EMT-B Quiz Questions

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A "hip" fracture is actually a fracture of the:

proximal femur.

A "silent" heart attack occurs when:

the usual chest pain is not present.

A 13-year-old child is on a home ventilator. The parents called because the ventilator is malfunctioning and the child has increasing respiratory distress. You should:

disconnect the ventilator and use a bag-mask device.

A 16-year-old female complains of vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramping that began several hours ago. During your assessment interview, you should:

inquire about the possibility of pregnancy in private, if possible.

A 17-year-old male was shot in the right anterior chest during an altercation with a gang member. As your partner is applying 100% oxygen, you perform a rapid secondary assessment and find an open chest wound with a small amount of blood bubbling from it. You should:

apply an occlusive dressing to the wound and continue your assessment.

A 19-year-old female was stung multiple times on the legs by fire ants. She states that she is allergic to fire ants, but does not carry her own epinephrine. The patient is conscious and alert and complains of pain to the area of the bites. Her blood pressure is 122/70 mm Hg, her pulse is 100 beats/min and strong, and her respirations are 18 breaths/min and unlabored. You should:

administer oxygen and transport her to the hospital.

A 19-year-old male complains of "not feeling right." His insulin and a syringe are on a nearby table. The patient says he thinks he took his insulin and cannot remember whether he ate. He is also unable to tell you the time or what day it is. The glucometer reads "error" after several attempts to assess his blood glucose level. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:

contact medical control and administer oral glucose.

A 19-year-old male is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless after being struck in the center of the chest with a softball. Based on the mechanism of injury, what MOST likely occurred?

ventricular fibrillation when the impact occurred during a critical portion of the cardiac cycle

A 19-year-old male was stung multiple times by fire ants. He is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock. You administer 100% oxygen and give him epinephrine via subcutaneous injection. Upon reassessment, you determine that his condition has not improved. You should:

repeat the epinephrine injection after consulting with medical control.

A 20-year-old male was accidentally shot in the right upper abdominal quadrant with an arrow during an archery contest. Prior to your arrival, the patient removed the arrow. Your assessment reveals that he is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. The entrance wound is bleeding minimally and appears to be superficial. You should:

assume that the arrow injured an internal organ.

A 20-year-old male was pulled from cold water by his friends. The length of his submersion is not known and was not witnessed. You perform a primary assessment and determine that the patient is apneic and has a slow, weak pulse. You should:

provide rescue breathing, remove wet clothing, immobilize his spine, keep him warm, and transport carefully.

A 22-year-old male was kicked in the abdomen multiple times during an attack by a gang. He is conscious but restless and his pulse is rapid. Your assessment reveals a large area of bruising to the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:

preparing for immediate transport.

A 22-year-old male was punched in the abdomen several times. You find him lying on his left side with his knees drawn up. He is conscious and alert and complains of increased pain and nausea when he tries to straighten his legs. His blood pressure is 142/82 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 110 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. In addition to administering high-flow oxygen, you should:

transport him in the position in which you found him.

A 22-year-old male was walking on the beach and had sand blown into his eyes. He complains of pain and decreased vision to his right eye. Treatment should include:

irrigating his right eye laterally.

A 22-year-old male with a history of clinical depression called 9-1-1 and stated that he has attempted to kill himself. Your unit and law enforcement officers arrive at the scene simultaneously. You find the patient lying supine on the living room floor. He is unconscious and cyanotic. An empty bottle of hydromorphone (Dilaudid) is found on an adjacent table. You should:

open the patient's airway and assess his respirations.

A 25-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her chest when her car hit a tree while traveling at a high rate of speed. She has signs and symptoms of shock, which you suspect are the result of intrathoracic bleeding. Which of the following interventions will provide this patient with the greatest chance for survival?

rapid transport to a trauma center

A 26-year-old female presents with heavy vaginal bleeding. She is conscious, but restless. Her blood pressure is 84/54 mm Hg, her pulse is 120 beats/min and weak, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. She tells you that she inserted a tampon about 2 hours ago. You should:

administer high-flow oxygen, place a sterile pad over her vagina, keep her warm, elevate her lower extremities, and transport without delay.

