Labor Relations Final Exam

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Employment is not merely an economic transaction. It is related to

Human dignity B) The values of a democratic society C) Psychological fulfillment D) All of the choices are correct

The contract _______________ process is concerned with how grievances are resolved after contracts are negotiated

Administration

Equity is a standard of _______________.

employee treatment

Voice is a standard of _______________.

employee participation

The U.S. labor relations system is premised on the belief that the invisible hand of markets and the visible hand of _______________ cannot create efficiency, equity, and voice by themselves.

Human Resource Managers

The crucial feature of collective bargaining is that management's traditional authority to unilaterally establish terms and conditions of employment is replaced by _______________ negotiations

Bilateral

Which of the following best summarizes the trends in U.S. union density since the 1980s?

Stable in the public sector and declining in the private sector

The reasons for the long decline in U.S. private sector union density are _______________

Controversial

Union density in the United States is currently estimated to be _______________

Less than 15 Percent

Around 1910, most male workers earned less than _______________ per week

$15.00 Per Week

The movement to large-scale mass manufacturing and assembly lines that reduced worker's tasks to their simplest components resulted in ____________________

Deskilling

Which school believes that the class or ideology that has the greatest power in society can design and control institutions to serve their own interest?

Critical Industrial Relation School

Mainstream economics school views the purpose of the economic system as ____________________

Consumption

The ____________________ school of thought views unions as monopolies that benefit a few a the expense of everyone else

Mainstream Economics School

The ____________________ school of thought views unions as necessary to counter corporate bargaining power and to balance efficiency, equity, and voice in democratic, capitalist societies.

Industrial relations school

The ____________________ school believes that unequal social relations pervade all capitalist institutions

Critical industrial relations school

A ____________________ view of conflict assumes that some issues involve conflict and some involve mutual interests.

Pluralist

The belief that conflict is not limited to higher wages or better benefits, but is a social conflict between unequal power relations is called ____________________.

Class Conflict

Which of the following would not be included in a broad definition of workplace rules?

Union Dues

____________________. involves the rules for making rules.

Labor Relations

In the human resource management models of governance ____________________ is ultimately in control

Management

U.S. laws pertaining to labor unions and collective bargaining reflect the central belief of the ____________________ that unions are needed to counter corporate bargaining power and provide industrial democracy

Industrial Relations School

Which of the following was not established by the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938?

Protection for Unions

The U.S. system of labor relations is founded on the beliefs of which school of thought?

Industrial Relations

All of the following are an effect of U.S. unions except:

Expanded Wage Structure

Strict work rules, which unions are able to win because of their monopoly power, ____________________ productivity

Reduce

The collective voice side of unions can potentially improve outcomes for

Both Workers and Employees

When workers protest wages, hours and/or working conditions by refusing to work or to leave the shop/plant floor it is known as a

sit down strike

The major strategy of the unions of the American Federation of Labor focused on

Collective bargaining and the threat of strikes.

Which of the following is not a category of statutory law?

Common law

A union contract provision that requires employees to join the union after a certain amount of time on the job is known as a:

Union shop clause.

A yellow dog contract is a promise by employers to hire only union workers at their place of business.

False

Which of the following unions is most accurately described as a revolutionary union?

The Industrial Workers of the World

In 1806, a group of Philadelphia shoemakers was convicted of ____________________ for joining together and refusing to work unless their terms were met

illegal conspiracy

Today private sector union density is around:

10 percent

The Wagner Act (NLRA) makes it illegal for an employer to designate a representative of the employees in negotiations over wages, hours, and working conditions

True

Which of the following unions is typically considered to be an uplift union?

Knights of Labor

The Taft-Hartley Act prohibits unions from restraining or coercing employees who do not wish to join a union

True

The significance of the Haymarket Square Riot, starting with the battle between strikers and their replacements at McCormick Reaper Works was

It weakened the Knights of Labor even though the union had encouraged workers not to strike.

The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978:

Grants federal employees unionization rights.

The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 was the first piece of U.S. legislation to explicitly give workers the right to unionize.

True

The employment-at-will doctrine states that employers have the right to fire employees for any reason and employees have the right to quit at any time

True

U.S. labor law protects the right for a group of workers in a given workplace to be represented by more than one union

False

The Railway Labor Act of 1926 regulates labor-management relations in the rail and airline industries

True

What legislation created a national minimum wage, mandatory overtime premium for qualified workers, and restrictions on child labor?

