:
sweating and dilation of skin blood vessels.
The two processes that occur during respiration are:
inspiration and expiration.
The type and severity of wounds sustained from incendiary and explosive devices primarily depend on the:
patient's distance from the epicenter of the explosion.
The upper jawbones are called the:
The use of lights and siren on an ambulance:
signifies a request for other drivers to yield the right of way.
The usual dose for activated charcoal is up to ______ for a pediatric patient and up to ______ for an adult patient.
25 g, 50 g
The vagina and the neck of the uterus comprise the:
The venom of a black widow spider is toxic to the:
The venom of a brown recluse spider is cytotoxic, meaning that it:
causes severe local tissue damage.
The vocal cords are located in the:
To ensure that the airway of an infant or small child is correctly positioned, you may have to:
place a towel or folded sheet behind the shoulders.
To ensure that you will deliver the appropriate number of chest compressions during one-rescuer adult CPR, you should compress the patient's chest at a rate of about _______ per minute.
To minimize distractions and confusion when assessing an older patient, you should:
have only one EMT speak to the patient at a time.
To minimize the risk of injuring yourself when lifting or moving a patient, you should:
keep the weight as close to your body as possible.
To minimize the risk of litigation, the EMT should always:
provide competent care that meets current standards.
To which of the following diabetic patients should you administer oral glucose?
a confused 55-year-old male with tachycardia and pallor
Together, the right and left lungs contain how many lobes?
Trench collapses usually involve large areas of falling dirt that weigh approximately _______ per cubic foot.
Two EMTs witnessed a call in which a coworker gave adequate medical care but ignored the patient's emotional needs. The coworker was deliberately rude solely because the patient was thought to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The EMTs ignored the coworker's treatment of this patient and took no steps to prevent this behavior from happening again. This lack of action on the part of the two EMTs is considered:
legal but unethical.
Two of the MOST common mechanisms of injury for blunt trauma are:
falls and motor vehicle collisions.
Two thirds of children born with Down syndrome have:
congenital heart disease.
Two-way communication that requires the EMT to "push to talk" and "release to listen" describes what mode of communication?
Type 1 diabetes:
is a condition in which no insulin is produced by the body.
Typical chief complaints in patients with an infectious disease include:
fever, rash, nausea, and difficulty breathing.
Typically medivac helicopters fly between:
130 and 150 mph.
Unlike bacterial agents, viral agents:
are usually not treatable.
Upon arriving at the scene of a law enforcement tactical situation, you should ensure your own safety and then:
report to the incident commander for instructions.
Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you can see three patients, one who is entrapped in his car and two who have been ejected from their vehicle. You should:
immediately request additional resources.
Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you find a single patient still seated in his car. There are no scene hazards. As you approach the vehicle, you note that the patient is semiconscious and has a large laceration to his forehead. You should:
direct your partner to apply manual in-line support of the patient's head.
Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you note that two small cars collided head-on; the occupants are still in their vehicles. The fire department is in the process of stabilizing the vehicles and law enforcement personnel are directing traffic. After parking the ambulance at a safe distance, you and your partner should:
put on high-visibility safety vests.
Upon arriving at the scene of a possible hazardous materials (HazMat) incident involving several patients, you should:
carefully assess the situation.
Upon delivery of an infant's head, you note that the umbilical cord is wrapped around its neck. You should:
attempt to slip the cord gently over the infant's head.
Upon initial contact with a patient who appears to be unconscious, you should:
attempt to elicit a verbal response by talking to the patient.
Upon returning to your station following a run, you should disinfect the ambulance as needed. Disinfection is MOST accurately defined as:
killing pathogenic agents with a chemical made for that purpose.
Urticaria is the medical term for:
Use of a nonrebreathing mask or nasal cannula in a child is appropriate ONLY if:
his or her tidal volume is adequate.
Vagal nerve stimulators may be an alternative treatment to medication for patients with:
chronic seizure disorders.
Vector-borne transmission of an infectious organism occurs via:
animals or insects.
Ventricular tachycardia causes hypotension because:
the left ventricle does not adequately fill with blood.
Very young children tend to breathe predominantly with their diaphragm because:
their intercostal muscles are not fully developed.
Vigorous suctioning of a newborn's airway is indicated if:
there is meconium in the amniotic fluid.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF), such as Ebola, cause the blood to:
seep out of the blood vessels and tissues.
Weakening of the airway in patients with chronic bronchitis is the result of:
destruction of protective mechanisms that remove foreign particles.
What Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score would you assign to a patient who responds to painful stimuli, uses inappropriate words, and maintains his or her arms in a flexed position?
What happens when blood volume is lost from the body?
The arteries contract to increase the blood pressure.
What is the MOST common cause of airway obstruction in an unconscious patient?
What is the approximate blood volume of a 75-kg adult?
What is the correct ratio of compressions to ventilations when performing two-rescuer child CPR?
What is the function of platelets?
initial formation of a blood clot
What is the function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
allows movement of the head
What is the minimum number of chest compressions that should be delivered per minute to a 4-month-old infant?
What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min?
What layer of the skin forms a watertight, protective seal for the body?
What medication form does oral glucose come in?
What part of the nervous system controls the body's voluntary activities?
What part of the patient assessment process focuses on obtaining additional information about the patient's chief complaint and any medical problems he or she may have?
What percentage of exhaled oxygen is delivered during mouth-to-mask breathing without supplemental oxygen?
What section of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) MOST affects EMS personnel?
protecting patient privacy
What type of communications equipment functions as a radio receiver and searches across several frequencies?
What type of medical direction do standing orders and protocols describe?
What type of stress reaction occurs when an EMT is exposed to many insignificant stressors over a period of several months or years?
cumulative stress reaction
What types of motor vehicle collisions present the greatest potential for multiple impacts?
rotational and rollover
When a driver is in a car equipped with an air bag, but is not wearing a seatbelt, he or she will MOST likely strike the __________ when the air bag deploys upon impact.
When a female has reached menarche:
she is capable of becoming pregnant.
When a hollow organ is punctured during a penetrating injury to the abdomen:
peritonitis may not develop for several hours.
When a light is shone into the pupil:
it should become smaller in size.
When a motor vehicle strikes a tree while traveling at 40 mph, the unrestrained occupant:
remains in motion until acted upon by an external force.
When a patient experiences a severe spinal injury, he or she:
may lose sensation below the level of the injury.
When a person is exposed to a cold environment:
peripheral vessels constrict and divert blood away from the skin.
When a person is lying supine at the end of exhalation, the diaphragm:
may rise as high as the nipple line.
When a person is standing upright, the weight of anything being lifted and carried in the hands is FIRST reflected onto the:
When a rehabilitation area is established at the scene of a mass-casualty incident, it should:
be in a location that prevents visualization of the scene itself.
When a woman presents with abdominal pain or other vague symptoms, the EMT is often unable to determine the nature of the problem until he or she:
has gathered patient history information.
When administering epinephrine via auto-injector, you should hold the injector in place for:
When administering supplemental oxygen to a hypoxemic patient with a chronic lung disease, you should:
adjust the flow rate accordingly until you see symptom improvement, but be prepared to assist his or her ventilations.
When afterload increases:
it becomes harder for the ventricle to push blood through the blood vessels.
When an electrical impulse reaches the AV node, it is slowed for a brief period of time so that:
blood can pass from the atria to the ventricles.
When approaching a helicopter, whether the rotor blades are moving or not, you should:
never duck under the body or the tail boom because the pilot cannot see you in these areas.
When arriving at the scene of an overturned tractor-trailer rig, you note that a green cloud is being emitted from the crashed vehicle. The driver is still in the truck; he is conscious but bleeding profusely from the head. After notifying the hazardous materials team, you should:
position the ambulance upwind.
When assessing a patient who experienced a blast injury, it is important to remember that:
primary blast injuries are the most easily overlooked.
When assessing a patient who is displaying bizarre behavior, the EMT should:
consider that an acute medical illness may be causing the patient's behavior.
When assessing a patient with a behavioral crisis, you should:
be direct and clearly state your intentions.
When assessing a patient with a closed soft-tissue injury, it is MOST important to:
remain alert for more severe underlying injuries.
When assessing a patient with a hemothorax, you will MOST likely find:
signs and symptoms of shock.
When assessing a patient with a medical complaint, which of the following would MOST likely reveal the cause of his or her problem?
When assessing a patient with a possible fracture of the leg, the EMT should:
compare it to the uninjured leg.
When assessing a patient with abdominal pain, you should:
palpate the abdomen in a clockwise direction beginning with the quadrant after the one the patient indicates is painful.
When assessing a patient with signs and symptoms of shock, it is MOST important to remember that:
blood pressure may be the last measurable factor to change in shock.
When assessing an 8-year-old child, you should:
talk to the child, not just the caregiver.
When assessing an elderly male who complains of nausea and generalized weakness, you find that he takes simvastatin (Vytorin) and clopidogrel (Plavix). This medication regimen suggests a history of:
When assessing an elderly patient who fell, it is important to remember that:
osteoporosis can cause a fracture that may have resulted in the fall.
