english final

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111 terms

tone

attitude. Speaker's attitude toward the subject or topic. Influences the reader's attitude tpward the subject and the speaker.

intonation

the way something is said

satiric poetry

blends criticism with humor to convey a point, often conveying a message by ridiculing a person or group and/or some aspect of human behavior

persona

the fictitious character that is invented by the poet to be the speaker of the poem

irony

implies a discrepancy

verbal irony

character says something but means something else

sarcasm

an extreme form or verbal irony in which the comment is conspicuosly sharp or better

situational irony

readers expect a certain outcome but something else happens suprising the readers

dramatic irony

when the character says something to the audience but the audience already knows more

tragic irony

another name for dramatic irony

cosmic irony or irony of fate

when the fates or fate seems to have a cruel sense of humor and use it to conspire against human beings

image

a word or sequence of words that refer to any sensory experience

visual imagery

sight

auditory imagery

sound

tactile imagery

touch

olfactory imagery

smell

imagery

all images in a given poem or text taken together

haiku

17 syllable japanese poem, 5-7-5 syllables, captures the intensity of a single moment linking two concrete images. tends to be seasonal

imagism

movement founded by Pound and inspired by HD which put forth the idea that the poem was the image.

Coleridge's distinction between prose and poetry

prose is "words in their best order" while poetry is "the best words in the best order"

explication

literally unfolding- the entire poem is explained in detail, adressing every element and unraveling the complexity as a means of analysis

symbol

something that suggests something larger more complex

conventional symbol

symbols traditionally recognized as having a standard meaning. ex..red rose symbolizes love

iconography

the visual or pictorial representation of a symbol..ex..crown representing royalty beyong just being a round metal be-jeweled hat

symbolic act

an action whos significance goes beyond its literal meaning

allegory

presents an abstract idea through concrete means...two parts: surface story, the larger meaning it suggests

parable

a short realistic illustrative story intended to teach a moral or religious lesson, a type of allegory. written in responce to to specific situations and address those situations allegorically

figurative language

describes one thing by relating it to something else

figures of speech

poetic language that relies not on literal meaning but on connotations, suggestions, and, most often comparisons

simile

comparison between unlike objects using like or as

metaphor

comparisond between to unlike things that does not use like or as but uses the verb to be

implied metaphor

metaphor that does not use the verb to be, instead the reader has to take an extra step to understand the comparison

extended metaphor

when the entirety of the poem is one long, involved metaphor

pun

play on words. reminds us of another word or words that are similar in sound but have a different denotation

apostrophe

direct adress to a person or object not usually spoken to. Could be an inanimate object, a person dead or absent, an abstraction. Dramatizes nonhuman things in human terms

hyperbole

exaggeration, overstatement

personification

bestowing humnan characterstics on an inhuman or inanimate object

understatement

opposite of hyperbole, this technique is ironic and creates emphasis in the other direction, by minimizing the importance or granduer of a given subject

metonymy

Figure of speech in which the name of the thing is substituted for that of another, closely related thing

synecdoche

a part of the whole represents all of it, or the whole represents a part

paradox

a seemingly contradictory statement which upon further examination turns out to be somehow accurate. often achieved through play on words

oxymoron

a condensed form of a paradox in which two apparently contradictory words are used together

onomatopoeia

words whose pronunciations mirror actual sounds, like buzz

euphony

harmonious effect of words that are put together in a pleasing way, reflects the themes of the poem

cacophony

words that are harsh and discordant

alliteration

repetition of initial consonant sounds

consonance

linked words share similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds

assonance

repetition of vowel sounds, makes kind of rhyme-y sound (oo)

exact rhyme

full rhyme, initial consonant sound is different but the rest of the words rhyme exactly or perfectly

near rhyme

words that are close to being a rhyme but slightly off

end rhyme

rhymes occuring at the end of the poetic line

masculine rhyme

rhyming of single syllable words

feminine rhyme

rhyme in which each rhymes word has a stresses syllable and then one or more unstressed syllable following it

eye rhyme

words that look like they should rhyme according to their spelling

internal rhyme

rhyme that occurs within the line of poetry rather than at the end of the line

eye rhyme

spellings look alike but pronunciations differ, as in dough and bough

rhythm

pattern of stresses and pauses in poetry

prosody

the study in metrical structures in poetry

meter

recurrent, regular, rhythmic pattern in verse, involving the stressed and unstressed syllables of words

scansion

analyzing and describing the rhythmic patterns that make up lines of poetry by breaking them down into metrical feet, counting syllables, marking accents, and indicating pauses