A 27-year-old male was stabbed in the chest during a disagreement at a poker game. As you approach him, you see that a knife is impaled in his chest. Before you make physical contact with the patient, it is MOST important to:

follow standard precautions.

A 28-year-old female patient is found to be responsive to verbal stimuli only. Her roommate states that she was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and has had difficulty controlling her blood sugar level. She further tells you that the patient has been urinating excessively and has progressively worsened over the last 24 to 36 hours. On the basis of this patient's clinical presentation, you should suspect that she:

is significantly hyperglycemic.

A 28-year-old male was struck in the chest with a baseball bat during an altercation. He is conscious and alert and complains of severe chest pain. Your assessment reveals a large area of ecchymosis over the sternum and a rapid, irregular pulse. In addition to applying 100% oxygen, you should:

prepare for immediate transport.

A 29-year-old female presents with confusion and disorientation. Her respirations are rapid and shallow and her pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. She is markedly diaphoretic and has an oxygen saturation of 89%. You should:

provide ventilatory support.

A 29-year-old male complains of a severe headache and nausea that has gradually worsened over the past 12 hours. He is conscious, alert, and oriented and tells you that his physician diagnosed him with migraine headaches. He further tells you that he has taken numerous different medications, but none of them seem to help. His blood pressure is 132/74 mm Hg, his pulse is 110 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 20 breaths/min and adequate. In addition to high-flow oxygen, further treatment should include:

dimming the lights in the back of the ambulance and transporting without lights and siren.

A 29-year-old male with a head injury opens his eyes when you speak to him, is confused as to the time and date, and is able to move all of his extremities on command. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score is:


A 3-year-old female ingested several leaves from a plant in the living room. The child's mother is not sure what type of plant it is, stating that she bought it simply because it was pretty. After completing your initial assessment of the child, you should:

contact the regional poison control center.

A 30-year-old female presents with redness, inflammation, and pain to her leftDuring your assessment, you note that she is having difficulty keeping her eyes open. You should suspect that she is experiencing:


A 30-year-old female presents with severe acute pain to the left upper quadrant of her abdomen. During your assessment, she tells you that she has sickle cell disease. You should suspect that:

her spleen is enlarged because of red blood cell engorgement.

A 30-year-old female was robbed and assaulted by a gang as she was leaving a nightclub. She has massive facial trauma and slow, gurgling respirations. As your partner manually stabilizes her head, you should:

suction her oropharynx for 15 seconds.

A 30-year-old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him 100% oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is:


A 30-year-old male sustained a stab wound to the neck when he was attacked outside a nightclub. During your assessment, you should be MOST alert for:

potential airway compromise.

A 30-year-old male was rescued after being lost in the woods for approximately 18 hours. The outside temperature is 30°F (-1°C). He is immediately placed in the warmed ambulance, where you perform a primary assessment. He is unconscious, pale, and apneic. After initiating artificial ventilations, you should:

assess for a carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds.

A 30-year-old woman with a history of alcoholism presents with severe upper abdominal pain and is vomiting large amounts of bright red blood. Her skin is cool, pale, and clammy; her heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak; and her blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg. Your MOST immediate action should be to:

protect her airway from aspiration.

A 31-year-old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. After assisting her with her prescribed MDI, you should:

reassess the patient and document her response to the medication.

A 33-year-old female presents with lower abdominal quadrant pain. She is conscious and alert, but in moderate pain. While your partner is asking her questions about her medical history, you take her vital signs. When you assess her radial pulse, you are unable to locate it. You should:

assess the rate, regularity, and quality of her carotid pulse.

A 33-year-old restrained driver of a motor vehicle crash is awake and alert, complaining only of neck pain. The vehicle is stable and no hazards are present. When removing this patient from his vehicle, you should:

immobilize him with a vest-style device.

A 35-year-old mildly obese woman is complaining of localized pain in the right upper quadrant with referred pain to the right shoulder. The MOST likely cause of her pain is:

acute cholecystitis.

A 37-year-old female with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of 2 days' duration. You apply 100% oxygen and assess her blood glucose level, which reads 320 mg/dL. If this patient's condition is not promptly treated, she will MOST likely develop:

acidosis and dehydration.

