SOC-101 Final

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Questions from chapters 11, 14, 16, and 18 from Sociology in Modules by Richard T. Schaefer.

What percentage of all dental hygienists are women?

98%

Which of the following play an important part in gender-role socialization in the U.S.?

all of these (education, mass media, religion)

A gym buys uniforms for its employees. All of the uniforms are in a men's large, and the gym hires only people who will comfortably fit into the uniforms. As a result of this policy, the gym does not hire any women. This would be an example of

institutional discrimination

Which of the following terms refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females?

gender roles

Which of the following is true regarding men in our society run by male-dominated institutions?

All of these (competitive stress, heart attacks, mental illness)

Which of the following terms refers to an advantage that men have when employed in female-dominated occupations?

glass escalator

Which of the following statements about the status of women throughout the world is true?

All of these (rarely own property, poor single parents, lowest paying jobs)

An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity, is called

glass ceiling

What is the name of the federal policy that mandates gender equity in education in federally funded schools?

Title IX

Research on children's books published in the U.S. in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s indicates that

Female characters were passive and needed strong male caretakers

Women earn what percent of every dollar a man earns?

80%

Sociologist Michelle Budig discovered that

All of these (men are advantaged in female occupations, more encouraged to become administrators, no glass ceiling)

Which of the following is true regarding the treatment of women in many different nations?

All of these (denied equal pay, sexually harassed, fired for pregnancies)

The "second shift," which refers to the double burden borne by many women—work outside the home followed by child care and housework—was the subject of analysis by

Arlie Hochschild

The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is known as

sexism

Which sociologist discussed the concept and coined the term "multiple masculinities?"

R.W. Connell

Conflict theorists would view gender differences as

A reflection of the subjugation of one group, women, by another, men

Fear of and prejudice against homosexuality is called

homophobia

In a nationwide survey administered in 2002, 69 percent of respondents believed that

If one parent stays at home with children, the gender makes no difference

Which of the following studied the Minangkabau society in Indonesia, learning that men and women acted not as competitors but partners for the common good?

Peggy Reeves Sanday

Numerous sociological studies have revealed that additional years of formal schooling are associated with which of the following?

All of these (openness to new ideas, more liberal social and political viewpoints)

Which sociologist's analysis of bureaucracies has been applied to schools in the U.S. because of the growing number of students enrolled in schools and the greater degree of specialization required within a technologically complex society?

Max Weber

In 1996, Great Britain decided to instill which of the following core values via socialization in the school system?

All of these (punctuality, politeness, faithfulness)

About how many children are homeschooled in the United States?

1.5 million

What else were the first female college students expected to do in addition to attending classes?

All of these (wash men's clothes, serve men's food, cared for men's rooms)

Which theorist believed society must distribute its members among a variety of social positions and that education can contribute to this process?

Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore

Critics of bilingualism in schools in the U.S. argue that

Bilingualism undermines the social and political integration that education has traditionally promoted

Which of the following statements is true regarding gender and education?

Today, women outnumber men at college commencements

What is tracking?

The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria

In 1966, 37 percent of first-year female college students desired to become elementary or high school teachers. What was the percentage in 2009 for all first-year college students?

4.1%

What percentage of new teachers quit within the first three years due to burnout?

Between 25% and 33%

According to ____________, credentialism can increase the status of an occupation and is crucial to employees in their demands for higher pay.

C.J. Hurn

When a teacher spends eighty-percent of her time filling out proper forms required by the school district and the rest of her time actually teaching, this is an example of which characteristic of a bureaucracy?

written rules and regulations

In how many states is it legal to homeschool your child?

50

Which of the following school programs was initiated as an "agent of social change?"

All of these (sex education classes, Project Head Start, affirmative action admission programs)

Which sociologist pointed out that better-educated people tend to have greater access to factual information?

Robin Williams

Which college was the first institute of higher learning to admit female students?

