The distance North or South of the equator.
Define altitude (elevation).
Height above sea level. As altitude increased, the air becomes less dense and the temperature decreases.
How do prevailing winds affect climate?
Prevailing winds if coming from warm oceans can bring considerable moisture to an area. When prevailing winds blow across a continent, mountains can greatly the prevailing winds.
What is the latitude at the equator?
What is the latitude at the North Pole?
90°N, South Pole? 90°S
How do mountains ranges affect climate?
Mountains act as a barrier to prevailing winds and create a wet, lush side of a mountain range and a dry opposite side of the mountain range
How does altitude affect climate?
The higher the altitude the cooler the temperature.
How do ocean surface currents affect climate?
Ocean currents can bring moisture to a region and help moderate coastal climates
What is the latitude range of the polar zone?
66.5 °N or 66.5°S to the pole (90°N or 90°S)
What is the latitude range of the temperate zone?
23.5°N to 66.6°N and 23.5°S to 66.5°S latitude
What is the latitude range of the tropical zone?
23.5°S to 23.5°N
What is a monsoon?
A sea and land breeze over a large region that changes direction with the season and carries tremendous moisture in the summer season
Explain why warm air rises and cold air sinks.
Warm air rises because it is less dense, cold air sinks because it is more dense
Explain what causes summer in the Northern hemisphere?
In the summer the Northern hemisphere receives direct sunlight and has longer hours of daylight
When do the polar regions have almost 24 hours of darkness?
When do the polar regions have almost 24 hours of daylight?
When are the equinoxes and what causes them?
The equinoxes occur in March and September and are the time of year when neither end of the earth's axis is not pointed toward or away from the sun.
How does altitude/elevation affect temperature?
As altitude increases, temperature decreases because the atmosphere is less dense.
How does elevation affect the density of the atmosphere?
As elevation increases, the density of the atmosphere decreases.
What factor determines the amount of solar energy an area receives?
The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and cloud in an area are known as its _______
Where in the US do you find a continental climate?
In areas located far inland from an ocean.
What are the two main factors that are used to classify climates?
Temperature and precipitation.
Köppen's climate system classifies climates by what 3 factors?
Temperature and precipitation and vegetation.
The climate zone lying between 23.5° and 66.5° north and south latitude is called the _________ zone.
What is the difference between the leeward and windward side of a mountain (think in terms of precipitation)?
Windward side gets the prevailing winds carrying moisture from the ocean and receives a great deal of moisture. When the wind crosses over to the other (leeward) side of the mountain, the air is much drier and carries little precipitation.
The land on the __________ side of a mountain range is in a rain shadow. (has very little rainfall)
Because of its high __________ Mount Kilimanjaro has a cool climate all year.
The _________Hemisphere receives fewer direct rays from the sun in January than in July.
Because Earth's axis is __________, the hemispheres receive different amounts of solar energy at different times.
Streams of water called ocean ___________ move warm or cold water, warming or cooling the nearby land.
Why does one side of a mountain usually have more precipitation than the other side?
Mountains force air to rise, which causes the air to cool, condense, and form clouds that release moisture
The farther you live from an ocean, the more likely your climate will be a __________.
A climate in a small area.
Define the greenhouse effect.
A natural process in which gases in the atmosphere trap heat energy.