Which of the following is NOT known to be a vitamin for human beings?
d. Pantothenic acid
Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?
d. Hair and nails
Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?
b. Smooth tongue
c. Abnormal liver function
d. Abnormal heart function
Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C and folate?
a. Required for glycolysis
b. Consumption prevents anemia
c. Required in microgram quantities
d. Found in citrus products and legumes
consumption prevents anemia
What is a free radical?
a. An inactive vitamin
b. An unphosphorylated vitamin
c. A molecule of unbound cobalamins
d. A molecule with at least one unpaired electron
a molecule with at least one unpaired electron
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?
a. Antiviral agent
b. Antifungal agent
c. Anticancer agent
d. Antioxidant agent
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
a. Coenzyme for energy release
b. Cofactor in collagen formation
c. Cofactor with calcium in blood coagulation
d. Coenzyme in the formation of red blood cells
cofactor in collagen formation
The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is
The synthesis of collagen requires both vitamin C and
What organ stores the highest concentration of vitamin C?
c. Thyroid gland
d. Adrenal glands
Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C supplementation on the resistance to, and recovery from, colds?
a. There was a reduction in the duration of colds by 50% on the average
b. There was only a minor effect on reducing the number and severity of colds
c. There was a consistent reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least 200 mg a day
d. There was a significant reduction in the number of colds only in people who consumed more than three grams per day
There was a significant reduction in the number of colds only in people who consumed more than three grams per day.
Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?
a. They deactivate histamine
b. They reduce episodes of diarrhea
c. They destroy intestinal pathogens
d. They alter hypothalamic control of body temperature
They destroy intestinal pathogens
Which of the following vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that causes nasal congestion?
b. Vitamin E
c. Vitamin C
d. Vitamin B12
What is the minimum daily amount of ascorbic acid that will prevent the appearance of scorbutic symptoms in human beings?
a. 10 mg
b. 30 mg
c. 50 mg
d. 60 mg
How much vitamin C is needed daily to raise blood ascorbic acid concentrations to a maximum?
a. 10 mg
b. 75 mg
c. 125 mg
d. 200 mg
Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?
a. Bleeding gums
b. Pernicious anemia
c. Appearance of a cold
d. Hysteria and depression
In the United States, what is the adult RDA for vitamin C?
a. 10-20 mg
b. 50-60 mg
c. 75-90 mg
d. 100-135 mg
People who smoke require additional vitamin C in the amount of
a. 5 mg.
b. 35 mg.
c. 100 mg.
d. 200 mg.
Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C?
a. Hair loss
b. Muscle spasms
c. Bilateral symmetrical dermatitis
d. Subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages
subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages
People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected from taking supplements of
d. ascorbic acid.
Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?
a. Milk group
b. Meat group
c. Fruit group
d. Grains group
Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?
Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C?
a. Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea
b. Hot dog, cabbage, french fries, and milk
c. Roast beef, broccoli, noodles, and coffee
d. Spaghetti with tomato sauce, meatball, garlic bread, and red wine
roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea
Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
d. Whole-grain bread
All of the following are consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements EXCEPT
a. they frequently cause diarrhea.
b. they appear safe at levels up to 2000 mg/day.
c. they enhance the action of anticlotting medications.
d. they interfere with laboratory urine tests for the diagnosis of diabetes.
they enhance the action of anticlotting medications
Moderate intakes of which of the following would provide sufficient amounts of vitamin C?
b. Brown rice
c. Low-fat milk
d. Whole-wheat bread
A vitamin supplement labeled as "high potency" contains an amount that is
a. 50% of the Daily Value.
b. equal to the UL.
c. up to 200% of the Daily Value.
d. 100% or more of the Daily Value.
100% or more of the daily value
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population takes a dietary supplement regularly?
The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following EXCEPT
a. vitamin toxicity.
b. the taker may ignore warning signs of a disease.
c. the taker may feel a false sense of security and consume a poor diet.
d. pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection.
pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection
Those groups of people who are at risk for developing marginal nutrient deficiencies and may benefit from
taking vitamin supplements include all of the following EXCEPT
b. food faddists.
c. athletes who are engaged in intense competitive events.
d. people with low energy intakes, such as habitual dieters and the elderly.
athletes who are engaged in intense competitive events