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Chapter 10: Understanding Meats and Game

About 75% of muscle tissue, or meat is ___________. (a) protein (b) water (c) fat (d) collagen

(b) water

A federal inspection stamp on a cut of meat indicates that the cut was found to be ____________. (a) properly aged. (b) wholesome and fit to eat. (c) tender and of good quality. (d) a good proportion of lean to fat. (e) all of the above.

(b) wholesome and fit to eat

The most popular grade of fresh beef sold in restaurants and in retail outlets is __________. (a) USDA Prime (b) USDA Select (c) USDA Choice (d) USDA Extra

(c) USDA Choice

The term "green meat" refers to meat that is __________. (a) low grade meat. (b) spoiled meat that has developed mold. (c) meat that is not aged enough. (d) meat that is aged in a vacuum pack.

(c) meat that is not aged enough.

Tenderness in cooked meat is determined by __________. (a) the cooking method used. (b) the maturity of the animal. (c) the specific cut used. (d) all of the above.

(d) all of the above.

The most accurate way to test the doneness of a large roast is to ___________. (a) test the internal temperature with a meat thermometer. (b) pierce the meat with a skewer or fork and check the color of the juices. (c) observe the roasting time given on a meat roasting chart, based on the weight of the roast and the oven temperature. (d) press on the roast to feel how firm it is.

(a) test the internal temperature with a meat thermometer.

The doneness of broiled or grilled steaks is normally tested by ___________. (a) testing the internal temperature with a meat thermometer (b) pierce the meat with a skewer or fork and check the color of the juices. (c) observe the roasting time given on a meat roasting chart, based on the weight of the roast and the oven temperature. (d) press on the roast to feel how firm it is.

(d) press on the roast to feel how firm it is.

Larding is: (a) interior fat that occurs naturally within muscle tissue (b) the exterior fat covering of meats. (c) inserting strips of fat with a needle into meats. (d) basting meats with fat during cooking to prevent drying.

(c) inserting strips of fat with a needle into meats.

Browning meat at a high temperature before roasting may be done: (a) with certain small roasts to develop flavor and color. (b) to seal the pores of the meat to keep in juices. (c) to speed cooking time. (d) none of the above. High heat should never be used for roast meats.

(a) with certain small roasts to develop flavor and color.

The correct order of the components of meat (from the highest percentage component - lowest percentage component) is ___________. (a) protein - fat - water - carbohydrate (b) fat - water - carbohydrate - protein (c) water - protein - fat - carbohydrate (d) carbohydrate - protein - fat - water

(c) water - protein - fat - carbohydrate

Meat shrinkage--caused by moisture loss during the cooking process--is a major problem because too much moisture loss causes ___________. (a) dry meat (b) loss of profit (c) loss of weight (d) all of the above

(d) all of the above

__________ is the main source of flavor in meat. (a) Fat (b) Protein (c) Carbohydrate (d) none of the above

(a) Fat

A well-marbled prime (top grade) steak tastes "beefier" than the same cut of a lower grade because it contains more ________. (a) fat (b) protein (c) collagen (d) carbohydrates

(a) fat

Adding fat to the surface of a meat to protect it form drying out during the cooking process is known as ___________. (a) larding (b) barding (c) marbling (d) coagulation

(b) barding

The texture or grain of a piece of meat is determined by __________. (a) its fat content (b) the size of its muscle fibers (c) the extent to which its protein has coagulated (d) all of the above

(b) the size of its muscle fibers

Which of the following is true about the connective tissue in meat? (a) It is tough. (b) It is concentrated most highly in younger animals. (c) It is concentrated most highly in muscles that are less excised. (d) all of the above

(a) It is tough.

Which of of these sets of words correctly completes the following sentence? Collagen is _________, and elastin is __________. (a) yellow in color, white in color (b) dissolved by acid, not dissolved by acid (c) not broken down by cooking, broken down by cooking (d) all of the above

(b) dissolved by acid, not dissolved by acid

The collagen in meat can be broken down by __________. (a) acid (b) enzymes (c) long, slow cooking in the presence of moisture (d) all of the above

(d) all of the above

The elastin in meat can be broken down by ___________. (a) acid (b) enzymes (c) long, slow cooking in the presence of moisture (d) all of the above

(d) none of the above

Meat containing elastin can be tenderized by __________. (a) grinding (b) pounding and cubing (c) slicing very thin against the grain (d) all of the above

(d) all of the above

Which of the following statements is false in regard to meat inspection? (a) It is required by law (b) It is indicated by a round stamp. (c) It involves a quality designation. (d) It is guarantee of wholesomeness.

(c) It involves a quality designation.

