Is a form of strenght training where each muscular effort is opposed by a specific resistance.
Refers to a specific range of exercises in which a muscle is lengthend using an eccentric contraction and this is rapidly followed by a shortening or concentric contraction.
A natural hormone that stimulates red blood cell production. Is a form of "blood doping". Athletes that benefit are those who feature in endurance events.
Training that engaes and develops the aerobic energy system of energy supply. Examples include, Fartlek, Continuous/uniform or Long interval training.
Training for improvement in speed and power. Targets explosive type movments and activities.
This training increaes the capacity of the anaerobic system. Intervals of work are brief and recovery periods are longer to enable restoration of ATP stores. Alternating short bursts of intense activity with periods of rest or recovery.
In most cases involves low to moderate intensity activity and provides the groundwork for other forms of fitness. Develops both glycogen and fat utilisation in the provision of energy.
Utilises speed play over a variety of terrain.
Uses repetitions of high speed intensity work followed by periods of recovery to develop aerobic fitness.
Is a safe form of stretching in which the stretch is held for a period of 10-30 seconds. Is commonly used because it is safe and does not require the use of equipment.
Is the ability to perform extensive muscular movements causing joints to go through a full range of motion. Specific parts of the body are moved in a gradual, controlled manner while reach and speed is gradually increased.
Involves repeated movements such as punching and bouncing to gain extra stretch. This type of stretching involves forcing partos of the body beyond the normal range of motion.
A physiological consideration that is characterised by feeling of slowness, tiredness and lack of energy. Athletes do not train or perform at their best ability, leading to a gradual deterioration in performance.
A physiological consideration that comes in many forms such as bone breakages and pain associated with overuse. Athletes may be out of training and performances for a considerable period of time.
LOSS OF MOTIVATION
A psychological consideration in relation to overtraining.When physical stability is threatended, emotional factors assume greater magnitude and affect health and well-being. Symptoms include increased nervousness, poor concentration span, depression and emotional sensitivity.
This phase might last from 6-12 weeks or longer. Requires a high volume of training at a moderate levels of intensity. The training needs to target the appropriate energy systems.
This competition phase varies in duration, depending on the sport. Maintaining fitness developed in the pre-season phase is continued. General increase in intensity is matched by a corresponding decrease in volume.
This phase is one of physical and mental recovery from training and competition. It provides time for general refreshment, allowing both mental and physical abilities to recuperate.
The period immediately before competition when the volume and intensity of training is reduced.
An integral part of every training session. Often the takes the form of circuits, interval training, continuous training and callisthenics.
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE
Is a naturally occurring substance that increases the rate at which amino acids are transported to skeletal muscle cells. Takin artifical forms of the hormone can lead to increased muscle size and strength and acts in the mobilisation of fat and making it available as a source of energy.
A training innovation used to improve sporting performance. Movements such as throwing, catching, bowling, jumping and manipulating objects are explored in detail, problems identified and ways of making them more efficient are recommended.
Derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone and cause development of masculine characteristics.Stimulate protein synthesis in muscle cells, while simultaneously arresting its breakdown.
LACTATE THRESHOLD TESTING
A training innovation that is a most accurate and reliable method of testing blood samples during graded exercise tests.
The phase of training in which performance is optimised to meet the demands of a race, competition or series.