human geography settlements and urban landscape

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annexation

legally adding land area to a city in the United States

CBD

Central Business District (CBD) is the commercial (and sometimes cultural) heart of a city. It is dominated shops and offices many of which are found in tall skyscrapers.

Central Place Theory

A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations.

Command and control centers

Second level of cities that contains the headquarters of many large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrations of other business services, including insurance, accounting, advertising, law, and public relations.

Concentric Zone Model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.

Density Gradient

the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery

Edge cities

clusters of large buildings away from the central business district

Filtering

a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment

Galactic City

Developed by Harris, uses the same idea as a Peripheral Model tied together by a beltway or ring road.

gentrification

the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)

Greenbelts

A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.

Market Area

The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.

megalopolis

a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)

MSA

Metropolitan statistical area. 85% of people live in these.These are cities with at least 50,000 people and all the counties around the city depend upon it.

Multiple nuclei model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.

peripheral model

A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.

primate city

A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.

public housing

Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.

range

The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.

rank-size-rule

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.

redlining

A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.

renovated housing

housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses.

scattered site

site in which dwellings are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large project.

sector model

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).

smart growth

legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland

sprawl

Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.

threshold

the minimum number of people required to support a particular good, shop or office. For example, large stores such as Marks & Spencer have a threshold population of over 100,000, whilst shoe shops have a threshold population of about 25,000

underclass

A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.

urban renewal

Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

World city

Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.

zone in transistion

the inner city area around the CBD. It is a zone of mixed land uses, ranging from car parks and derelict buildings to slums, cafes and older houses, often converted to offices or industrial use.

zoning

dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc

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