When assessing an infant's ventilation status, you should:
palpate the abdomen for rise and fall.
When assessing an unconscious diabetic patient, the primary visible difference between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is the:
rate and depth of breathing.
When assessing for fluid collection in the lungs during auscultation of lung sounds, you should:
start at the lower lung fields and determine at which level you start hearing clear breath sounds.
When assessing motor function in a conscious patient's lower extremities, you should expect the patient to:
wiggle his or her toes on command.
When assessing the interior of a crashed motor vehicle for damage, you are gathering information regarding the:
mechanism of injury.
When assessing the pulse of an unresponsive infant, you should palpate the ________ artery.
When auscultating the lungs of a patient with respiratory distress, you hear adventitious sounds. This means that the patient has:
abnormal breath sounds.
When caring for a 65-year-old male with respiratory distress, you place him in a comfortable position but do not apply oxygen. The patient's condition continues to deteriorate and he develops cardiac arrest and dies at the hospital. This scenario is an example of:
When caring for a female patient who has been sexually assaulted, you should:
place any bloodstained clothing or other articles in separate paper bags.
When caring for a known alcoholic patient with severe trauma to the chest and abdomen, you should be concerned that:
internal bleeding may be profuse because prolonged alcohol use may impair the blood's ability to clot.
When caring for a patient whose arm is covered with a dry chemical, you should:
brush away the chemical before flushing with water.
When caring for a patient with a possible head injury, it is MOST important to monitor the patient's:
level of consciousness.
When caring for a patient with an altered mental status and signs of circulatory compromise, you should:
limit your time at the scene to 10 minutes or less, if possible.
When caring for a patient with an open facial injury, the EMT must:
wear gloves and facial protection.
When caring for a patient with documented hypoglycemia, you should be MOST alert for:
When caring for a woman who is experiencing a gynecologic emergency, the EMT's main focus should be to:
maintain her ABCs and transport without delay.
When caring for an occupant inside a motor vehicle equipped with an air bag that did not deploy upon impact, it is MOST important to:
remember that it could still deploy and seriously injure you.
When caring for the parents of a child who has died of leukemia, the EMT should:
acknowledge the death of their child in private.
When carrying a patient on a backboard up or down stairs:
keep the head end elevated.
When communicating with a visually impaired patient, you should:
determine the degree of the patient's impairment.
When communicating with an older patient, it is important to remember that:
age-related changes diminish the effectiveness of the eyes and ears.
When communicating with an older patient, it is important to remember that:
most older people think clearly and are capable of answering questions.
When controlling bleeding from a scalp laceration with a suspected underlying skull fracture, you should:
avoid excessive pressure when applying the bandage.
When determining the exact location and position of the patient(s) in a wrecked vehicle, you and your team should routinely consider all of the following, EXCEPT:
the make and model of the vehicle.
When documenting a call in which a female was sexually assaulted, you should:
keep the report concise and record only what the patient stated in her own words.
When documenting a call involving a female patient who was sexually assaulted, the EMT should:
avoid speculation and document only factual data.
When documenting a case of suspected elder abuse, it is MOST important for the EMT to:
avoid documenting any unsupported opinions.
When documenting a patient's description of his or her chest pain or discomfort, the EMT should:
use the patient's own words.
When driving an ambulance on a multilane highway in emergency mode, you should:
remain in the extreme left-hand lane.
When enlisting the help of an interpreter who signs, it is important for you to ask the interpreter to:
report exactly what the patient signs and not to add any commentary.
When evaluating a patient with multiple complaints, the EMT's responsibility is to:
determine which complaint poses the greatest threat to the patient's life.
When evaluating the mechanism of injury of a car versus pedestrian collision, you should first:
approximate the speed of the vehicle that struck the pedestrian.
When faced with a situation in which an older patient with a terminal illness is in cardiac arrest, but written documentation regarding the patient's wishes cannot be located, the EMT should:
attempt to resuscitate the patient.
When forming your general impression of a patient with a medical complaint, it is important to remember that:
the conditions of many medical patients may not appear serious at first.
When functioning at the scene of a motor vehicle crash in which a patient will require complex extrication, you should enter the vehicle and provide care to the patient:
after receiving approval from the extrication officer.
When gathering a patient's medications, you find the following: Isordil, Lasix, Motrin, and Digoxin. Which of these medications can be obtained over-the-counter (OTC)?
When immobilizing a patient on a long backboard, you should:
ensure that you secure the torso before securing the head.
When immobilizing a patient with a kyphotic spine to a long backboard, the EMT would MOST likely have to:
place blankets behind the patient's head.
When immobilizing a seated patient with a short backboard or vest-style immobilization device, you should apply a cervical collar:
after assessing distal neurovascular functions.
When immobilizing a trauma patient's spine, the EMT manually stabilizing the head should not let go until:
the patient has been completely secured to the backboard.
When immobilizing an injured child in a pediatric immobilization device, you should:
secure the torso before the head.
When interacting with a developmentally disabled patient, the best approach is to:
ask your team members to wait until you can establish a rapport with the patient.
When introduced into the body, ricin causes:
pulmonary edema and circulatory failure.
When moving a conscious, weak patient down a flight of stairs, you should:
place the wheeled stretcher at the bottom of the stairs and carry the patient down the stairs with a stair chair.
When obtaining medical history information from the family of a suspected stroke patient, it is MOST important to determine:
when the patient last appeared normal.
When opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal injury, you should use the:
When palpating a patient's pulse, you note that there is a short interval between pulsations. This indicates that the pulse is:
When parking your ambulance at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you should position the ambulance:
100' past the scene on the same side of the road.
When performing CPR on a child, you should compress the chest:
with one or two hands.
When performing a secondary assessment on a conscious patient with nontraumatic abdominal pain and stable vital signs, you should:
focus on his or her chief complaint.
When performing his or her duties, the EMT is generally expected to:
exercise reasonable care and act prudently.
When performing your secondary assessment on an older patient who has been injured, it is important to:
recall that it will take a less severe mechanism of injury to cause significant injuries.
When perfusion to the core of the body decreases:
blood is shunted away from the skin.
When placing a patient onto a long backboard, the EMT at the patient's _________ is in charge of all patient movements.
When providing a patient report via radio, you should protect the patient's privacy by:
not disclosing his or her name.
When pulling a patient, you should extend your arms no more than ________ in front of your torso.
15? to 20?
When relaying patient information via radio, communications should be:
brief and easily understood.
When splinting a possible fracture of the foot, it is MOST important for the EMT to:
leave the toes exposed.
When splinting an injury of the wrist, the hand should be placed:
in a functional position.
When the body senses a state of hypoperfusion, the sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine, the effects of which include:
When the mother is experiencing a contraction, you should instruct her to:
take quick short breaths.
When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated:
the heart rate decreases and the blood vessels dilate.
When the shoulder girdle is aligned over the pelvis during lifting:
the weight is exerted straight down the vertebrae.
When the speed of a motor vehicle doubles, the amount of kinetic energy:
When transporting a patient with a facial injury, it is MOST important to be as descriptive as possible with the hospital regarding the patient's injuries because:
a specialist may need to be called.
When transporting a stable stroke patient with unilateral paralysis, it is best to place the patient in a:
recumbent position with the paralyzed side down.
When treating a patient who experienced a pulmonary blast injury, you should:
avoid giving oxygen under positive pressure.
When treating an 80-year-old patient who is in shock, it is important to remember that:
changes in gastric motility may delay gastric emptying, which increases the risk for vomiting.
When using a stick and square knot as a tourniquet to control severe bleeding from an amputated arm, the EMT should:
stop twisting the stick when the bleeding stops.
When using an auto-injector to give epinephrine, the primary injection site is the:
lateral portion of the thigh.
When ventilating a pediatric patient with a bag-mask device, the EMT should:
block the pop-off valve if needed to achieve adequate chest rise.
When ventilating an apneic adult with a simple barrier device, you should deliver each breath:
while watching for adequate chest rise.
When worn properly, a seatbelt should lie:
below the anterior superior iliac spines of the pelvis and against the hip joints.
When you and your partner arrive at the residence of a man in cardiac arrest, you immediately recognize the patient as the drunk driver who killed your brother several years earlier. A backup ambulance is en route to the scene. You should:
begin two-rescuer CPR and apply the automated external defibrillator (AED) as soon as possible.
When you shine a light into one pupil, the normal reaction of the other pupil should be to:
When you use the palpation method to obtain a blood pressure, the measurement you obtain is the:
systolic blood pressure.
Whenever possible, a female sexual assault victim should be:
given the option of being treated by a female EMT.
Where would you MOST likely find information regarding a patient's wishes to be an organ donor?
Whether you are using a commercial device or a stick and triangular bandage as a tourniquet, it is important to remember that:
the tourniquet should only be removed at the hospital because bleeding may return if the tourniquet is released.
