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test review guide

The way power, or the ability to control other's behavior is distributed or embedded in society

political organization

Political organization refers to the way, ________, or the ability to control others behavior, is/are distributed or embedded in society.

power

An egalitarian, autonomous group composed of related people who occupy a single region is called a(n) ______.

band

The Kpelle are an example of a ______.

chiefdom

Bands and tribes are both ______.

uncentralized and egalitarian

The form of social organization typical of hunter- gathers is the ______.

band/tribe

A ____ is a regional policy in which two or more local groups are organized under a single authority figure at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people

chiefdom

A group of nominally independent communities occupying a specific region, sharing a common language and culture, which is integrated by some unifying factor. This is what?

tribe

Richard Wrangham concluded about violence and sexual selection?

Females' evolutionary interests cannot be met without cooperation from males.

Age-grade systems and common interest associations are effective methods of integrating small, autonomous units such as bands into larger social units. These methods may be described as _______ systems of political organization.

nonkinship

19th century Darwin's theory of sexual differences between male and females was called

theory of sexual selection

The Tonowi (Big Man) of the Kapauku of the New Guinea acquires political power by

all of the above

The basis of the Tonowi's wealth is ______.

pigs

Ranked society in which every member has a position in the hierarchy, an individual's status is determined by membership in the descent group

chiefdom

Primary means of distributing goods in a chiefdom is

redistribution

A centralized political system with the power to coerce is a

state

The state is distinctive in the extensiveness of its legitimate use of _____ to regulate the affairs of its citizens

force

In a chiefdom, an individual's status is determined by membership in a ____

descent group

The ____ is the most formal political organization and is one of the hallmarks of civilization. Political power centralized in a government, which may legitimately force to regulates affairs of its citizens.

state

Cross-cultural comparison of systems of political organizations reveals that _____.

women play important role in political decisions even when they are not visible public leaders

Among the Igbo of Nigeria,_____.

men and women each had separate autonomous spheres of political activity

When the British imposed colonial rule on the Igbo of Nigeria,_____.

they didn't recognize the political power of women and introduced changes that made women subordinate to women

At the heart of political organization is ____.

control of unacceptable social behavior

How is social order maintained in bands and tribes?

Gossip and fear of supernatural forces

Wape villagers avoid quarreling with each other because ____.

They believe that a hunter misses his prey only because of the intervention of ancestral ghosts who are angry with the quarreling in the community.

Sanctions refer to _____.

externalized social controls

Awards, titles, recognition, corporal punishment, and ostracism from community are all examples of

sanctions

_____ sanctions attempt to precisely and explicitly regulate peoples' behavior. they can be positive or negative.

formal

Which of the following is NOT a form of political organization?

group

Adamson Hoebel defined _____ as social norm enforced by legitimate use of physical force.

law

The functions of law include ______.

-defining relationships and proper behavior(under specified circumstances) for society's members(rights and duties with respect to each other)
-allows the specified authority to employ coercion in enforcement of sanctions
-redefines social relations and ensure social flexibility(must be able to change).

In Western Societies, "personal offenses" pertains to offenses against ______.

an individual

When a disruptive dispute occurs among members of the Ju/'hoansi or Inuit bands, usually defined as offenses against _____.

individual/kin group

Method of resolving disputes where disputing parties voluntarily arrive at mutually satisfactory agreement ____.

negotiation

"Warlike" behavior has been widely observed in groups of ______ in Tanzania.

chimpanzees

Which of the following are likely to be associated with warfare?

all of the above

The type of political organization that is most likely to resolve conflict with neighboring social unit by means of social warfare is the

tribe

Which one of the following is part of an uncentralized political system?
a.Band
b.Chiefdom
c.State
d.A and B only
e.B and C only

a.Band

The use of wealth to support the Tonowis power belief in the divine right of thing to rule; the oldest living male becoming head of daromey state of West Africa—What do these have in common?

They represent what is considered to be the legitimate basis of political authority in

Power used on _____ always results in an authority
a.Legitimacy
b.Mediation
c.Negotiators
d.Sa

Legitimacy

____ is the ability of individuals to impose their will on others; even against their will

force

An important pioneer in the anthropological study of law was ___
a.A.L. Krober
b.George Peter Murdock
c.John Wesely Powell
d.E. Adamson Hoebel
e.Peggy Reeves Sanday

Adamson Hoebel

1.In 1980, _____ as practitioner of dispute management, helped the US and the USSR replace their absolute "hot line" with fully equipped nuclear crisis centers in each capital
a.Sue Ellen Jacobs
b.William L. Ury
c.Margaret Boone
d.Alan Kolata
e.Harald Prins

William L. Ury

Which of the following political systems would be considered a centralized system?
a.States
b.Bands
c.Chiefdoms
d.Tribes
e.A and c

A and C

Among the Kapauku of west New Guinea the Big Man is called the tonowi, or "rich one." The toniwi's wealth comes from his success at _______.
a.cattle herding
b.shepherding
c.trading stocks and bonds
d.pig breeding
e.raising chickens

pig breeding

Which of the following would invoke informal sanctions against an individual in a restaurant in the United States?
a.Tearing up tables and chairs
b.fighting
c.threatening customers
d.stealing food
e.going barefoot

going barefoot

The _____ of Liberia in West Africa are a classic example of a chiefdom.
a.Nuer
b.Kpelle
c.Inuit
d.Hutu
e.Tutsi

Kpelle

The _____ authority system is characterized by a highly developed dual monarchy, a hereditary aristocracy, and elaborate kinship rituals, as well as by statewide age sets.
a.Swazi
b.Azande
c.Masai
d.Kikuyu
e.Zulu

Swazi

In the United States, the man who wears tennis shorts to a church service may be subject to a variety of _____ sanctions, ranging from disapproving glances from the clergy to the chuckling of other parishioners.
a.Social
b.anti-social
c.positive
d.formal
e.informal

informal

Awards like the Nobel Peace Prize are examples of _____ sanctions, by which societies promote approved behavior.
a.Positive
b.negative
c.political
d.informal
e.economic

positive

We have ample reason to suppose war has become a problem only in the past _____ years, since the invention of food-production techniques and especially centralized states.
a.5,000
b.20,000
c.10,000
d.50,000
e.75,000

5,000

Which of the following of minority nations is trying to improve its political position by founding an independent state?
a.Kurds
b.Palestines
c.Chechens
d.Aceh
e.All of the above

All of the above

Which of the following societies is best known for witchcraft?
a.Kpelle
b.Aztecs
c.Maya
d.Azande
e.Crow

Azande

Playing a leading role in the development of the anthropology of law, _____ has taken on specialists in the fields of law, children's issues, nuclear energy, and science, critically questioning the basic assumptions under which these experts operate.
a.Ralph Nader
b.Margaret Mead
c.Martha Knack
d.Laura Nader
e.Ruth Benedict

Laura Nader

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