How can we determine the weight of a horse?
1) Use weight tape- useless for miniature horses, inaccurate on high withered horses, more accurate than most horse owners 2) Weighbridge
Equation for calculating the weight of a horse
BW (kg) = heart girth (cm)2 x length (cm)/11877
What is the most accurate way to determine a horse's weight?
How to condition score a horse?
Look at tailhead, crease down back, slong the withers, along the neck, behind the shoulder; Ideal 2-3 (for 1-5 system), 5-7 (for 1-9 system)
What are the different uses of a horse?
Maintenance, pregnancy and lactation, growth, work
What happens if give too much/too little nutrients?
Limit performance/productivity, affect health
What type of horses should be fed at maintenance?
Those that are not: pregnant, growing, or performing work
How do we get MJ of DE/day for horses at maintenance?
Multiply by 4.184
Horses fed at minimum maintenance level
sedentary lifestyle (confinement or docile), non-reactive temperament, older animals, living in stables, limited turnout, engage in little activity when kept at pasture
Horses fed at average maintenance level
alert temperaments and moderate voluntary activity, turned out for several hours or stabled horses active in their boxes, performance horses at rest
Horses fed at elevated maintenance level
nervous temperaments or high levels of voluntary activity, stallions or young horses noticeably active in stable or during turnout
How does the environment influence energy requirements?
↑E requirements of horse kept at grass (harsh winter- require extra E)
Individual differences of E requirements by each horse
monitor weight/condition to assess ration (energy)- look for adequate fat cover over body and condition score maintenance= says E requirement is being met
How to ↑ or ↓
BW by adjusting E requirements ↑ or ↓ E requirements by 10-15%
What is a first limiting amino acid? Which is the first limiting AA in horses?
AA that limits formation of proteins when inadequate amounts or it are not present in the diet; Lysine
What is the gestation length of a horse?
What are the 3 stages of nutrition during pregnancy?
First 4 months of gestation, Last 7 months of gestation, Lactation
How do we feed during early pregnancy?
First 4 months of gestation, feed for maintenance since minimal fetal growth
How do we feed during later pregnancy?
Last 7 months of gestation, E requirements ↑ from months 5-11 (1.03 x maintenance DE) up to (1.28 x maintenance DE), fetus occupies ↑ abdominal cavity, capacity for bulky feeds decline, Intake 1.5-2% BW
Feeding for later pregnancy: Lysine requirements
CP x 4.3%, estimation because there is no info on lysine requirements in pregnant mares
Lactation- how much does a foal feed during the 1st and 10th weeks?
100 feeding bouts/24hrs in 1st week, 35 feeding bouts/24hrs in 10th week, suckle 1-2 min
What is the milk intake of Thoroughbred foals during lactation?
@11days- 3.1%BW, @25 days- 2.1%BW, @39days- 2%BW; milk intake decreases over time
Thoroughbred foals: Weight at birth, LWG, Milk consumption/day
~50kg at birth, double weight by 39 days, 1.14kg/day, consume 15-19kg milk/day
What is the average weight of a Thoroughbred horse? Thoroughbred pony?
Feeding for early lactation: Energy requirements
at 0-12 weeks, 2 x maintenance
Feeding for late lactation: Energy requirements
from 12 weeks-weaning, ~1.75 x maintenance
When does natural weaning occur? When does weaning normally take place?
~12months, 4-6 months; growth rate ↓ with age
Feeding for growth- weight gain in TB?
Decreases over time 1.22kg DWG during first 3 months, 3-6 months (0.83kg), 6-9 months (0.67kg), 9-12 months (0.50kg)
What % of mature weight have TB reached by 6, 12, 18 months?
46%, 66%, 80%
What % of final wither height have TB reached by 6, 12, 18 months?
84%, 90%, 95%
What do we multiply the Maintenance DE by if the horse is in training, but is still growing?
Multiply by 1.5
How do we calculate the protein requirements for weanlings, yearlings, and 2 year olds that are still growing?
Multiply Mcal of DE/day by 50, 45, 42.5
Feeding for Light Work- E requirements
20% above maintenance, (0.0333 x BW) x 1.2, 1-3 hrs work/week, recreational riding, beginning of training program, show horses (occasional)
Feeding for Moderate Work- E requirements
40% above maintenance, (0.0333 x BW) x 1.4, 3-5 hrs work/week, show horses (frequent), school horses, polo, ranch work, beginning training/breaking
Feeding for Heavy Work- E requirements
60% above maintenance, (0.0333 x BW) x 1.6, 4-5 hrs work/week, show horses (frequent, strenuous events), low-med level eventing, race training (middle stages)
Feeding for Very Heavy Work- E requirements
90% above maintenance, (0.0333 x BW) x 1.6, 1hr/week speed work up to 6-12 hrs/week slow work, racing (quarter horse, thoroughbred, standardbred, endurance), elite 3-day eventing
Feeding for work- Protein requirements
↑ CP requirement with ↑ work intensity
*Feeding for Work- Forage:Concentrate Ratios*
Light work (~100:0 to 80:20), Moderate work (~70:30 to 60:40), Heavy work (50:50), Very heavy work (50:50)
What is the lowest amount of forage that should be fed?
1kg DM forage/100kg BW
What are the rules of feeding?
Provide adequate forage, Feed concentrates little and often, Feed consistently (type and amt), Provide good water source, Control parasites, Check teeth, Monitor condition (weight) of animal, Provide regular exercise