Which of the following MOST accurately defines an allergic reaction?
an exaggerated immune system response to any substance
Which of the following MOST accurately describes a mass-casualty incident?
an incident that greatly taxes or depletes a system's available resources
Which of the following MOST accurately describes a simple partial seizure?
a seizure that begins in one extremity
Which of the following MOST accurately describes paradoxical movement of the chest wall?
only one section of the chest rises on inspiration while another area falls
Which of the following MOST accurately describes septic shock?
bacterial damage to the vessel wall, leaking blood vessels, and vasodilation
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the cause of an ischemic stroke?
blockage of a cerebral artery
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the correct position of the EMTs who are executing the diamond carry technique?
one at the head, one at the feet, and one on each side of the patient's torso
Which of the following MOST accurately describes what the patient will experience during the postictal state that follows a seizure?
confusion and fatigue
Which of the following are central pulses?
femoral and carotid
Which of the following are noticeable characteristics of a 9-month-old infant?
places objects in the mouth, pulls himself or herself up
Which of the following areas of the body has the thinnest skin?
Which of the following arteries does NOT carry highly oxygenated blood?
Which of the following assessment findings is MOST indicative of a cardiovascular problem?
jugular venous distention
Which of the following body systems or components is the LEAST critical for supplying and maintaining adequate blood flow to the body?
the filtering of blood cells in the spleen
Which of the following chemicals is a nerve agent?
Which of the following clinical presentations is MOST consistent with PID?
lower abdominal pain, fever, general malaise, and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
Which of the following clinical signs is unique to anaphylactic shock?
Which of the following components are needed to prove negligence?
duty to act, breach of duty, injury/damages, and causation
Which of the following conditions does NOT typically present with vaginal discharge?
Which of the following conditions is NOT a common cause of seizures?
Which of the following conditions is NOT categorized as a psychiatric condition?
Which of the following conditions is the diabetic patient at an increased risk of developing?
Which of the following conditions often requires transport to a hospital with specialized capabilities that may not be available at the closest hospital?
stroke and heart attack
Which of the following conditions or factors would be the LEAST likely to result in a change in behavior?
Which of the following conditions would LEAST likely result in hypoxia?
Which of the following conditions would MOST likely cause a patient to slur words, speak very slowly, or speak in a monotone?
Which of the following conditions would MOST likely lead to PID if left untreated?
Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely to increase a person's risk of hypothermia?
Which of the following does NOT usually contribute to or cause obesity?
Which of the following drugs is NOT a sedative-hypnotic?
Which of the following duties or responsibilities does NOT fall within the realm of the medical branch of the ICS?
Which of the following errors is an example of a knowledge-based failure?
An EMT administers the wrong drug to a patient because she did not know the pertinent information about the drug.
Which of the following factors is NOT taken into consideration when assessing a person's potential for violence?
large physical size
Which of the following factors will cause a decreased minute volume in an adult?
Which of the following factors would MOST likely cause a patient's pulse rate to be slower than normal?
Which of the following findings would be LEAST suggestive of a head injury?
briskly constricting pupils when exposed to light
Which of the following findings would be LEAST suggestive of the presence of high-energy trauma?
deployment of the air bag
Which of the following groups of people is associated with the lowest risk of meningitis?
Which of the following has the weakest transmission signal and, as a result, is LEAST likely to be heard by the party being called?
hand-held portable radio
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely cause obstructive shock?
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely occur as a direct result of the third collision in a motor vehicle crash?
Which of the following inquiries should you make in private when obtaining a SAMPLE history from an adolescent patient?
Which of the following interventions is the MOST critical to the outcome of a patient with multisystem trauma?
rapid transport to a trauma center
Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing?
24 breaths/min with bilaterally equal breath sounds and pink skin
Which of the following is NOT a BLS intervention?
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of epinephrine?
decreases heart rate and blood pressure
Which of the following is NOT a common factor that would affect a 75-year-old patient's vital signs?
Which of the following is NOT a common sign or symptom associated with malfunction of an implanted cardiac pacemaker?
a rapid heart rate
Which of the following is NOT a factor in determining how to protect oneself against the effects of radiation?
Which of the following is NOT a known risk factor of SIDS?
putting a baby to sleep on his or her back
Which of the following is NOT generally considered an obstetrical emergency?
return of contractions following delivery of the baby
Which of the following is a late sign of hypoxia?
Which of the following is a metabolic cause of a seizure?
Which of the following is a normal physiologic change that occurs in the mother's respiratory system during pregnancy?
increased respiratory rate and decreased respiratory reserve
Which of the following is a severe burn in a 2-year-old child?
any full-thickness burn, regardless of its location on the body
Which of the following is a severe burn in a 65-year-old patient?
partial-thickness burn to 20% of the BSA
Which of the following is a typical function of the rescue team?
providing safe entry and access to patients
Which of the following is a unique function of the emergency medical dispatcher (EMD)?
providing callers with life-saving instructions
Which of the following is an example of a brand (trade) name of a drug?
Which of the following is an example of a drug's generic name?
Which of the following is an example of a functional behavioral disorder?
Which of the following is an example of a primary prevention strategy?
community awareness programs that emphasize the dangers of drinking and driving
Which of the following is characteristic of peptic ulcer disease (PUD)?
burning or pain in the stomach that subsides immediately after eating
Which of the following is considered an obvious sign of death and would not require the initiation of CPR?
dependent blood pooling
Which of the following is of LEAST importance when initially assessing the severity of a burn?
known drug allergies
Which of the following is the BEST example of gaining simple access to a patient?
entering a vehicle through an open window
Which of the following is the MOST accurate guide to palpating a pulse?
Place the tips of your index and long fingers over the pulse point.
Which of the following is the MOST effective strategy for managing stress?
Focus on delivering high-quality patient care.
Which of the following is the MOST reliable indicator of adequately performed bag-mask ventilations in an apneic adult with a pulse?
adequate rise of the chest when squeezing the bag
Which of the following is the MOST significant factor in determining if a person will become ill from certain germs?
Which of the following items would MOST likely require special protocols in order to be carried on the ambulance?
Which of the following maneuvers should be used to open a patient's airway when a spinal injury is suspected?
Which of the following medication routes delivers a drug through the skin over an extended period of time, such as a nitroglycerin or nicotine patch?
Which of the following medications blocks the release of histamines?
Which of the following medications is NOT used to treat patients with a history of seizures?
Which of the following medications would the EMT LEAST likely administer to a patient with a medical complaint?
Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would MOST likely result in deformity?
Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the greatest threat to a patient's life?
pelvic fracture with hypotension
Which of the following negative effects of anaphylaxis will be the MOST rapidly fatal if not treated immediately?
upper airway swelling
Which of the following nerves allow sensory and motor impulses to be sent from one nerve directly to another?
Which of the following nerves carry information from the body to the brain via the spinal cord?
Which of the following observations or statements represents the "E" in the GEMS diamond?
The patient's residence is cold due to a malfunctioning heater.
Which of the following open soft-tissue injuries is limited to the superficial layer of the skin and results in the least amount of blood loss?
Which of the following organs assists in the filtration of blood, serves as a blood reservoir, and produces antibodies?
Which of the following organs is at MOST risk for injury as the result of a pelvic fracture?
Which of the following organs lies in the retroperitoneal space?
Which of the following organs lies in the retroperitoneal space?
Which of the following organs or structures does NOT reside within the mediastinum?
Which of the following organs would MOST likely bleed profusely when injured?
Which of the following patients has experienced the MOST significant fall?
a 4'6? patient who fell 13'
Which of the following patients is at highest risk for a pulmonary embolism?
71-year-old male with recent surgery to a lower extremity
Which of the following patients is breathing adequately?
a conscious male with respirations of 19 breaths/min and pink skin
Which of the following patients should you place in the recovery position?
a 31-year-old semiconscious male with low blood sugar and adequate breathing
Which of the following patients would MOST likely demonstrate typical signs of infection, such as a fever?
a 17-year-old male with depression and anxiety
Which of the following patients would MOST likely have a delayed onset of an allergic reaction?
a 45-year-old male who ingested penicillin
Which of the following physiologic actions does epinephrine produce when given for an allergic reaction?
vasoconstriction and bronchodilation
Which of the following processes occurs during ovulation?
The inner lining of the uterus thickens in preparation for implantation.
Which of the following processes occurs during the inflammation phase of the healing process?
The immune system releases histamines, which cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, resulting in local redness and swelling.
Which of the following questions is used to determine a patient's chief complaint?
"What seems to be the matter?"
Which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence during the initial questioning of a patient who ingested a substance?
Why was the substance ingested?
Which of the following represents a low normal systolic blood pressure for a 6-year-old child?
82 mm Hg
Which of the following represents the MOST appropriate method of assisting a patient with his or her prescribed nitroglycerin tablet or spray?
Administer the medication sublingually and allow it to dissolve or absorb.
Which of the following scenarios MOST accurately depicts a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reaction?
An EMT becomes distracted at the scene of a motor vehicle crash involving the same type of car in which a child was previously killed.
Which of the following scenarios is an example of a direct injury?
A passenger fractures her patella after it strikes the dashboard.
Which of the following signs is commonly observed in patients with right-sided heart failure?
Which of the following signs of respiratory distress is seen MOST commonly in pediatric patients?