A 37-year-old male has an apparent foreign body airway obstruction. He is conscious and alert and is coughing forcefully. His skin is pink, warm, and moist. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:

encouraging him to cough and transporting.

A 37-year-old male is having a severe allergic reaction to penicillin. He does not have an epinephrine auto-injector and your protocols do not allow you to carry epinephrine on the ambulance. How should you proceed with the treatment of this patient?

Administer oxygen, transport at once, and request a paramedic intercept.

A 38-year-old female was bitten by fire ants while at the park with her kids. Your primary assessment reveals that she is semiconscious, has profoundly labored breathing, and has a rapid, thready pulse. She has a red rash on her entire body and her face is very swollen. You should:

assist her ventilations with 100% oxygen.

A 38-year-old male was electrocuted while attempting to wire a house. Your assessment reveals that he is unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic. A coworker has shut off the power to the house. You should:

begin CPR and apply the AED.

A 38-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia is reported by neighbors to be screaming and throwing things in his house. You are familiar with the patient and have cared for him in the past for unrelated problems. Law enforcement officers escort you into the residence when you arrive. The patient tells you that he sees vampires and is attempting to ward them off by screaming and throwing things at them. He has several large lacerations to his forearms that are actively bleeding. The MOST appropriate way to manage this situation is to:

restrain the patient with appropriate force in order to treat his injuries.

A 39-year-old female experienced a severe closed head injury. She is unconscious with her eyes slightly open; her pupils are bilaterally dilated and slow to react. In addition to managing problems with airway, breathing, and circulation, you should:

close her eyes and cover them with a moist dressing.

A 39-year-old male accidentally cut his wrist while sharpening his hunting knife. He is conscious and alert with adequate breathing, but is bleeding significantly from the wound. You should:

control the bleeding with direct pressure.

A 39-year-old male sustained a large laceration to his leg during an accident with a chainsaw and is experiencing signs and symptoms of shock. You should:

follow appropriate standard precautions.

A 39-year-old male was struck in the head by a baseball during a game. He is confused, has a large hematoma in the center of his forehead, and cannot remember the events preceding the injury. After manually stabilizing his head and assessing his airway, you should:

administer high-flow oxygen.

A 4-year-old boy had an apparent seizure. He is conscious and calm and is sitting on his mother's lap. His father is sitting in a nearby chair. The child's mother suddenly begins crying uncontrollably, which causes the child to start crying. You should:

consider asking the father to hold the child so you can assess him while your partner tries to calm the mother.

A 4-year-old female has a peanut lodged in the external auditory canal of her rightYou should:

transport her to the emergency department.

A 4-year-old male ingested an unknown quantity of acetaminophen (Tylenol). The child's mother states that the ingestion occurred approximately 20 minutesThe child is conscious and alert and in no apparent distress. After contacting medical control, you should:

administer up to 25 g of activated charcoal.

A 40-year-old male intentionally cut his wrist out of anger after losing hisLaw enforcement has secured the scene prior to your arrival. As you enter the residence and visualize the patient, you can see that he has a towel around his wrist and a moderate amount of blood has soaked through it. You should:

calmly identify yourself to the patient.

A 40-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain following blunt trauma. He is diaphoretic, intensely thirsty, and has a weak and rapid pulse. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:

giving him small sips of plain water.

A 40-year-old male was in his woodworking shop when he felt a sudden, sharp pain in his left eye. Your assessment reveals a small splinter of wood embedded in his cornea. You should:

cover both of his eyes and transport to the hospital.

A 40-year-old unrestrained female impacted the steering wheel of her vehicle with her chest when she hit a tree while traveling at 45 mph. She is conscious and alert, but is experiencing significant chest pain and shortness of breath. Which of the following injuries did this patient likely NOT experience?

head injury

A 43-year-old man is experiencing a severe nosebleed. His blood pressure is 190/110 mm Hg and his heart rate is 90 beats/min and bounding. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes:

pinching the patient's nostrils and having him lean forward.

A 44-year-old male sustained a laceration to his left ear during a minor car accident. Your assessment reveals minimal bleeding. Appropriate care for this injury includes:

padding between the ear and the scalp.

A 45-year-old male was working on his roof when he fell approximately 12?,landing on his feet. He is conscious and alert and complains of an ache in his lower back. He is breathing adequately and has stable vital signs. You should:

immobilize his spine and perform a focused secondary exam.