Fair Labor Standards Act

The PATCO strike in the 1980's is significant because:

Many believe it created a new environment in which management could once again use aggressive tactics such as hiring permanent strike replacements to fight unionization

An important activity of the AFL unions was establishing and maintaining

job standards through work rules.

The Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959 requires unions and their officers to disclose financial records to the Department of Labor.

True

The National Labor Relations Board has responsibility for conducting union representation elections and enforcing the NLRA's unfair labor practice provisions

True

The American Federation of Labor focused its organizing efforts on:

Skilled craft workers

The first federation of U.S. labor organizations representing unions from different occupations and industries was

The National Labor Union

Which of the following was formed first?

craft unions

The Taft-Hartley Act provides unionization rights to supervisors

False

The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was designed to outlaw monopolies and prevent their economic dominance over markets and over society

True

In the early 1900s, the richest 1 percent of households in America controlled the greatest concentration of wealth in U.S. history at:

45 percent

In the 10 years following the passage of the Wagner Act of 1935, unionization levels:

Increased dramatically.

____________________ refers to the core standards of legal treatment, such as the right to a fair trial and to hear and present evidence

Due process

Which of the following is sometimes argued to be the beginning of today's strategic human resource management and high performance workplaces?

Welfare capitalism

Which of the following is outlawed under the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947?

Closed shop agreements.

The open shop movement was:

A movement by employers to use the concept of individual liberty to discourage workers from acting collectively and preserve management's right to control its business

In the ____________________ model of representation, a union is like an insurance company, where workers pay dues and are in turn protected against bad times.

servicing

An airline negotiates separate contracts for the pilots, mechanics, and flight attendants. Each group of employees is represented by its own union that organizes only that particular occupation. This model of unionism is best described as:

Craft unionism

A model of unionism which adopts a scope of representation confined to the workplace but which encourages active participation by union members is:

Employee empowerment unionism

Which state is most likely to have a low union density rate:

Georgia

A local union may represent:

Many workers from a single workplace B) Workers in a single occupation from several workplaces C) Multiple occupations in multiple workplaces D) All of the above

Local unions are governed by a president and ____________________ who are democratically elected.

Executive committee

Union democracy can be analyzed along three dimensions: procedural, ____________________, and substantive.

Behavioral

A strategy of working toward remaining nonunion is known as:

Union avoidance

Plant closings, refusing to hire pro-union applicants, firing or harassing union supporters and using permanent strike replacements are all examples of:

Union suppression

Paying above-market wages, providing job security, and providing opportunities for training and development are all examples of:

Union substitution

Union substitution refers to:

Management policies and practices adopted to keep unions out by making them unnecessary

The practice of shifting work from locations that are unionized to those that are not is considered:

Union suppression strategy

Which of the following is not considered a component of the legal environment of industrial relations?

Product market supply and demand.

Which of the following is not considered a component of the economic environment of industrial relations?

Bankruptcy codes.

The concept of "the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few" is most consistent with which ethical perspective:

Utility

The predominant model of unionism in the U.S. is business unionism.

True

Craft unionism can also be described as occupational unionism.

True

A union constitution is a document that spells out election procedures, by-laws, and other procedures for each national union.

True

The authorization card campaign is useful to the union because it helps the union assess whether it has sufficient support to win a representation election.

True

It is illegal for an employer to voluntarily recognize a union just because it has a majority of union authorization cards signed; union representation can only be decided by secret ballot vote.

False

If an employer denies a request for voluntary recognition, what is the next employee step in the union organizing process?

Filing an election petition with the NLRB

After 3 years of union representation, employees at Stellar Snowboard Manufacturing company decide that they wish to end their relationship with the union. The employees must:

File a petition for decertification election.

If a union gathers signed authorization cards from more than ____________________ percent of the employees, it can ask the employer to recognize the union as the bargaining agent of the employees.

50

In a union organizing campaign and election, the appropriate bargaining unit is defined by:

The NLRB

The appropriate bargaining unit defines:

Which occupations and locations of a particular employer will be included in the representation election and will therefore be represented by the union

The degree to which an individual thinks a union will be successful in improving the workplace is known as union instrumentality.