Which of the following signs or symptoms would you NOT expect to encounter in a patient with congestive heart failure?
hypotension and flat jugular veins
Which of the following situations requires you to notify the appropriate authorities?
Which of the following situations would require an urgent patient move?
semiconscious patient with shallow respirations and signs of shock
Which of the following skills or interventions is included at every level of prehospital emergency training?
Which of the following skull fractures would be the LEAST likely to present with palpable deformity or other outward signs?
Which of the following sounds indicates swelling of the upper airway?
Which of the following splinting devices would be MOST appropriate to use for a patient who has an open fracture of the forearm with external bleeding?
Which of the following statements is NOT appropriate to document in the narrative section of a PCR?
"General impression revealed that the patient was intoxicated."
Which of the following statements regarding a "dedicated line" is MOST correct?
It is a constantly open line of communication that cannot be accessed by outside users.
Which of the following statements regarding a breech presentation is MOST correct?
A breech presentation occurs when the buttocks are the presenting part.
Which of the following statements regarding a patient refusal is MOST correct?
A mentally competent adult has the legal right to refuse EMS care and transport.
Which of the following statements regarding a pediatric patient's anatomy is correct?
Children have a larger, rounder occiput compared to adults.
Which of the following statements regarding abdominal eviscerations is correct?
The protruding organs should be kept warm and moist.
Which of the following statements regarding abdominal trauma is correct?
The absence of abdominal pain does not rule out intra-abdominal bleeding.
Which of the following statements regarding age-related changes in the nervous system is correct?
Interconnections between brain cells often prevent a loss of knowledge or skill, despite a loss of neurons.
Which of the following statements regarding anaphylactic shock is MOST correct?
Each subsequent exposure following sensitization often produces a more severe reaction.
Which of the following statements regarding anaphylaxis is correct?
Anaphylaxis is characterized by airway swelling and hypotension.
Which of the following statements regarding anterior nosebleeds is correct?
They usually originate from the septum area and bleed slowly.
Which of the following statements regarding anthrax is correct?
Pulmonary anthrax is the most deadly form.
Which of the following statements regarding blast injuries is correct?
Solid organs are relatively protected from shock wave injury but may be injured during the secondary or tertiary blast phase.
Which of the following statements regarding breathing adequacy is correct?
Patients breathing shallowly may require assisted ventilation despite a normal respiratory rate.
Which of the following statements regarding cerebral palsy is correct?
Conditions such as brain injury at birth, postpartum infections, and fetal hypoxia can cause cerebral palsy.
Which of the following statements regarding cervical collars is correct?
A cervical collar is used in addition to, not instead of, manual immobilization.
Which of the following statements regarding communication with a child is MOST correct?
Standing over a child often increases his or her level of anxiety.
Which of the following statements regarding communications at a disaster or mass-casualty incident is correct?
If possible, use face-to-face communications to minimize radio traffic.
Which of the following statements regarding crush syndrome is correct?
Compromised arterial blood flow leads to crush syndrome and can occur when an area of the body is trapped for longer than 4 hours.
Which of the following statements regarding dialysis is correct?
Patients who miss a dialysis treatment often present with weakness.
Which of the following statements regarding gastrointestinal bleeding is correct?
Bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract is a symptom of another disease, not a disease itself.
Which of the following statements regarding gestational diabetes is correct?
In some cases, women with gestational diabetes require insulin injections.
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?
Glucose is a simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream.
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?
The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen.
Which of the following statements regarding gonorrhea is correct?
Painful urination is a common symptom of gonorrhea in men and women.
Which of the following statements regarding gunshot wounds is correct?
The speed of a bullet has the greatest impact on producing injury.
Which of the following statements regarding hearing aids is correct?
Hearing aids cannot restore hearing to normal levels.
Which of the following statements regarding hemophilia is correct?
Patients with hemophilia may bleed spontaneously.
Which of the following statements regarding hepatitis A is correct?
Hepatitis A can only be transmitted by a patient who has an acute infection.
Which of the following statements regarding inhaled poisons is correct?
Lung damage may progress after the patient is removed from the environment.
Which of the following statements regarding low-energy penetrating injuries is correct?
The area of injury is usually close to the path the object took through the body.
Which of the following statements regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is correct?
MRSA is a bacterium that causes infections and is resistant to most antibiotics.
Which of the following statements regarding middle adults is correct?
Cardiovascular health becomes an issue in this age group, as does the greater incidence of cancer.
Which of the following statements regarding motor nerves is correct?
They carry information from the CNS to the muscles.
Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries.
Which of the following statements regarding oxygenation and ventilation is correct?
In mines or confined places, where oxygen levels are low, ventilation may continue despite inadequate oxygenation.
Which of the following statements regarding patient weight distribution is correct?
The majority of a horizontal patient's weight is in the torso.
Which of the following statements regarding pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is correct?
PID can scar the fallopian tubes, which increases the risk of an ectopic pregnancy.
Which of the following statements regarding psychosocial development in the adolescent age group is correct?
Antisocial behavior and peer pressure peak around 14 to 16 years of age.
Which of the following statements regarding pulse oximetry is correct?
Pulse oximetry measures the percentage of hemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen, but does not measure the actual hemoglobin content of the blood.
Which of the following statements regarding rape is correct?
Rape is a legal diagnosis, not a medical diagnosis.
Which of the following statements regarding secondary brain injury is correct?
Hypoxia and hypotension are the two most common causes of secondary brain injury.
Which of the following statements regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is correct?
SARS is a viral infection that often begins with flulike symptoms.
Which of the following statements regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is correct?
SARS is caused by a virus and usually starts with flulike symptoms that deteriorate to pneumonia and respiratory failure.
Which of the following statements regarding sickle cell disease is correct?
In sickle cell disease, the red blood cells are abnormally shaped and are less able to carry oxygen.
Which of the following statements regarding smooth muscle is correct?
A person has no voluntary control over smooth muscle.
Which of the following statements regarding standing orders is MOST correct?
Standing orders should be followed when physician contact is not possible.
Which of the following statements regarding storage containers and hazardous materials is correct?
In most cases, there is no correlation between the color of the container and the possible contents.
Which of the following statements regarding sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is correct?
Most cases of SIDS occur in infants younger than 6 months.
Which of the following statements regarding the AED and defibrillation is correct?
The AED will not analyze the rhythm of a moving patient.
Which of the following statements regarding the EMS medical director and an EMT's scope of practice is correct?
An EMT's scope of practice may be expanded by the medical director after proper training and state approval.
Which of the following statements regarding the Good Samaritan law is correct?
It will not protect the EMT in cases of gross negligence.
Which of the following statements regarding the H1N1 virus is correct?
It is only one type of influenza among the many other strains of influenza that exist and infect humans.
Which of the following statements regarding the NREMT is correct?
The NREMT provides a national standard for EMS testing.
Which of the following statements regarding the Salmonella bacterium is correct?
The Salmonella bacterium itself causes food poisoning.
Which of the following statements regarding the blood pressure is correct?
Blood pressure is usually not measured in children younger than 3 years of age.
Which of the following statements regarding the clotting of blood is correct?
A person taking aspirin will experience slower blood clotting.
Which of the following statements regarding the epinephrine auto-injector is correct?
The epinephrine auto-injector delivers a preset amount of the drug.
Which of the following statements regarding the hepatitis B vaccine is correct?
OSHA requires that your employer offer you the vaccine free of charge.
Which of the following statements regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is correct?
The risk of HIV infection is greatest when deposited on a mucous membrane or directly into the bloodstream.
Which of the following statements regarding the hypoxic drive is MOST correct?
The hypoxic drive stimulates a person to breathe on the basis of low oxygen levels.
Which of the following statements regarding the kidneys is correct?
The kidneys eliminate toxic waste products from the body and control its balance of water and salt.
Which of the following statements regarding the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is correct?
An MDI delivers the same amount of medication every time it is used.
Which of the following statements regarding the one-person bag-mask device technique is correct?
Adequate tidal volume is often difficult to achieve when one EMT is operating the bag-mask device.
Which of the following statements regarding the pain associated with AMI is correct?
It can occur during exertion or when the patient is at rest.
Which of the following statements regarding the physical examination of a patient with a behavioral problem is correct?
A physical examination for a behavioral problem may be difficult to perform but may provide clues to the patient's state of mind and thought processes.
Which of the following statements regarding the power lift is correct?
It is the safest and most powerful method of lifting a patient.
Which of the following statements regarding the rule of nines is correct?
The anterior trunk of an adult is equal to 18% of the BSA.
Which of the following statements regarding the scoop stretcher is NOT correct?
A scoop stretcher will provide adequate immobilization of a patient's spinal column.
Which of the following statements regarding the unified command system is correct?
Under the unified command system, plans are drawn up in advance by all cooperating agencies that assume a shared responsibility for decision making.
Which of the following statements regarding the use of the AED in children is MOST correct?
AED use in children between 1 and 8 years of age involves pediatric pads and an energy reducer.
Which of the following statements regarding the use of the warning lights and siren on the ambulance is correct?
If it is necessary to use the siren, you should tell the patient beforehand.
Which of the following statements regarding the vitreous humor is correct?
