In the liver, amino acids are used to created complex molecules through the process of _________ .
5th, 9th, 10th & 12th (trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus & hypoglossal)
Which cranial nerves are responsible for swallowing?
cuts off blood supply
Volvulus (twisting of bowel on its mesentery) causes gangrene in the bowel because the twisting _________________ .
leakage of intestinal bacteria into the gut, paralytic ileus (paralysis of the intestinal muscles which prevents peristalsis) and shock.
Why does chemical peritonitis occur because of perforated gallbladder?
dark-colored, bloody stool caused by bleeding in the GI tract. often a sign of peptic ulcer or bowel disease
What is melana?
eating smoked food or food with lots of nitrates, heredity
Predisposing factors for gastric carcinoma -
genetics, environmental factors & auto-immune issues
Inflammatory bowel disease is caused by __________.
problems with tubular exchanges cause problems excreting bicarb
Why does metabolic acidosis develop with bilateral kidney disease?
gradual onset of chronic renal failure after age of 40
What is the onset of polycystic kidney disease?
Kidney disease can cause hypokalemia or hyperkalemia which both lead to ________.
hypertension and chronic renal failure
With nephrosclerosis (hardening of the kidney), you will likely also see ________________ and _____________ .
serious infection, dehydration, pancreatitis, surgery, trauma, myocardial ischemia
Precipitating factors for DKA include __________.
Decreased glucocorticoids; increased glucocorticoids
____________ cause Addison's disease, _____________ cause Cushing's disease.
pendulous abdomen and breasts, truncal obesity, staring eyes, buffalo hump, increased levels of glucocorticoids, atrophy of lymph nodes
What are the characteristics of Cushing's disease?
a poor stress response. Symptoms include muscle weakness & fatigue or pain, joint pain, weight loss & decreased appetite, hyperpigmentation, low blood pressure & syncope, salt craving, hypoglycemia, irritability or depression
Addison's disease causes
immune complex causes deposits in glomerular tissue causing inflammation
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis -
negative feedback loop
Increased blood glucose causes increased secretion of insulin, which is an example of a _________________ .
prolonged use of steroids
Decreased secretion of glucocorticoids in the adrenal glands results from _______________ .
pannus in rheumatoid arthritis. A pannus will covers and deprives the cartilage of nutrients it would otherwise receive from the synovial fluid.
Articular cartilage is damaged by
increased glucose in urine changes osmotic pressure
Polyuria in diabetes occurs because ____________________.