Oberlin

In the U.S., schoolchildren are taught not to speak until the teacher calls on them and to regulate their activities according to clocks or bells. This learning experience is referred to as

hidden curriculum

Researchers have identified distinctive student subcultures on college campuses. The students who focus on having fun and socializing are referred to as the ____________ subculture.

collegiate

The status of a job depends upon which of the following factors?

All of these (level of financial compensation, level of education required, and respect given the occupation by society)

A monopoly is

the control of a market by a single business firm

Which of the following created a classification system of authority that distinguishes between traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic authority?

Max Weber

Positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities are known as

affirmative action

Which of the following attributes accurately reflect today's corporate elite?

All of these (wealthy, cohesive, powerful)

Reductions taken in a company's workforce as part of deindustrialization are called

downsizing

Which term was used by Max Weber to refer to the ability to exercise one's will over others?

power

Capitalism is an economic system in which

The means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits

Adam Smith is associated with

laissez-faire capitalism

What term do we use to refer to "who gets what, when, and how?"

politics

What term for government do we use to refer to a small group of individuals who rule?

oligarchy

The social institution that relies on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving the goals of a group is called a

political system

Which two theorists were responsible for the development of socialism?

Marx and Engels

In what position did the United States place in voter turnout among a survey of 140 countries who have held parliamentary elections during the last fifty years of the twentieth century?

114th

The root "demos" means which of the following?

the populace and common people

G. William Domhoff's view of the power structure of the U.S. most closely resembles the analysis of which sociological perspective?

conflict perspective

What percentage of eligible voters in the U.S. voted in the 2008 presidential election?

62%

Which amendment was ratified in reaction to the strong political activism displayed by young people during the 1960s?

26th

As described by C. Wright Mills, the "power elite" is

A small group of leaders who control the fate of the U.S. AND the group that stands at the top of the power structure in the U.S.

Socialism is defined as

An economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned

When a corporation in the U.S. relocates its plants to a country where prevailing wages are lower than in the U.S., this is the final stage of

deindustrialization

Which of the following would be an example of a "social movement"?

All of these (activists opposing the war in Iraq, civil rights movement of the 60s and 70s, people who organized for or against abortion rights)

The most all-encompassing type of collective behavior are

social movements

Which of these statements about social change is true?

Some people have a vested interest in resisting social change

False consciousness is defined as

Attitudes that do not reflect the objective position of workers

Which sociological perspective would suggest that the Internet serves the manifest function of facilitating communication?

Functionalist

Rebellious craft workers in nineteenth-century England who destroyed new factory machinery as part of their resistance to the new industrial revolution were known as

Luddites

A new technique of using technology to increase food production and to make agriculture more economical is called

Genetically modified food

Talcott Parsons viewed society as naturally being in a state of

equilibrium

Émile Durkheim contended that societies progressed from

simple to complex

The abbreviation NIMBY, which is often used when people protest landfills, prisons, and nuclear power facilities, stands for

Not in my back yard

____________'s pioneering work in biological evolution contributed to nineteenth-century theories of social change. According to his approach, there has been a continuing progression of successive life forms.

Charles Darwin

Which sociologist correctly predicted the collapse of the Soviet Union based on that country's twentieth-century expansionism and overextension of resources?

Randall Collins

Various religious groups and their followers are very upset about scientific advances in reproductive technology, such as birth control pills, abortion pills, in-vitro fertilization, and genetic engineering. This conflict between religious values and new scientific concepts illustrates

culture lag

Which term is used to refer to the ways in which a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel?

resource mobilization

Which theory of social change holds that society is moving in a definite direction?

evolutionary theory

Thorstein Veblen is responsible for coining the term

vested interests

Immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships that link their societies of origin with their societies of settlement are known as

transnationals

Which term is used by sociologists to refer to organized collective activities aimed at bringing about fundamental changes in existing society?

Social movements

By 2010, almost _______ people were connected to the Internet.

2 billion

Which of these statements is true?

All of these (internet usage patterns are changing very quickly, English is the most commonly used language on the Internet, use of the Chinese language on the Internet has increased 1000 percent between 2008 and 2009)

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