It is a clear, jellylike fluid near the back of the eye that cannot be replaced if it is lost.
Which of the following statements regarding toddlers and preschoolers is correct?
Toddlers and preschoolers commonly experience upper respiratory infections because of a loss of passive immunity.
Which of the following statements regarding trench rescue is correct?
Ground vibration is a primary cause of secondary collapse.
Which of the following structures does NOT contain smooth muscle?
Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway?
Which of the following structures is contained within the mediastinum?
Which of the following techniques should you use to dislodge a foreign body airway obstruction in a patient who is in an advanced stage of pregnancy or who is very obese?
Which of the following terrorist groups poses the LEAST threat to a person's physical safety?
Which of the following types of consent allows treatment of a patient who is unconscious or mentally incapacitated?
Which of the following types of muscle is under direct voluntary control of the brain?
Which of the following veins is located inferior to the trunk?
Which of the following will MOST reliably allow you to determine the nature of a patient's illness?
asking questions related to the chief complaint
Which of the following would MOST likely occur as the direct result of the second collision in a motor vehicle crash?
deformed steering wheel
Which of the following would MOST likely result in hemorrhagic shock?
Which of the following would be the LEAST likely to occur in a patient with a core body temperature of between 89°F (32°C) and 92°F (33°C)?
Which of the following would be the MOST practical method of communicating with a hearing-impaired patient until his or her hearing aids can be located?
using a piece of paper and writing utensil to ask questions
While assessing a 21-year-old female who struck a tree head-on with her small passenger car, you note that her air bag deployed. You should:
lift the air bag and look for deformity to the steering wheel.
While assessing a young male who was struck in the chest with a steel pipe, you note that his pulse is irregular. You should be MOST suspicious for:
bruising of the heart muscle.
While assisting a paramedic in the attempted resuscitation of a 55-year-old male in cardiac arrest, you should expect the paramedic to:
administer drugs via the IV route to achieve the fastest effect.
While assisting an advanced life support (ALS) ambulance crew, you are accidentally stuck with an IV needle. You should:
report the incident to your supervisor after the call.
While auscultating an elderly woman's breath sounds, you hear low-pitched "rattling" sounds at the bases of both of her lungs. With which of the following conditions is this finding MOST consistent?
While auscultating breath sounds of a patient who was stung multiple times by a yellow jacket, you hear bilateral wheezing over all lung fields. This indicates:
narrowing of the bronchioles in the lungs.
While eating dinner, your partner suddenly grabs his throat and has a panicked look on his face. He has a weak cough, faint inspiratory stridor, and cyanosis around the lips. You should:
stand behind him and administer abdominal thrusts.
While examining a woman in labor, you see the umbilical cord protruding from the vagina. You should:
push the infant's head away from the cord.
While jogging, a 19-year-old male experienced an acute onset of shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. He is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. Your assessment reveals that he has diminished breath sounds over the left side of the chest. You should:
administer oxygen and transport to the hospital.
While on duty, your partner asks you out on a date and touches you in an inappropriate location without your consent. You should:
tell your partner to stop and report the incident to your supervisor.
While transporting a stable patient with chest pain to the hospital, you come across a major motor vehicle crash involving several critically injured patients. Your MOST appropriate action should be to:
continue transporting your patient and notify the dispatcher of the crash.
While transporting a woman with diabetes, you inadvertently give her oral glucose even though her blood glucose level was high. You reassess the patient and note that her condition did not change; she remained stable. You should:
contact medical control and notify him or her of the error.
While using lights and siren, most state laws permit an ambulance to:
carefully exceed the posted speed limit.
Why are prehospital emergency care guidelines updated on a regular basis?
Additional information and evidence indicate that the effectiveness of certain interventions has changed.
Why do middle adults commonly experience financial concerns?
They are preparing for retirement but must still manage everyday financial demands.
Why does the incidence of diabetes mellitus increase with age?
decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased insulin production
With a good mask-to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to ______% inspired oxygen.
With regard to musculoskeletal injuries, the zone of injury is defined as the:
area of soft-tissue damage surrounding the injury.
With regard to the legal implications of child abuse:
EMTs must report all suspected cases of child abuse.
With regard to the pediatric rule of nines, the:
legs are proportionately smaller than an adult's.
With the flowmeter set at 6 L/min, the nasal cannula will deliver up to _______ oxygen.
Without adequate oxygen, the body's cells:
incompletely convert glucose into energy, and lactic acid accumulates in the blood.
You and your EMT partner arrive at the residence of a 50-year-old man who complains of weakness. Your primary assessment reveals that he is critically ill and will require aggressive treatment. The closest hospital is 25 miles away. You should:
manage all threats to airway, breathing, and circulation and consider requesting an ALS unit.
You and your paramedic partner are caring for a patient who ingested codeine, acetaminophen (Tylenol), and propoxyphene (Darvon). The patient is unresponsive, his breathing is slow and shallow, and his pulse is slow and weak. Treatment for this patient will include:
assisted ventilation, naloxone (Narcan), and rapid transport.
You and your partner are EMTs and have been dispatched to standby at the scene of a residential fire. While standing next to the ambulance observing the fire fighters, you see a woman frantically moving around in her burning house. You should:
immediately notify the incident commander or safety officer.
You and your partner are attempting to resuscitate a middle-aged female in cardiac arrest. Because of the remote location you are in, you are unable to contact medical control. What should you do?
Follow locally established protocols or standing orders.
You and your partner are caring for a critically injured patient. Your partner is controlling severe bleeding from the patient's lower extremities as you attempt ventilations with a bag-mask device. After repositioning the mask several times, you are unable to effectively ventilate the patient. You should:
begin ventilations using the mouth-to-mask technique.
You and your partner are dispatched to a residence for an "ill person." When you arrive, you find that the patient, a 44-year-old man, does not speak English. There are no relatives or bystanders present who can act as an interpreter. You should:
use short, simple questions and point to specific parts of your body to try to determine the source of the patient's complaint.
You and your partner are standing by at a large social event at a river resort when a frantic woman tells you that she found a young male floating face-down in the water. Nobody claims to have witnessed the event. After you and your partner enter the water and reach the patient, you should:
move him as a unit to a supine position.
You and your partner are standing by at the scene of a residential fire when you hear the incident commander state "We have located a victim" over the radio. You should:
remain with the ambulance and wait for fire personnel to bring the victim to you.
You and your partner arrive at the scene of a fire at a large office complex. Witnesses tell you that they heard a loud explosion shortly before the building caught fire. You should:
ensure that your ambulance is parked upwind and uphill from the building.
You and your partner arrive at the scene of a house fire where fire fighters have rescued a 50-year-old male from his burning house. The patient has superficial and partial-thickness burns to his face and chest. His nasal hairs are singed and he is coughing up sooty sputum. You should be MOST concerned with:
the potential for airway swelling.
You and your partner arrive at the scene of a middle-aged man who collapsed about 5 minutes ago. He is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. Bystanders are present, but have not provided any care. You should:
perform five cycles of high-quality CPR and then apply the AED.
You and your partner arrive at the side of a 60-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed about 7 minutes ago. She is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should:
perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for about 2 minutes and then apply the AED.
You and your partner respond to a park where several people were reportedly struck by lightning. When you arrive, you find three patients. The first patient is lying supine on the ground; he is unresponsive and does not appear to be breathing. The second patient is ambulatory, appears confused, and is holding his arm against his chest. The third patient is sitting on the ground holding the sides of his head. After calling for backup, you should:
open the unresponsive patient's airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver, assess his ABCs, and begin CPR and attach the AED as soon as possible.
You and your partner respond to the residence of a 66-year-old male with shortness of breath. As you are assessing the patient, his wife tells you that he was recently diagnosed with lung cancer. The patient is verbally abusive and tells you that failure of the health care system caused his disease. What stage of the grieving process is this patient's behavior consistent with?
You and your partner respond to the scene of a 49-year-old male with acute abdominal pain. As you enter his residence, you find him lying on the floor in severe pain. He is conscious and alert. The patient appears to weigh in excess of 350lb. Your FIRST action should be to:
request additional personnel before making any attempts to lift him.
You are assessing a 13-month-old female who is running a fever and has been vomiting. While you are performing your physical examination on this child, you will MOST likely find that she:
responds to her name but is fearful of your presence.
You are assessing a 30-year-old woman with multiple large bruises to her chest and abdomen that she experienced during an assault. She is conscious but restless, and her skin is cool and pale. You should be MOST concerned with:
the fact that her clinical signs could indicate that she is bleeding internally.
You are assessing a 440-lb man who complains of shortness of breath and lower back pain. The patient is conscious and alert, his blood pressure is 148/98 mm Hg, and his heart rate is 120 beats/min. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
avoid placing him in a supine position if possible and administer oxygen.
You are assessing a 45-year-old female who is severely depressed. She states that it seems as though her entire world is crashing down aroundShe further states that she has had frequent thoughts of suicide, but is not sure if she can actually go through with it. How should you manage this situation?
Ask the patient if she has developed a suicidal plan.