A 47-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain of 3 hours' duration. His abdomen is distended and guarded. Your MOST important consideration for this patient should be to:

be alert for signs and symptoms of shock.

A 48-year-old male is found unconscious in the garden by his wife. When you arrive at the scene and assess the man, you find that he is unresponsive, has severely labored breathing, and has hives over his entire trunk. You should:

maintain his airway and assist his ventilations.

A 48-year-old male was stung on the leg by a jellyfish while swimming in the ocean. He is conscious and alert, but complains of intense pain at the wound site. Specific treatment for this patient includes:

irrigating the wound with vinegar and immersing his leg in hot water.

A 49-year-old male presents with confusion, sweating, and visual hallucinations. The patient's wife tells you that he is a heavy drinker and she thinks he had a seizure shortly before your arrival. This patient is MOST likely experiencing:


A 49-year-old male with an extensive cardiac history presents with 2 hours of crushing chest pain and shortness of breath. He is pale and diaphoretic and tells you that he feels like he is going to die. His medications include nitroglycerin, sildenafil (Viagra), and enalapril (Vasotec). His blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:

ask him if he took his Viagra within the past 24 hours.

A 49-year-old man has been removed from his overturned tanker, which was carrying a hazardous material. The tank ruptured and he was exposed to the material. When rescue personnel bring him to the decontamination area, they note that he is unconscious and has slow, shallow breathing. They should:

cut away all of the patient's clothing and do a rapid rinse to remove as much of the contaminating matter as they can.

A 50-year-old female is entrapped in her passenger car after it struck a tree. As the rescue team is preparing to extricate her, you quickly assess her and determine that she is breathing shallowly and that her radial pulse is absent. You should:

maintain spinal stabilization as she is extricated.

A 50-year-old male is found unconscious in his car. There were no witnesses to the event. When gathering medical history information for this patient, the EMT should:

determine if the patient has a medical alert bracelet or wallet card.

A 50-year-old male was splashed in the eyes with radiator fluid when he was working on his car. During your assessment, he tells you that he wears soft contact lenses. You should:

carefully remove the contact lenses and then irrigate his eyes with saline.

A 50-year-old male was stung by a honeybee approximately 15 minutesHe presents with respiratory distress, facial swelling, and hypotension. After placing him on oxygen and administering his epinephrine via auto-injector, you note that his breathing has improved. Additionally, his facial swelling is resolving and his blood pressure is stable. Your next action should be to:

record the time and dose of the injection, and transport promptly.

A 52-year-old male presents with a fever of 102.5°F and a severe headache. As you assess him, you note the presence of multiple blisters on his face and chest, which are all identical in shape and size. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:


A 52-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her face when her truck collided with another vehicle. She has obvious swelling to her face and several dislodged teeth. A visual exam of her mouth reveals minimal bleeding. She is conscious and alert with a blood pressure of 130/80 mm Hg, a pulse of 110 beats/min, and respirations of 22 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. You should:

apply supplemental oxygen, immobilize her spine, attempt to locate the dislodged teeth, suction as needed, and transport.

A 54-year-old male experienced an avulsion to his penis when his foreskin got caught in the zipper of his pants. He was able to unzip his pants and remove the foreskin prior to your arrival. Your assessment reveals that he is in severe pain and that the avulsion is bleeding moderately. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:

applying direct pressure with a dry, sterile dressing.

A 56-year-old female is found supine in a narrow hallway of her mobile home. She complains of severe weakness and dizziness, and states that she is unable to walk. There is no evidence of trauma and the patient states that she did not fall. How should you and your partner move this patient to a more spacious area?

extremity lift

A 56-year-old male has an incomplete avulsion to his right forearm. After controlling any bleeding from the wound, you should:

replace the avulsed flap to its original position and cover it with a sterile dressing.

A 56-year-old male is found semiconscious by his wife. Your assessment reveals that his respirations are rapid and shallow, his pulse is rapid and irregular, and his blood pressure is low. The patient's wife states that he complained of left arm pain and nausea the day before, but would not allow her to call 9-1-1. The MOST likely cause of this patient's present condition is:

cardiogenic hypoperfusion.