Which of the following is naturally tender and does not require long, slow cooking with moist heat? (a) sweetbreads (b) tripe (c) oxtails (d) both a and b

(a) sweetbreads

Which of the following types of meat is not yield graded? (a) veal (b) beef (c) pork (d) lamb

(a) veal

Which of the following is the following is the correct order of USDA beef grades if they are arranged from the lowest grade - highest grade. (a) choice - select - prime (b) prime - select - choice (c) select - choice - prime (d) none of the above.

(c) select - choice - prime

The softening that takes place in meat during the aging process is due to __________. (a) the effect of rigor mortis (b) continuing enzyme action in muscle tissue (c) ultraviolet lighting used during the agin process (d) keeping meats at below freezing temperatures for several days

(b) continuing enzyme action in muscle tissue

Which of the following is the best method for cutting up oxtails? (a) cut into sections with a cleaver (b) cut apart at the joints with a french knife or butcher knife. (c) cut into large pieces with a band saw. (d) none of the above

(b) cut apart at the joints with a french knife or butcher knife.

Which of the following is not one of the steps in the preparation of sweetbreads? (a) Soak in several changes of cold water. (b) Peel membranes off thee blanched sweetbread. (c) Press blanched sweetbreads between two trays. (d) Boil for 30 minutes in salted water containing lemon juice.

(d) Boil for 30 minutes in salted water containing lemon juice.

The trade name Cryovac is most closely related to __________. (a) dry aging (b) wet aging (c) yield grading (d) fabricated cuts

(b) wet aging

During dry aging, meat is __________. (a) protected from the air (b) packaged or wrapped carefully (c) sometimes treated with ultraviolet light (d) all of the above

(c) sometimes treated with ultraviolet light

Meat cuts are based on __________. (a) the muscle and bone structure of the meat (b) uses and appropriate cooking methods of various parts of the animal (c) both a and b (d) neither a nor b

(c) both a and b

A beef carcass is a whole animal, minus its ________. (a) hide (b) entrails (c) head and feet (d) all of the above

(d) all of the above

__________ is the correct sequence of meat cuts as they progress from largest - smallest? (a) Carcass - sides, quarters, for/hindsaddles - primal/wholesale cuts - fabricated cuts (b) Sides, quarters, for/hindsaddles - primal/wholesome cuts - fabricated cuts - carcass (c) Carcass - primal/wholesale cuts - fabricated cuts - sides, quarters, fore/hindsaddles (d) Fabricated cuts - primal/wholesale cuts - sides, quarters, fore/hindsaddles - carcasss

(a) Carcass - sides, quarters, for/hindsaddles - primal/wholesale cuts - fabricated cuts

A primal cut is fabricated when it is __________. (a) placed in a Cryovac bag while it is still green (b) cut up and trimmed in various ways (c) covered with cloth to protect it from mold and bacteria (d) allowed to age in a temperature-and humidity-controlled environment

(b) cut up and trimmed in various ways

Portion control cuts of meat requires the __________ amount of work from the cook and are the ___________ expensive per pound of all categories of cuts. (a) most, most (b) most, least (c) least, most (d) least, least

(c) least, most

Chef Os asked the following four students to give him a reason why it is important to know the bone structure of meat animals. Which of them had apparently not read her/his assignment? (a) Celeste: "If you know bone structure, then you will be able to identify cuts of meat more accurately." (b) Teofilo: "Knowing where the bones are in a piece of cooked meat helps you to carve it most skillfully." (c) Savrista: "It is much easier to bone and cut meat if you are aware of the bone structure of the animal you are processing." (d) Laurent: "Knowing the location of the bones in a cut of meat will help you determine whether you should cook it with moist or dry heat."

(d) Laurent: "Knowing the location of the bones in a cut of meat will help you determine whether you should cook it with moist or dry heat."

If we moved along the backbone of a beef carcass from the front end to the tail end, we would encounter the following order of primal cuts. (a) chuck - rib - loin - round (b) round - loin - rib - chuck (c) loin - round - chuck - rib (d) rib - chuck - round - loin

(a) chuck - rib - loin - round

If we moved along the underside of a beef carcass from the front end to the tail end, we would encounter the following order of primal cuts. (a) short plate - round - brisket - flank - shank (b) brisket - flank - short plate - round - round (c) round - flank - short plate - brisket - shank (d) shank - brisket - short plate - flank - round

(d) shank - brisket - short plate - flank - round

Which of the followoing contains the other three? (a) strip loin (b) short ribs (c) club steak (d) short tenerloin

(b) short lion

Dry heat is the preferred cooking method for __________. (a) brisket (b) short ribs (c) stew meat (d) club steaks

(d) club steaks

Which of the following is an incorrect combination of beef primal cut - fabricated cuts? (a) shank - hind shank, knuckle, and rump (b) chuck - cube steak, triagle

(a) shank - hind shank, knuckle, and rump

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