You are assessing a 49-year-old man who complains of chest pressure that began the night before. He is conscious, but anxious, and tells you he has a history of angina and hypertension. After applying high-flow oxygen, you expose his chest to auscultate his lungs and note that he has a nitroglycerin patch on his right upper chest. His skin is cool and pale, his blood pressure is 78/50 mm Hg, and his pulse is 110 beats/min and irregular. You should:
remove the nitroglycerin patch, place him in a supine position and elevate his lower extremities, and prepare for immediate transport.
You are assessing a 49-year-old man who, according to his wife, experienced a sudden, severe headache and then passed out. He is unresponsive and has slow, irregular breathing. His blood pressure is 190/94 mm Hg and his pulse rate is 50 beats/min. His wife tells you that he has hypertension and diabetes. He has MOST likely experienced:
a ruptured cerebral artery.
You are assessing a 59-year-old male and note that his pupils are unequal. He is conscious and alert. When obtaining his medical history, it is MOST pertinent to ask him if he:
has a history of eye surgeries.
You are assessing a 70-year-old female who complains of intense thirst, frequent urination, and dizziness. She has a history of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. Her blood glucose level is 450 mg/dL. She is conscious, but confused. Her blood pressure is 92/52 mm Hg, her pulse rate is 130 beats/min and weak, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min and shallow. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC).
You are assessing a 75-year-old woman with mild shortness of breath. As you are asking her questions regarding her chief complaint and medical history, you progressively move closer and closer to her. In doing this, it is important to remember that:
as you physically get closer to the patient, a greater and greater sense of trust must be established.
You are assessing a conscious 55-year-old male with a sudden change in behavior. Which of the following clinical findings would be MOST suggestive of dysfunction of this patient's central nervous system?
rapid eye movement
You are assessing a woman who was thrown from her horse. She is located in a large field and you can see that a thunderstorm is rapidly approaching. Suddenly, you feel your skin begin to tingle and the hair on your arms stands on end. The ambulance is located about 30 yards away. You should:
crouch down in a position so that only your feet are touching the ground.
You are assessing a young male who was stung on the leg by a scorpion. He is conscious and alert, his breathing is regular and unlabored, and his blood pressure is 122/64 mm Hg. Assessment of his leg reveals a wheal surrounded by an area of redness. He states that he had a "bad reaction" the last time he was stung by a scorpion, and carries his own epinephrine auto-injector. You should:
apply oxygen as needed, clean the area with soap and water or a mild antiseptic, and transport him to the hospital.
You are assisting an asthma patient with his prescribed metered-dose inhaler. After the patient takes a deep breath and depresses the inhaler, you should:
instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can.
You are attempting to gain access to a patient who was injured when his truck struck another vehicle from behind. The patient is conscious and alert, but is screaming in pain. You try to open the door, but it is locked. You should:
ask the patient if he can unlock the door.
You are caring for a 35-year-old female with pregnancy-related complications. She is clearly experiencing significant stress and is crying uncontrollably. Your MOST appropriate action would be to:
demonstrate courtesy and speak with a professional tone of voice.
You are caring for a 70-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an acute stroke. She is conscious, has secretions in her mouth, and is breathing at a normal rate with adequate depth. You should:
suction her oropharynx and apply 100% oxygen.
You are caring for a semiconscious man with left-sided paralysis. His airway is patent and his respirations are 14 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. Treatment for this patient should include:
oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask, left lateral recumbent position, and transport.
You are dispatched to a call for a 4-month-old infant with respiratory distress. While you prepare to take care of this child, you must remember that:
small infants are nose breathers and require clear nasal passages at all times.
You are dispatched to a convenience store, where the clerk sustained a laceration to the side of his neck during a robbery attempt. During your assessment, you note bright red blood spurting from the laceration. You should:
apply direct pressure above and below the wound.
You are dispatched to a local high school track and field event for a 16-year-old male who fainted. The outside temperature is approximately 95°F (35°C) with high humidity. Upon your arrival, the patient is conscious, alert, and complains of nausea and a headache. His skin is cool, clammy, and pale. You should:
move him into the cooled ambulance.
You are dispatched to a local nursery for a 39-year-old female who is sick. When you arrive, you find the patient lying on the floor. She is semiconscious, has copious amounts of saliva coming from her mouth, and is incontinent of urine. You quickly feel her pulse and note that it is very slow. Initial management for this patient should include:
assisted ventilation with a bag-mask device.
You are dispatched to a middle school for a 16-year-old female experiencing an asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in severe respiratory distress. The school nurse informs you that she has tried several times to contact the patient's parents but has not been successful. You should:
provide treatment up to your level of training and transport the child at once.
You are dispatched to a movie theater for a 39-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction. As you are assessing her, she pulls an epinephrine auto-injector out of her purse and hands it to you. After administering 100% oxygen, you should:
contact medical control.
You are dispatched to a residence for a 40-year-old female who complains of lower abdominal pain, fever and chills, and a foul-smelling vaginal discharge. Which of the following additional assessment findings would increase your index of suspicion for PID?
a shuffling gait when walking
You are dispatched to a residence for a 40-year-old female who fainted. Upon your arrival, the patient is conscious and alert, and states that she is fine. Her husband tells you that she fainted after receiving news that her sister was killed in a car crash. You offer oxygen to the patient, but she refuses to accept it. At this point, your primary concern should be to:
determine if she was injured when she fainted.
You are dispatched to a residence for a 56-year-old male with an altered mental status. Upon arrival at the scene, the patient's wife tells you that he complained of chest pain the day before, but would not allow her to call EMS. The patient is semiconscious; has rapid, shallow respirations; and has a thready pulse. You should:
begin ventilatory assistance.
You are dispatched to a residence for a 66-year-old male who, according to family members, has suffered a massive stroke. Your primary assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should:
initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and attach an automated external defibrillator (AED) as soon as possible.
You are dispatched to a residence for a 67-year-old female who was awakened by shortness of breath and sharp chest pain. Her husband tells you that she was recently discharged from the hospital after having hip surgery. Your assessment reveals dried blood around her mouth, facial cyanosis, and an oxygen saturation of 88%. This patient's presentation is MOST consistent with:
acute pulmonary embolism.
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18-month-old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry, and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:
administering blow-by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother.
You are dispatched to a residence for a patient with chest pain; however, you are unfamiliar with the address and cannot find the location in your map book. A nearby police officer radios you and tells you that he knows how to get to the scene. You should:
turn off your lights and carefully follow the police officer to the scene.
You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who is sick. The patient complains of a rash to her lower extremities and truncal area. Your assessment reveals a small, painful blister on her inner thigh. As your partner is taking the patient's vital signs, she states that she and her family returned from a camping trip two days ago. On the basis of this patient's presentation, you should suspect:
You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who was kicked in the abdomen by her boyfriend. While en route to the scene, you should ask the dispatcher if:
law enforcement is at the scene.
You are dispatched to a residence for an 80-year-old female who fell. When you arrive, you find the patient conscious, lying in a recumbent position on the floor in her living room. In addition to providing the appropriate treatment, you should ask the patient if:
she became dizzy or fainted before falling.
You are dispatched to a state park for a young female experiencing an allergic reaction. Your assessment reveals that her breathing is severely labored and her blood pressure is very low. You carry epinephrine auto-injectors on your ambulance and have been trained and approved by your medical director to administer them. As your partner gives the patient high-flow oxygen, you attempt to contact medical control but do not have a signal from your cell phone. You should:
administer epinephrine to the patient, begin immediate transport, and attempt to contact medical control en route to the hospital.
You are dispatched to an apartment complex for a shooting. Law enforcement personnel are present and have the suspect in custody. You find the patient lying in a narrow space between the couch and coffee table of his small apartment. He is semiconscious and has a large gunshot wound to his chest. You should:
quickly move the coffee table so you can access and treat the patient.
You are dispatched to an apartment complex for a young male with abdominal pain. Your priority upon arriving at the scene should be to:
assess the scene for potential hazards.
You are dispatched to an apartment complex where a 21-year-old female has apparently overdosed on several narcotic medications. She is semiconscious and has slow, shallow respirations. You should:
insert a nasopharyngeal airway and begin assisted ventilation.
You are dispatched to the scene of a building explosion. Upon arrival, you see people frantically fleeing the building, screaming, "Everyone is passing out!" You should:
carefully assess the situation and ensure your own safety.
You are dispatched to the scene of a crash involving a large tanker truck. While you are en route, dispatch advises you that there are multiple patients and that the fire department is en route as well. As you approach the scene, you should:
maintain a safe distance and try to read the placard with binoculars.
You are en route to an emergency call when you approach a slow-moving vehicle on a two-way road. You can see oncoming traffic in the other lane. The driver has his windows up and does not realize that you are behind him. You should:
remain at a safe distance until it is safe to pass.
You are interviewing a 52-year-old man who complains of chest discomfort. The patient is a retired paramedic and is very anxious because he thinks he is having a heart attack. Which of the following statements would be appropriate to say?
"It is possible that you are experiencing a heart attack. I am going to give you four baby aspirin to chew and swallow."