stress/ accent

emphasis placed on a syllable in speech...stress is the basic principle of meter

unstressed syllables/ slack

syllables: those syllables that do not get emphasis in speech

caesura

pause within a line or verse. often in the middle, and often accompanied by punctuation

end-stopped line

a line of poetry that ends with a piece of punctuation to indicate a stop or pause of some sort

enjambment

running together of lines of poetry from one to the next without any pause at the end of a line

foot

basic unit of measurement in metrical poetry

iambic

a syllable metrical foot that looks like: IAMB = unaccented ACCENTED (bal/oon) U/

iambic pentameter

most common meter in Engish language. 5 iambic feet per line. Shakespear wrote most of his plays in iambic pentameter

dactyl

a 3 syllable metrical foot....ACCENTED unaccented unaccented

trochee

a 2 syllable metrical foot that looks like ACCENTED unaccented

anapest

a metrical foot that looks like this: ACCENTED ACCENTED

closed form

poetry written in some pre existing pattern of meter, rhyme, line, or stanza. Includes sonnets, sestinas, villanelles, ballads

open form

verse that has no set or pre existing formal pattern

free verse

poetry that is written without metrical regularity, usually unrhymed

blank verse

unrhymed iambic pentameter

rhyme scheme

the [attern of rhyme found in a given piece

couplet

2 line stanza in poetry usually rhymed which often has lines of equal lenght

closed couplet

type of couplet where the two line stanza rhymes and the lines convey a complete thought

heroic couplet

closed couplet written in rhymed iambic pentameter

tercet

a stanza with 3 lines

triplet

a tercet in which three lines rhyme

terza rima

a closed form made up of 3 line stanzas with an overlapping rhyme scheme; aba bcb cdc ded efe

quatrain

4 line stanza

ballad stanza

most common pattern: 4 lines rhymed abcb. Falls into 8-6-8-6 syllables

common meter

has two pairs of rhymes and is the same as the ballad stanza

syllabic verse

poems written so that each line contains a certain number of syllables

English (Shakespearean) sonnet

3 quatrains + couplet; abab cdcd efef gg

Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet

octave + sestet abba abba + cdecde or cdccdc or cdcdcd almost any rhyme scheme goes in the sestet Except a couplet

Octave

8 line stanza

Sestet

6 line stanza

epigram

short often comic or biting poem that offers a witty turn of though or meaning

limerick

closed form marked by 5 anapestic lines rhyming aabba. Lines 1,2 and 5 traditionally have three stressed syllables each, while lines 3 and 4 have two stresses each

abecedary

closed form in which poems in some way use the complete alphabet in order

acrostic

closed form in which the first letter of each line spells out a word of phrase when read vertically

villanelle

closed form containing 6 rhymed stanzas in which two lines are repeated in specific pattern

sestina

closed form of 39 lines composed of 6 line stanzas and a 3 line envoy. 6 stanzas, 6 end words are repeated according to a specific pattern. after these first 6 6 line stanzas, the final 3 line stanza, or envoy, finishes the poem by using all 6 of the repeated end words from the first 6 stanza.

pantoum

a closed form that can be any lenght; the key to the form is the use of 4 line stanzas. the 2nd and 4th lines of the each stanza are used as the first and third line of the following stanza. often the last line is the same as the first

elegy

a sad, meditative poem usually written to mark a death or some other solemn occasion, usually written in a very formal style

visual poetry

the shape of the poem in some way reflects the meaning

prose poetry

poetry in which the poet prints their poem in block, paragraph form and the poem is composed of sentences rather then lined poem

concrete poetry

designs or pictures made from letters and words. these poems do not have meaningful messages; instead shapes of the letters to creat pictures

refrain

words, phrases, or lines repeated in intervals throughout the song

ballad

song that tells a story. Originally an oral verse form. compressed, dramatic, objective

terminal refrain

repeated after each stanza

incremental refrain

repeated within the stanza, generally in fized position

folk ballad

tells a story that is evolved over time by who sang them

ballad stanza

most common pattern: 4 lines rhymed abcb. falls into 8-6-8-6 syllabels

common meter

has two pairs of rhymes and is the same as the ballad stanza otherwise

literary ballad

ballad meant to be read not sung

blues

type of folk music, 3 line stanzas, with lines 1 and 2 being the same and the 3rd line being different but end rhyming with lines 1 and 2

rap

type of music with spoken lyrics to a rhythmic and driving beat

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