True

In a union election campaign, a key role of the NLRB is to balance the free speech rights of the employer and union against the free choice rights of the employees.

True

The NLRB principle that holds that every representation election should reflect employees' free choice with regard to unionization (or not) is known as the "laboratory conditions doctrine" or "General Shoe" doctrine.

True

The only time the NLRB can determine employees were not able to exercise their free choice in a union election and declare the vote invalid is when either the employer or the union commits an unfair labor practice.

False

In a union organizing campaign, employers are prohibited from holding "captive audience" meetings unless they also allow the union to hold a similar meeting.

False

Using data from the National Labor Relations Board, it is estimated that the majority of employers have done all of the following during a union representation campaign except:

Illegally discharged union supporters from their jobs

If a union makes a request to an employer for the names and addresses of employees eligible to vote in the union election:

The employer must turn the information over to the union within 7 days.

The Employee Free Choice Act would address all of the following except:

Employee dissatisfaction with union representation.

When the terms and conditions from one contract negotiations are used to determine terms and conditions of other contracts, it is called

Pattern bargaining

Bargaining power can best be described as

|The ability to secure another's agreement on your own terms.

The bargaining environment is defined as

The diverse set of external influences on labor and management as they bargain a contract

The binders used to create a complete record of the negotiation, including agendas, proposals, cost estimates, and supporting documents is called the

Bargaining book

A ____________________ change is when the employer changes wages, benefits, or other term and conditions of employment without bargaining with the union.

Unilateral

The employment relationship is labeled a mixed motive because

It is a mixture of conflicts of interests and shared opportunities for the employer-employee-union relationship

In negotiating a contract, the terms and conditions that are considered minimally acceptable to either side are determined by the

BATNA.

Which of the following could not be considered another label for integrative bargaining

Traditional bargaining

A key principle of integrative bargaining is that the parties should focus on ___________________ in negotiations.

Common interests

___________________ pertains to concerns of managing the labor-management relationship, such as creating trust.

Attitudinal structuring

Laws that require public sector negotiations to take place in public are called

Sunshine laws

Bluffing is a bargaining tactic that is most likely used in

Distributive bargaining

Which of the following is not an example of bad faith bargaining?

Bilateral bargaining

A unilateral change as it pertains to bad faith bargaining occurs when

An employer changes wages, benefits or other terms of employment without first bargaining with the union

The NLRB's responsibility to distinguish between issues that are mandatory, permissive and illegal bargaining items is called

The Borg-Warner doctrine

Which of the following is not an illegal bargaining item?

Union representation on the board of directors

Which of the following is not a mandatory bargaining issue?

Union representation on the board of directors

Which of the following is not a permissive bargaining issue

Bonus plans

The four bargaining subprocesses identified by Walton and McKersie include all of the following except

Concession bargaining

Intraorganizational bargaining arises due to the

Presence of diverse interests within a negotiating party's constituency

In an economic strike, workers refuse to work until

The employer meets their demands for conditions of employment.

A ____________________ is an employer-initiated rather than worker-initiated work stoppage during a bargaining impasse.

lockout

If employees are striking to force an employer to recognize and bargain with their union, it is called a ____________________ strike.

recognition

When employees protest working conditions by following the employer's rules "to the letter", they are said to be engaged in a

Work to rule campaign

Third-party dispute resolution mechanisms use ____________________ to settle bargaining impasses with the goal of avoiding costly strikes.

a neutral third-party

Picket line misconduct such as violence or vandalism can result in

All of the above.

An employee who wants to work instead of strike has the right to

Cross any picket line and/or resign from the union.

In the U.S., employers have the right to hire temporary strike replacements

In an economic strike B) In an unfair labor practice strike D) A and b only

Which of the following could be considered a secondary boycott?

A union encourages consumers not to purchase from Wal-Mart because it sells products that are produced by a company that they are currently striking.

A fact-finder has

Little control over either the process or the outcome of negotiations

In ____________________, the neutral third party investigates the dispute and makes nonbinding recommendations for a settlement.

fact-finding

If the primary goal of the dispute resolution system is putting pressure on negotiators to settle and guaranteeing a solution, then ____________________ is best.

arbitration

The ____________________ effect occurs when negotiators develop a dependence on third party dispute resolution methods.

Narcotic

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