You are performing mouth-to-mask ventilations with oxygen connected and set at a flow rate of 15 L/min. What percentage of oxygen is your patient receiving?
You are standing by at the scene of a hostage situation when the incident commander advises you that one of his personnel has been shot. The patient is lying supine in an open area and is not moving. As the SWAT team escorts you to the patient, you should:
grab him by the clothes and immediately move him to safety.
You are transporting a 28-year-old man with a frostbitten foot. The patient's vital signs are stable and he denies any other injuries or symptoms. The weather is treacherous and your transport time to the hospital is approximately 45 minutes. During transport, you should:
protect the affected part from further injury.
You are transporting a 33-year-old male who was involved in a motor vehicle crash. You have addressed all immediate and potentially life-threatening conditions and have stabilized his condition with the appropriate treatment. With an estimated time of arrival at the hospital of 20 minutes, you should:
reassess his condition in 5 minutes.
You are transporting a 42-year-old male who experienced blunt abdominal trauma. He is receiving oxygen at 12 L/min via a nonrebreathing mask, and full spinal precautions have been applied. During your reassessment, you note his level of consciousness has decreased and his respirations have become shallow. You should:
insert an airway adjunct if he will tolerate it and begin assisting his ventilations with a bag-mask device.
You are transporting a 49-year-old male with "tearing" abdominal pain. You are approximately 30 miles away from the closest hospital. During your reassessment, you determine that the patient's condition has deteriorated significantly. You should:
consider requesting a rendezvous with an ALS unit.
You are transporting a 54-year-old male in cardiac arrest. An EMR is driving the ambulance as you and your partner attempt to resuscitate the patient. What is the MOST logical way of notifying the hospital?
Have the driver contact dispatch and relay the patient information to the hospital.
You are transporting a stable patient with a possible pneumothorax. The patient is receiving 100% oxygen and has an oxygen saturation of 95%. During your reassessment, you find that the patient is now confused, hypotensive, and profusely diaphoretic. What is MOST likely causing this patient's deterioration?
compression of the aorta and vena cava
You are transporting an elderly woman who has possibly experienced a stroke. She is obviously scared but is unable to talk and cannot move the entire right side of her body. In addition to providing the medical care that she needs, you should:
acknowledge that she is scared and tell her that you are going to take good care of her.
You are transporting an immobilized patient with severe facial trauma. As you are preparing to give your radio report to the hospital, the patient begins vomiting large amounts of blood. You should:
turn the backboard onto its side.
You are treating a 40-year-old male with a documented blood sugar reading of 300 mg/dL. The patient is semiconscious and breathing shallowly, and is receiving assisted ventilation from your partner. You should recognize that definitive treatment for this patient includes:
You are treating a 45-year-old woman who was stung by a hornet and has a rash. She tells you that she is allergic to hornets and has her own epinephrine auto-injector. She also tells you that she takes medication for hypertension. Her breath sounds do not reveal any wheezing, her breathing is unlabored, and her blood pressure is 154/94 mm Hg. What should you do if you are not able to make contact with medical control?
Give her oxygen, transport her to the hospital, and monitor her condition en route.
You are treating a middle-aged man with chest discomfort. He has a history of three previous heart attacks and takes nitroglycerin as needed for chest pain. You have standing orders to administer aspirin to patients with suspected cardiac-related chest pain or discomfort. While your partner is preparing to give oxygen to the patient, you should:
confirm that the patient is not allergic to aspirin, give him the appropriate dose of aspirin, and document the time and dose given.
You are treating a patient who experienced a significant exposure to cyanide. He is semiconscious and is breathing inadequately. The MOST appropriate method of providing assisted ventilations to this patient is to:
use a bag-mask device.
You are ventilating an apneic woman with a bag-mask device. She has dentures, which are tight-fitting. Adequate chest rise is present with each ventilation, and the patient's oxygen saturation reads 96%. When you reassess the patency of her airway, you note that her dentures are now loose, although your ventilations are still producing adequate chest rise. You should:
remove her dentures, resume ventilations, and assess for adequate chest rise.
You arrive at a grocery store shortly after a 35-year-old male stopped seizing. Your assessment reveals that he is confused and incontinent of urine. The patient's girlfriend tells you that he has a history of seizures and takes carbamazepine (Tegretol). When obtaining further medical history from the girlfriend, it is MOST important to:
obtain a description of how the seizure developed.
You arrive at a local grocery store approximately 5 minutes after a 21-year-old female stopped seizing. She is confused and disoriented; she keeps asking you what happened and tells you that she is thirsty. Her brother, who witnessed the seizure, tells you that she takes phenytoin (Dilantin) for her seizures, but has not taken it in a few days. He also tells you that she has diabetes. In addition to applying high-flow oxygen, you should:
monitor her airway and breathing status and assess her blood glucose level.
You arrive at a residence approximately 20 minutes after a 7-year-old boy, who weighs 22 kg, ingested a bottle of Advil. He is conscious and alert and has stable vital signs. Medical control orders you to administer activated charcoal and oxygen and then transport the child at once. The appropriate maximum dose of activated charcoal for this child is:
You arrive at the home of a 50-year-old female with severe epistaxis. As you are treating her, it is MOST important to recall that:
the patient is at risk for vomiting and aspiration.
You arrive at the residence of a 33-year-old woman who is experiencing a generalized seizure. She has a small amount of vomitus draining from the side of her mouth. After protecting her from further injury, you should:
maintain her airway with manual head positioning, suction her airway to remove the vomitus, insert a nasopharyngeal airway, and administer high-flow oxygen.
You arrive at the scene of a major motor vehicle crash. The patient, a 50-year-old female, was removed from her vehicle prior to your arrival. Bystanders who removed her state that she was not wearing a seatbelt. The patient is unconscious, tachycardic, and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals bilaterally clear and equal breath sounds, a midline trachea, and collapsed jugular veins. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient has experienced a:
massive hemothorax.|laceration of the aorta.
You arrive at the scene of a motor vehicle versus pedestrian accident. The patient, a 13-year-old male, is unconscious and has multiple injuries. As you are treating the child, a law enforcement officer advises you that the child's parents will be at the scene in approximately 15 minutes. What should you do?
Transport the child immediately and have the parents meet you at the hospital.
You arrive at the scene of an apparent death. When evaluating the patient, which of the following is a definitive sign of death?
You could be sued for ___________ if your radio report to the hospital describes the patient in a manner that injures his or her reputation.
You have administered one dose of epinephrine to a 40-year-old female to treat an allergic reaction that she developed after being stung by a scorpion. Your reassessment reveals that she is still having difficulty breathing, has a decreasing mental status, and has a blood pressure of 80/50 mm Hg. You should:
request permission from medical control to give another dose of epinephrine.
You have applied a dressing and roller-gauze bandage to a laceration on the arm of a young female. During transport, she begins to complain of numbness and tingling in her hand. You should:
assess distal circulation and readjust the bandage as needed.
You have applied a zippered air splint to a patient's left arm. During transport, the patient complains of increased numbness and tingling in his left hand. You reassess distal circulation and note that it remains present. Your MOST appropriate action should be to:
assess the amount of air in the splint and let air out as necessary.
You have assessed an unresponsive middle-aged female and determined that she is in cardiac arrest. When you apply the AED pads, you note that she has a medication patch over the same area where one of the AED pads will be placed. You should:
remove the medication patch, wipe away any medication residue, and apply the AED pads.
You have been tasked by your medical director to assist in the development of your EMS agency's institutional standards. When developing these standards, it is important to:
be reasonable and realistic to avoid overburdening your personnel.
You have been working at the scene of a major building collapse for 8 hours. Many injured people are still being removed, and everyone is becoming frustrated and losing focus. This situation is MOST effectively managed by:
requesting a CISM team to provide on-scene peer support.
You have inserted an oral airway and are ventilating an apneic woman with a bag-mask device. She suddenly begins regurgitating large amounts of vomit. You should:
roll her onto her side and remove the oral airway.
You have just completed your primary assessment of a 48-year-old man with crushing chest pain. The patient has been given 324 mg of aspirin and is receiving high-flow oxygen via nonrebreathing mask. As you begin your secondary assessment, you note that his mental status has deteriorated and he is now bradycardic. You should:
prepare the patient for immediate transport.
You have just delivered a premature baby. Your assessment reveals that he is breathing adequately; however, his heart rate is 90 beats/min. You should:
keep him warm and provide ventilatory assistance.
You have sealed the open chest wound of a 40-year-old male who was stabbed in the anterior chest. Your reassessment reveals that he is experiencing increasing respiratory distress and tachycardia, and is developing cyanosis. You should:
partially remove the dressing.
You have two patients who were involved in a motor vehicle crash when their SUV struck a tree—one with neck and back pain, and the other with a deformed left femur. The patient with the deformed femur states that he does not want to be placed on a hard board, nor does he want a collar around his neck. What is the MOST appropriate and practical method of securing these patients and placing them into the ambulance?
Immobilize the patient with neck and back pain on a long backboard and place him on the wheeled stretcher; place the patient with the deformed femur on a folding stretcher secured to the squad bench.