A 58-year-old male presents with confusion, right-sided weakness, and slurred speech. His wife is present and is very upset. As your partner is applying oxygen, it is MOST important for you to:

ask his wife when she noticed the symptoms.

A 58-year-old man complains of chest discomfort and nausea. He is conscious and alert; his blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg, his pulse is 104 beats/min, and his respirations are 16 breaths/min. Your partner has applied supplemental oxygen. Prior to assisting the patient with one of his prescribed nitroglycerin tablets, you ask him if he takes medication to treat erectile dysfunction and he tells you that he does. You should:

ask him what he takes, how much, and when he last took it.

A 59-year-old male presents with a sudden onset of severe lower back pain. He is conscious and alert, but very restless and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals a pulsating mass to the left of his umbilicus. You should:

administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport.

A 59-year-old male presents with severe vomiting and diarrhea of 3 days' duration. He is confused and diaphoretic, and his radial pulses are absent. His blood pressure is 78/50 mm Hg. After applying 100% supplemental oxygen, you should:

prepare for immediate transport.

A 59-year-old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's condition?

spontaneous pneumothorax

A 6-month-old male presents with 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. He is conscious, but his level of activity is decreased. The infant's mother tells you that he has not had a soiled diaper in over 12 hours. The infant's heart rate is 140 beats/min and his anterior fontanelle appears to be slightly sunken. You should suspect:

moderate dehydration.

A 6-year-old female was riding her bicycle and struck a clothesline with her throat. She is breathing, but with obvious difficulty. Your assessment reveals a crackling sensation in the soft tissues of her neck and facial cyanosis. In addition to the appropriate airway management, the intervention that will MOST likely improve her chance of survival is:

rapidly transporting her to the hospital.

A 60-year-old male is found to be unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic. You should:

begin CPR until an AED is available.

A 62-year-old male presents with crushing chest pain, which he describes as being the same kind of pain that he had with a previous heart attack. He has prescribed nitroglycerin but states that he has not taken any. After administering 100% oxygen and contacting medical control, you should:

assist him with his nitroglycerin unless his systolic blood pressure is less than 100 mm Hg.

A 62-year-old man with a history of congestive heart failure presents with severe respiratory distress and an oxygen saturation of 82%. When you auscultate his lungs, you hear widespread rales. He is conscious and alert, is able to follow simple commands, and can only speak in two- to three-word sentences at a time. You should:

apply a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, monitor his blood pressure, and observe him for signs of improvement or deterioration.

A 66-year-old male presents with bizarre behavior. His daughter states that he did not seem to recognize her and was very rude toThe patient is conscious, and has a patent airway and adequate breathing. You should:

ask the daughter how her father normally behaves.

A 66-year-old male presents with dark red rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. He is conscious and alert; however, his skin is cool and clammy and his heart rate is elevated. Further assessment reveals that his blood pressure is 112/60 mm Hg. Which of the following questions would be MOST pertinent to ask him?

Have you experienced recent abdominal trauma?

A 67-year-old female with severe chest pain becomes unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic during transport. You should:

stop the ambulance, begin CPR, and attach the AED as soon as possible.

A 67-year-old male presents with weakness, dizziness, and melena that began approximately 2 daysHe denies a history of trauma. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his pulse is 120 beats/min and thready. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient is experiencing:

gastrointestinal bleeding.

A 70-year-old female was recently discharged from the hospital following a total hip replacement. Today, she presents with restlessness, tachycardia, and a blood pressure of 100/64 mm Hg. Her skin is warm and moist. You should be MOST suspicious that she is experiencing:

septic shock.

A 73-year-old man presents with a generalized rash, which he thinks may have been caused by an antibiotic that he recently began taking. He has a history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and emphysema. He is conscious and alert, his blood pressure is 144/94 mm Hg, and his pulse is 64 beats/min and regular. You auscultate his breath sounds and hear scattered wheezing, although he is not experiencing respiratory distress. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:

contact medical control if needed, transport the patient, and monitor him for signs of deterioration.

