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AP World History Unit 3 Flashcards

Johannes Gutenberg

German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468) He invented the printing press

Henry the Navigator

(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425), He marked beginning of Western European expansion

Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428), The African tip became know as the Cape of Good Hope

Vasco de Gama

A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean., He was the first European to reach India by Sea

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506), He reached the islands of the Caribbean in 1492 and discovered America

Amerigo Vespucci

Italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of America as a New World. America is named after him

Vasco de Balboa

Spanish explorer who crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discoverd the Pacific Ocean, Began first Spanish settlement on Mesoamerican mainland in 1509.

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world. He died in the Philippines

James Cook

English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands including Hawaii (1728-1779)

Joseph Banks

A young scientist who made vast contribuations to Botany and Zoology on the basis of his findings on this voyage, He was the 1st botanists to study native species

Capitalism

An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit

Mercantilism

A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country, stressing that they should export more than they import

Hernan Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

Moctezuma II

Last Aztec emperor; killed during Hernan Cortes' conquest of Tenochtitlan

Francisco Pizarro

Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)

Atahualpa

Last ruling Incan emperor. He was executed by the Spanish (Pizarro)

Encomienda System

A right that the Spanish government granted to its American colonies to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans

Repartimiento System

System much like the encomienda but with less abuse to the workers, required adult male Native Americans to devote a set number of days of labor anually to Spanish economic enterprises.

Charles V

Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563), tried to keep Europe religiously united

Philip II*

King of Macedonia, supporter of Catholic Church, increased power for Spain with riches from the Americas, Absolute Monarchy, Divine Right

Martin Luther

German monk and leader of the Protestant Reformation. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices, then started the Lutheran Church

Indulgences

Paid pardons from punishment for sin

95 Theses

Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on Octobe 31, 1517.

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