You receive a call for a domestic dispute. When you arrive at the scene, you find a young male standing on the front porch of his house. You notice that an adjacent window is broken. The patient has a large body, is clenching his fists, and is yelling obscenities atWhich of the following findings is LEAST predictive of this patient's potential for violence?
his large body
You receive a call for a sick person. When you arrive, you find the patient, a 75-year-old male, lying unresponsive in his bed. His respirations are slow and irregular and his pulse is slow and weak. His daughter tells you that he fell the day before, but refused to allow her to call 9-1-1. His past medical history is significant for hypothyroidism, deep vein thrombosis, heavy alcohol use, and liver cirrhosis. His medications include blood thinners and vitamins. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient is experiencing:
a subdural hematoma.
You receive a call to a residence for a sick patient. Upon your arrival, you find the patient, a 53-year-old diabetic male, lying down on his front porch. His wife tells you that he had been mowing the lawn in the heat for the past 3 hours. The patient is confused and has hot, moist skin. His pulse is weak and thready, and his blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
load him into the ambulance and begin rapid cooling interventions.
You receive a call to a residence for an apneic 2-month-old male. When you arrive at the scene, the infant's mother tells you that her son was born prematurely and that his apnea monitor has alarmed 4 times in the past 30 minutes. Your assessment of the infant reveals that he is conscious and active. His skin is pink and dry, and he is breathing at an adequate rate and with adequate tidal depth. His oxygen saturation reads 98% on room air. You should:
transport the infant to the hospital and bring the apnea monitor with you.
You receive a call to a residence where a man found his wife unconscious on the couch. The patient is unresponsive, her respiratory rate is 8 breaths/min, her breathing is shallow, her heart rate is 40 beats/min, and her pulse is weak. The husband hands you an empty bottle of hydrocodone (Vicodin), which was refilled the day before. You should:
initiate ventilatory assistance.
You respond to a call for an unknown emergency. When you arrive at the scene, the patient's husband meets you at the door and states that his wife has been depressed and has locked herself in an upstairs bedroom. He further tells you that he keeps his handgun in the bedroom. You should:
remain in a safe place and request law enforcement.
You respond to a college campus for a young male who is acting strangely. After law enforcement has secured the scene, you enter the patient's dorm room and find him sitting on the edge of the bed; he appears agitated. As you approach him, you note that he has dried blood around both nostrils. He is breathing adequately, his pulse is rapid and irregular, and his blood pressure is 200/110 mm Hg. Treatment for this patient includes:
attempting to calm him and giving him oxygen if tolerated.
You respond to a local lake where a diver complains of difficulty breathing that occurred immediately after rapidly ascending from a depth of approximatelyOn assessment, you note that he has cyanosis around his lips and has pink froth coming from his nose and mouth. You should:
suction his mouth and nose, apply high-flow oxygen, position him on his left side with his head down, and contact medical control regarding transport to a recompression facility.
You respond to a local motel for a young female who was sexually assaulted. The patient is conscious but confused. She tells you that the last thing she remembers was drinking beer at a club with her friends the night before. When she awoke, she was in the bed of the motel room. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient:
was given flunitrazepam (Rohypnol).
You respond to a movie theater for a 70-year-old male who is confused. His wife tells you he has type 2 diabetes but refuses to take his pills. Your assessment reveals that the patient is diaphoretic, tachycardic, and tachypneic. Initial management for this patient should include:
applying a nonrebreathing mask at 15 L/min.
You respond to a residence for a 40-year-old female who was assaulted by her husband; the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Upon your arrival, you find the patient lying supine on the floor in the kitchen. She is semiconscious with severely labored breathing. Further assessment reveals a large bruise to the left anterior chest, jugular venous distention, and unilaterally absent breath sounds. As your partner is supporting her ventilations, you should:
immediately request ALS support.
You respond to a residence for a child who is having a seizure. Upon arrival at the scene, you enter the residence and find the mother holding her child, a 2-year-old male. The child is conscious and crying. According to the mother, the child had been running a high fever and then experienced a seizure that lasted approximately 3 minutes. You should:
transport the child to the hospital and reassure the mother en route.
You respond to a residence for a patient who is "not acting right." As you approach the door, the patient, a 35-year-old male, begins shouting profanities at you and your partner while holding a baseball bat. The man is confused and diaphoretic, and is wearing a medical identification bracelet. You should:
retreat at once and call law enforcement.
You respond to a residence for a patient with a severe leg injury following an accident with a chainsaw. When you arrive, you find the patient, a 44-year-old male, lying supine in the backyard. He has a partial amputation of his right lower leg that is actively bleeding. The patient is conscious and breathing adequately; however, he is restless and his skin is diaphoretic. You should:
apply direct pressure to the wound.
You respond to the home of a 59-year-old man who is unconscious, has slow, shallow breathing, and has a weak pulse. The family states that the patient has terminal brain cancer and does not wish to be resuscitated. They further state that there is a DNR order for this patient; however, they are unable to locate it. You should:
begin treatment and contact medical control as needed.
You respond to the residence of a 55-year-old female with a possible allergic reaction to peanuts that she ate approximately 30 minutes ago. The patient is conscious and alert, but has diffuse urticaria and the feeling that she has a lump in her throat. As your partner applies oxygen to the patient, you should:
ask her if she has prescribed epinephrine.
You respond to the residence of a 70-year-old male who complains of weakness and severe shortness of breath. His wife tells you that he is a dialysis patient, but has missed his last two treatments. After applying high-flow oxygen, you auscultate his lungs and hear diffuse rhonchi. The patient is conscious, but appears confused. His blood pressure is 98/54 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 120 beats/min and irregular, and his respirations are 24 breaths/min and labored. You should:
leave him in a sitting position, keep him warm, and prepare for immediate transport.
You should be MOST suspicious that a patient has experienced a significant head injury if his or her pulse is:
You should gently palpate a patient's pelvis only if:
the patient does not complain of pelvic pain.
You should not attempt to lift a patient who weighs more than 250 lb with fewer than _______ rescuers, regardless of individual strength.
You should suspect that a patient is experiencing respiratory failure if he or she:
has bradycardia and diminished muscle tone.
You suspect that a 75-year-old man has internal injuries after he fell and struck his ribs and abdomen on the corner of a table. When assessing and treating an injured patient of this age, you must recall that:
his ability to physiologically compensate for his injury may be impaired due to an inability to increase cardiac output.
Your 22-year-old patient is in active labor. Upon visual inspection, you note that the infant's leg is protruding from the vagina. Appropriate management of this situation includes:
placing the mother supine with her head down and pelvis elevated.
Your BEST protection against legal liability when a competent patient refuses EMS care and transport is to:
thoroughly document the entire event.
Your EMS system uses a computerized PCR in which you fill in the information electronically and then send it to the emergency department via a secure Internet server. The PCR has a comprehensive series of drop-down boxes, which are used to identify your assessment findings and specify the treatment that you provided; it also has a section for your narrative. When completing your PCR after a call, you should:
complete a thorough and accurate narrative because drop-down boxes cannot provide all of the information that needs to be documented.
Your EMS team is performing CPR on a 60-year-old male in cardiac arrest. You connect the AED, push the analyze button, and receive a "no shock advised" message. You should:
perform CPR for 2 minutes and reassess.
Your ability to remain awake is a function of the:
reticular activating system.
Your initial attempt to ventilate an unresponsive apneic 30-year-old man is met with resistance and you do not see the chest rise. Your second ventilation attempt is also unsuccessful. You should:
perform 30 chest compressions.
Your paramedic partner administers atropine to a 49-year-old male with bradycardia. Which of the following side effects would you expect the patient to experience?
dry mucous membranes
Your patient has a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13, a systolic blood pressure of 80 mm Hg, and a respiratory rate of 8 breaths/min, his Revised Trauma Score (RTS) is:
Your presence is requested by law enforcement to assess a 33-year-old female who was sexually assaulted. The patient is conscious and obviously upset. As you are talking to her, you note an impressive amount of blood on her clothes in the groin area. Her blood pressure is 98/58 mm Hg, her pulse is 130 beats/min, and her respirations are 24 breaths/min. You should:
control any external bleeding, administer oxygen, and transport at once.
Your primary concern when arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash is:
surveying the area for hazards.
Your priority in caring for a patient with a surface contact poisoning is to:
avoid contaminating yourself.
Your unit and a fire department vehicle are responding to the scene of a patient in cardiac arrest. As you approach an intersection that is highly congested, you should:
use a different siren tone than the fire department vehicle.
Your unit has been dispatched to stand by at the scene of a structure fire. There are no injuries of which you are aware. Upon arriving at the scene, you should:
ask the incident commander where the ambulance should be staged.
Your unit is dispatched to the county jail for an intoxicated inmate. Upon arrival, you find the patient, a 33-year-old male, lying supine in a jail cell. He is responsive to painful stimuli only and has slow, shallow respirations. You should be MOST concerned that this patient:
may vomit and aspirate.
Your work uniform is an example of what level of protection?
Level D protection
____________ is what you can see of a person's response to the environment.
_____________ is defined as the ability to reach the patient.