psychology & sociology

88 terms by zann

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Ainsworth

Theory of attachment; infants ; strange situation test/model. secure/insecure

Asch

conformity experiment; required subjects to match lines

Bandura

social learning theory; learned aggression; Bobo doll experiment; social cognition

Binet

I. Q. tests; with Simon, Paris

Bouchard

studied identical twins separated at birth; Thomas

Chomsky

linguist; innate propensity to develop language; "deep structure"

Ebbinghaus

memory; nonsense syllables; forgetting curve and overlearning

Erikson

neo-freudian; stage theory of psychological development

Freud

austrian; founded psychoanalysis; unconscious independent of conscious; sex-drive; oedipus complex

Garcia

conditioned taste aversion; rats

Gilligan

feminist critique of Kolhberg's moral development theory; women's moral sense guided by relationships

Harlow

attachment in monkeys with artificial mothers

James

empiricist; founder of functionalism; use of perception; pragmatist; first psych text - The Principles of Psychology; "stream of consciousness"

Kagan

longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence), theory children either inhibited or uninhibited, rejects attachment theory

Keys

semi-starvation experiments; psych effects of hunger

Kohlberg

moral stages of development theory; children

Loftus

memory construction and the misinformation effect; created doubts about accuracy of eye-witness testimony

Maslow

humanistic psychologist; "Hierarchy of Needs" ; "self-actualization"

Milgram

"shocking" (Ha!) experiments on obedience

Pavlov

classical conditioning; famous experiments with dogs

Piaget

theory of cognitive development in children; stage theory of intelligence; development stages

Rogers

humanistic psychologist; founded person-centered therapy, unique quality of humans esp. freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person

Schachter

field of emotion; 2 factor theory-physiological happens first, cognitive appraisal made in order to experience emotion

Skinner

behaviorist; pioneer operant conditioning; learned response- determined by past history of rewards and punishments. skinner box -used to study reinforcement on pidgeons and rats; animal=human behavior

Thorndike

pioneer operant conditioning; concepts in intstrumental learning such as law of effect; cats in puzzle boxes; IQ tests

Watson

developed behaviorist thought (with Skinner); "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning

Benjamin Lee Whorf

famous for describing concept of "liguistic determinism"

Wundt

father of psychology, opened first psychology research lab in Leipzig; research on workings of senses; applied scientific method to psychology

Zimbardo

social psychology; proved behavior depends on roles asked to play; Stanford Prison Study-power of social roles to influence behavior, Built on Milgram

Selye

recurring response to stress; general adaptation syndrome

Horney

neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; criticized Freud, personality molded by current fears and impulses, social and cultural influences rather than childhood experiences and instincts; concept of "basic anxiety"

Jung

neo-Freudian, adopted ego/superego from Freud, disagreed on unconscious, proposed a collective unconscious; self realization; personality types

Seligman

field of learning; Positive Psychology, Dogs demonstrating learned helplessness

Perls

founder of Gestalt therapy

Adler

psychoanalyst, Neo-Freudian; "inferiority complex" and superiority" as unconscious drives; birth order

Ellis

Developed "rational emotive behavior therapy" (REBT)

Beck

pioneer in Cognitive Therapy. Suggested negative beliefs cause depression.

Allport

trait theory of personality; 3 levels of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary

Phineas Gage

survival of a horrible industrial accident taught us the role of the frontal lobes

Mischel

Critic of trait theory., Social-Cognitive Learning Theories; people's personality traits not consistent across all situations.

Kubler-Ross

wrote "On Death and Dying"; developed 5 stage theory of grief

Lorenz

Founded ethyology; studied instinctive behavior in animals, greylag geese and jackdaws; principle of imprinting

Aquinas

1225-75, St. Thomas; "5 ways", proofs for God

St. Ansehm of Cantebury

ontological argument for the existence of God

Aristotle

Platos student; criticized theory of forms; developed systematized logic

Benedict

anthropologist; patterns of culture

Augustine of Hippo

neo-platonist; 4-5 century

Berkeley

idealist, mental representations/impressions fundamental

Boaz

father of modern anthropology; scientific method

Descartes

rationalist; mind-body distinct; "I think therefore I am"; Cartesian Dualism

Cartesian Dualism

Separation of mind and matter, allowed something to be investigated independently by reason

Gall

anatomist/physiologist; study of nervous system, brain;founded phrenology

Galton

heredity IQ tests; Sir Francis

Geertz

anthropologist; symbolic anthropology; thoughts symbols.

Goffman

sociologist; social interaction

Hegel

idealist; teleology; theory of dialectic; synthesis of thesis and antithesis; teleological orientation (after Berkley)

Heidegger

influenced existentialism; "Being and Time"; phenomenology

Hume

empiricist; Scottish; induction

Husserl

father of phenomenology

Kant

idealist; categorical imperative; moral universalism; syllogism; 3 maxims "critique of reason"; free will; deductive reasoning- a priori; deontological ethics

Kierkegaard

founder existentialism; Danish; Soren

Leibnitz

rationalist; deduction; Descartes

Locke

empiricist; tabula rosa; important to age of enlightenment; Declaration of Independence; attacked Divine right of kings

Kohler

gestaltist; worked with chimps

Malinowski

anthropologist; groundwork in ethnographic fieldwork

Mill

empiricist; "Utilitarianism"; "Our Liberty"

Nietzche

existentialist; "Ubermensch" superman; not bound by right and wrong

Parsons

sociologist; developed Structural Functionalism

Occam

Occam's Razor=simpler explanations are preferable to complex ones; "parsimony"

Pascal

PENSEES: Known for his wager, Applied cartesian Dualism to Christianity

Patterson

American sociologist known for his work on race

classical conditioning

conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex

Pierce

philosopher; pragmatist

Plato

theory of forms; things are shadows of objects of knowledge which are universal; his writings- basis of western philosophy

Pythagorus

pre-socratic

Rousseau

romantic; philosopher of education; one leader of enlightenment; "The Social Contract'

Russel

founder of Analytic Philosophy; linguist; Pacifism; logic; epistemology; Bertrand

Ryle

critique of Cartesian Dualism; philosophy and language; logical positivist; vienna circle

vienna circle

A group of philosophers in Vienna during the early part of the twentieth century. They took the position that all that could not be verified was nonsense.

Satre

existentialist; "Being and Nothingness'; play "No Exit"

Strauss

anthropologist; "Structural Anthropology"; culture system of symbolic communication

Socrates

oral teachings transcribed by student Plato; Q + A teaching; hemlock

Titchener

structuralist

Wittgenstein

logical positivist; philosophy of language

Lewin

field theory of personality

Jung

analytic theory of personality

teleological

ethical theory concerned with outcome, whether an action produces greater good in the world

ontology

study of the nature of being, Parmenides

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