A 74-year-old woman complains of heaviness in her chest, nausea, and sweating that suddenly began about an hour ago. She is conscious and alert, but anxious. Her blood pressure is 144/84 mm Hg and her heart rate is 110 beats/min. She took two of her prescribed nitroglycerin (0.4-mg tablets) before your arrival but still feels heaviness in her chest. You should:

recall that geriatric patients often have slower absorption and elimination times, which may necessitate modification of the dosing of certain drugs.

A 75-year-old male with a terminal illness has died at home. As you and your partner enter the residence, a family member becomes verbally abusive, pushes you, and states that you took too long to get there. You should:

retreat and notify law enforcement personnel.

A 75-year-old male with type 1 diabetes presents with chest pain and a general feeling of weakness. He tells you that he took his insulin today and ate a regular meal approximately 2 hours ago. You should treat this patient as though he is experiencing:

a heart attack.

A 76-year-old male experienced sudden pain to his left thigh when he was standing in line at the grocery store. Your assessment reveals ecchymosis and deformity to the distal aspect of his left femur, just above the knee. Distal circulation and sensory and motor functions are intact. The MOST appropriate method of splinting this injury involves:

applying padded board splints to both sides of the leg.

A 77-year-old woman slipped and fell on a throw rug and landed on her left hip. She denies striking her head or losing consciousness. Assessment of her left leg reveals that it is shortened and externally rotated. Distal pulses, sensory, and motor functions are intact. You should:

place her onto a scoop stretcher, pad around her left hip with pillows, and secure her to the scoop with straps.

A 78-year-old female presents with an acute change in her behavior. The patient's son tells you that his mother has type 2 diabetes and was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease 6 monthsThe patient's speech is slurred and she is not alert to her surroundings. You should:

inquire about the possibility of head trauma.

A Colles fracture involves a fracture of the:

distal radius.

A ____________ is a musculoskeletal injury in which there is partial or temporary separation of the bone ends as well as partial stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments.


A burn that is characterized by redness and pain is classified as a:

first-degree burn.

A by-product of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation is:


A common cause of shock in an infant is:

dehydration from vomiting and diarrhea.

A conscious and alert 29-year-old female with a history of asthma complains of difficulty breathing that began after her morning jog. The temperature outside is 40°F (5°C). On exam, you hear bilateral expiratory wheezing. After providing 100% oxygen, you should:

determine if she has been prescribed a beta-agonist inhaler.

A construction worker fell approximately 30 feet. He is semiconscious with rapid, shallow respirations. Further assessment reveals deformity to the thoracic region of his spine. His blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg, his pulse is 66 beats/min and weak, and his skin is warm and dry. In addition to spinal immobilization and rapid transport, the MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:

assisted ventilation, thermal management, and elevation of the lower extremities.

A construction worker fell approximately 30' and landed in a pile of steel rods. Your assessment reveals that he is pulseless and apneic and has a 10? steel rod impaled in his left leg. You should:

control the bleeding, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), stabilize the steel rod, immobilize his spine, and transport immediately.

A construction worker fell approximately 30? and landed in a pile of steel rods. Your assessment reveals that he is pulseless and apneic and has a 10= steel rod impaled in his left leg. You should:

control the bleeding, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), stabilize the steel rod, immobilize his spine, and transport immediately.

A crackling sound produced by air bubbles under the skin is called:

subcutaneous emphysema.

A critical aspect of the rapid extrication technique is to:

maintain stabilization of the spine at all times.

A critical function of the safety officer is to:

stop an emergency operation whenever a rescuer is in danger.

A critical incident stress debriefing should be conducted no longer than ________ hours following the incident.


A disposable oxygen humidifier should be considered for ambulance services that often transport patients on runs longer than:

1 hour.

A dissecting aortic aneurysm occurs when:

the inner layers of the aorta become separated.

A driver involved in a rollover motor vehicle crash will MOST likely experience serious injuries or death if he or she:

is ejected or partially ejected.

A drug is contraindicated for a patient when it:

may cause harm or have no positive effect.

A dysbarism injury refers to the signs and symptoms related to changes in:

barometric pressure.

A factory worker was splashed in the eyes with a strong acid chemical. He complains of intense pain and blurred vision. Your ambulance does not carry bottles of sterile saline or water. You should:

irrigate both eyes continuously for 20 minutes with plain water.

