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What's the primary site for absorption of nutrients?

forms the outer covering of the stomach

Where is the visceral peritoneum?


In the liver, amino acids are used to created complex molecules through the process of _________ .

loss of acids in stomach and dehydration

Prolonged vomiting causes alkalosis because of...

lactic acid

Dehydration causes acidosis because of increased production of _______ .

5th, 9th, 10th & 12th (trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus & hypoglossal)

Which cranial nerves are responsible for swallowing?

esophageal atresia (narrowing)

_______ causes the inability to get food or fluid into the stomach

floor of the mouth

A common location for oral cancer is the ________.

raw eggs and uncooked poultry

What causes gastroenteritis due to salmonella?

via the oral-fecal route (restaurants or day care centers)

How is hepatitis A transmitted?

lower left quadrant

Where is the pain from diverticulitis felt?

the liver

Where is the first area that colon cancer usually metastasizes?

cuts off blood supply

Volvulus (twisting of bowel on its mesentery) causes gangrene in the bowel because the twisting _________________ .

leakage of intestinal bacteria into the gut, paralytic ileus (paralysis of the intestinal muscles which prevents peristalsis) and shock.

Why does chemical peritonitis occur because of perforated gallbladder?

the proximal duodenum

What is the most frequent location for peptic ulcers?

dark-colored, bloody stool caused by bleeding in the GI tract. often a sign of peptic ulcer or bowel disease

What is melana?

eating smoked food or food with lots of nitrates, heredity

Predisposing factors for gastric carcinoma -


______ causes elevated serum bilirubin, both conjugated and unconjugated.

genetics, environmental factors & auto-immune issues

Inflammatory bowel disease is caused by __________.

the trigone

What is the area formed by the three openings of the bladder?

flank pain and urinary casts

What are the symptoms of pyelonephritis?

problems with tubular exchanges cause problems excreting bicarb

Why does metabolic acidosis develop with bilateral kidney disease?

gradual onset of chronic renal failure after age of 40

What is the onset of polycystic kidney disease?

cardiac dysrhythmias

Kidney disease can cause hypokalemia or hyperkalemia which both lead to ________.

chronic renal failure

persistent glomerulonephritis will eventually cause

sacral reflexes

Defecation reflex requires coordination of _____________.

hypertension and chronic renal failure

With nephrosclerosis (hardening of the kidney), you will likely also see ________________ and _____________ .

serious infection, dehydration, pancreatitis, surgery, trauma, myocardial ischemia

Precipitating factors for DKA include __________.

staggering gait, confusion, disorientation, sweating

Signs of hypoglycemia -

abnormal metabolism in the lens

Visual impairment in diabetes is caused by ______________.

Decreased glucocorticoids; increased glucocorticoids

____________ cause Addison's disease, _____________ cause Cushing's disease.

pendulous abdomen and breasts, truncal obesity, staring eyes, buffalo hump, increased levels of glucocorticoids, atrophy of lymph nodes

What are the characteristics of Cushing's disease?

a poor stress response. Symptoms include muscle weakness & fatigue or pain, joint pain, weight loss & decreased appetite, hyperpigmentation, low blood pressure & syncope, salt craving, hypoglycemia, irritability or depression

Addison's disease causes

deficiency of ADH

Diabetes insipidus caused by a __________________ .

immune complex causes deposits in glomerular tissue causing inflammation

Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis -

microscopic hematuria

Initial sign of adenocarcinoma of kidney -

absorption of NA+ and water

Furosemide or Lasix decreases

negative feedback loop

Increased blood glucose causes increased secretion of insulin, which is an example of a _________________ .

prolonged use of steroids

Decreased secretion of glucocorticoids in the adrenal glands results from _______________ .

fever, hyperthermia, heart failure

Signs of thyrotoxic crisis -

Acetylcholine (Ach)

What chemical neurotransmitter is found at the neuromuscular junction?

joint movement

Articular cartilage facilitates ________ .

deformity of the joint

What is a sign of dislocation?

pannus in rheumatoid arthritis. A pannus will covers and deprives the cartilage of nutrients it would otherwise receive from the synovial fluid.

Articular cartilage is damaged by

redness and inflammation

What are the signs of RA?

tear in a tendon


tear in a ligament


Sugar in the urine

What is glycosuria?

increased glucose in urine changes osmotic pressure

Polyuria in diabetes occurs because ____________________.


is increased hunger because nutrients are not making it to the cells.

catabolism of fats

acidosis increases

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