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intestinal glands

produce an enzyme-poor "juice" containing mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine

salivary glands

secretion includes amylase, which begins starch digestion in the mouth

pancreas

ducts a variety of enzymes in an alkaline fluid into the duodenum

liver

produces bile, which is transported to the duodenum via the bile duct

gastric glands

produce hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen

mesentery

structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall (membrane)

villi

fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area

Peyer's patches

collections of lymphatic tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine

plicae circulares

folds of the small intestine wall

oral cavity/stomach

two anatomical regions involved in physical breakdown of food

tongue

organ that mixes food in the mouth

pharynx

common passage for food and air

1. lesser omentum 2. greater omentum 3. mesentery

three extensions/modifications of the peritoneum

esophagus

literally a food chute; has no digestive or absorptive role

rugae

folds of the stomach mucosa

haustra

saclike outpocketings of the large intestine wall

microvilli

projections of the plasma membrane of a cell that increase the cell's surface area

ileocecal valve

precents food from moving back into the small intestine once it has entered the large intestine

small intestine

organ responsible for most food and water absorption//organ into which the stomach empties// organ that receives pancreatic juice and bile

large intestine (colon)

organ primarily involved in water absorption and feces formation

vestibule

area between the teeth and lips/cheeks

appendix

blind sac hanging from the initial part of the colon

stomach

organ in which protein digestion begins

lesser omentum

membrane attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach

pyloric sphincter

sphincter, controlling the movement of food from the stomach into the duodenum

soft palate

uvula hangs from its posterior edge

parietal peritoneum

serosa of the abdominal cavity wall

anal canal

region, containing two sphincters, through which feces are expelled from the body

hard palate

anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity; supported by bone

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