A female patient with a suspected spinal injury is breathing with a marked reduction in tidal volume. The MOST appropriate airway management for her includes:

assisting ventilations at an age-appropriate rate.

A flail chest occurs when:

a segment of the chest wall is detached from the thoracic cage.

A folding or portable stretcher is MOST beneficial when:

a second patient must be transported on the squad bench of the ambulance.

A football player was struck by another player in the right flank area just below the posterior rib cage. He complains of severe pain and point tenderness to the area. Your assessment reveals that there is a small amount of blood in his underwear. You should be MOST suspicious for:

blunt injury to the kidney.

A fractured femur can result in the loss of ______ or more of blood into the soft tissues of the thigh.

1 L

A generalized seizure is characterized by:

severe twitching of all the body's muscles.

A hematoma develops when:

large blood vessels beneath the skin are damaged.

A high-pitched inspiratory sound that indicates a partial upper airway obstruction is called:


A hiker was injured when he fell approximately 20' from a cliff. When you arrive at the scene, a member of the technical rescue group escorts you to the patient, who is positioned on a steep incline. The MOST appropriate method of immobilizing and moving the patient to the ambulance is to:

immobilize his spine with a long backboard and place him in a basket stretcher.

A hiker was injured when he fell approximately 20? from a cliff. When you arrive at the scene, a member of the technical rescue group escorts you to the patient, who is positioned on a steep incline. The MOST appropriate method of immobilizing and moving the patient to the ambulance is to:

immobilize his spine with a long backboard and place him in a basket stretcher.

A history of pelvic inflammatory disease or tubal ligations increases a woman's risk for:

an ectopic pregnancy.

A hypnotic drug is one that:

induces sleep.

A laceration:

is a jagged cut caused by a sharp object or blunt force trauma.

A man finds his 59-year-old wife unconscious on the couch. He states that she takes medications for type 2 diabetes. He further tells you that his wife has been ill recently and has not eaten for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive. You should:

open and maintain her airway and assess breathing.

A mucosal atomizer device (MAD) is used to deliver certain medications via the:

intranasal route.

A nuchal cord is defined as an umbilical cord that:

is wrapped around the baby's neck.

A partial-thickness burn involves the outer layer of skin and a portion of the:

dermal layer.

A patient in a semireclined position with the head elevated to facilitate breathing is in the ___________ position:


A patient in respiratory arrest at the scene of a mass-casualty incident would typically be classified as a fourth priority (black tag; expectant) patient, unless:

there are enough resources to provide care for him or her.

A patient should be placed in the recovery position when he or she:

is unconscious, uninjured, and breathing adequately.

A patient who cannot remember the events that preceded his or her head injury is experiencing:

retrograde amnesia.

A patient who is complaining of seeing flashing lights, specks, or "floaters" in his or her field of vision has MOST likely experienced:

a detached retina.

A patient who is experiencing aphasia is:

unable to produce or understand speech.

A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:

nonrebreathing mask.

A patient who presents with profound cyanosis following a chest injury:

requires prompt ventilation and oxygenation.

A patient who presents with rapid breathing, nausea and vomiting, ringing in the ears, and a high fever should be suspected of ingesting a significant quantity of:


A patient who was bitten by a mosquito and presents with signs and symptoms of illness should be suspected of having:

West Nile virus.

A patient with an altered mental status is:

not thinking clearly or is incapable of being aroused.

A patient with atherosclerotic heart disease experiences chest pain during exertion because the:

lumen of the coronary artery is narrowed and cannot accommodate increased blood flow.

A patient with high blood pressure would be expected to have skin that is:

flushed and red.

A patient with profuse sweating is referred to as being:


A patient without a history of seizures experiences a sudden convulsion. The LEAST likely cause of this seizure is:


A patient's refusal for EMS treatment and/or transport must be:

an informed refusal.

A percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) restores blood flow to the ischemic myocardium by:

dilating the affected coronary artery with a small inflatable balloon.

A persistent or nonvolatile chemical agent can:

remain on a surface for more than 24 hours.

A person is said to be obese when he or she is ________ over his or her ideal weight.

20% to 30%

A person who experiences a calcaneus fracture after jumping and landing on his or her feet would MOST likely experience an accompanying fracture of the:

lumbar spine.

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