APUSH Ch. 39

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JFK

Democratic candidate for 1960 elections; Senator from MA; Roman Catholic

Robert Kennedy

JFK's Attorney general and brother; tried to recast the priorities of the FBI but resisted by J Hoover

Robert McNamara

head of Defense department

Peace Corps

an army of idealist and mostly powerful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries

New Frontier

JFK's social program; steel management, tax cuts; control inflation; Civil rights; poor

House Rules Committee

JFK expanded on this govt agency

Lyndon Johnson

TX senator; Democratic Majority Leader; experienced; JFK's running mate in 1960 elections

Kennedy/ Nixon Debate

the event that determined the outcome of 1960 election

Alliance for Progress

plan to aid and help Latin America to stern Communism

Kennedy Round

reduced tariffs

Green berets

special forces sent to train soldiers in Vietnam formed by Defense Secretary McNamara

Congo 1960

African country that got its independence from Belgium in _____(date); controlled by UN peacekeeping force

Laos 1962

freed from French overlords in 1954; peace was imposed at the Geneva Conference in 1962

Flexible response

Kennedy's plan to deal with foreign powers by not always resorting to nuclear weapons but using specialist like the Green Beret

Yuri Gagarin

first man into outer space and orbit the Earth; Russian

Alan Shepard

second person to enter outer space; first American to enter outer space

Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961

Kennedy's big failure in foreign policy; Plan: American troops w/ Cuban exiles to Cuba to start a second revolt against Castro; DISASTROUS: they land on a Cuban military base and there are not enough support; JFK withdraws air support

Berlin Wall 1961

built by Soviets to separate E and W Germany; prevent East Berliners from crossing to W Ger

Cuban Missile crisis 1962

USSR installed missiles in Cuba. JFK threatened a full scale attack; instead delivered a public ultimatum to the Soviets. Soviets agree to withdraw missiles and Kennedy agree to keep Castro in power and withdraw missiles in Turkey

hot line

direct phone line linking D.C. and Moscow

Richard Nixon

Republican candidate in 1960 elections against JFK

sit-in

peaceful form of protest used by Blacks to draw attention to the racial discrimination in restaurants, buses, and public areas

freedom riders

Blacks (and whites) who stayed in the seats in the bus

Birmingham, AL

one of the most racially segregated and prejudiced towns; one of the turning points of Civil Rights movement

Bull Connor

infamous police official who was violently against integration; used fire hoses, police attack dogs, and tank to crush protesters; tactics caught on TB and stopped by JFK

March on Washington 1963

large political rally where 200,000 people attended and MLK delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech

200,000

number of people who attended March on Washington rally in summer of 1963

Dealey Plaza; Dallas, TX

place and city where JFK was assassinated

Nov. 22 1963

day that JFK was assassinated

Zabrudew

man who captured JFK's assassination in film

Lee Harvey Oswald

alleged shooter of JFK; former Marine sharpshooter; Communist, worked at Book Warehouse near Dealey Plaza

3; missed, in neck, in head

number of shots fired and where?

Jack Ruby

head of organized crime who killed Oswald (caught on TV)

Grassy Knoll

site where some claim the shots that killed JFK were fired

Warren Commission

Johnson appointed Chief Justice to head the investigation of JFK's assassination

Oswald acted alone

Warren Commission's verdict: who was involved in JFK assassination?

J. Edgar hoover

FBI director who resisted Robert Kennedy's efforts to recast FBI priorities of targeting against organized crime and civil rights violations

Trade Expansion Act 1962

tariff cuts of up to 50% to promote trade with the Common Market; led to Kennedy Round

Charles DE Gaulle

President of France; suspicious of American intentions in Europe; vetoed British application for Common Market membership in 1963; ordered NATO off French soil in 1966

coup of Diem 1963

pro-American leader of South Vietnam was overthrown in Nov 1963

detente

term for the policy that later developed from Kennedy's laying the foundations for a realistic policy of peaceful coexistence with Communist Russia; relaxed defense

Voter education project

group that registered the South's historically disenfranchised blacks to vote

James Meredith

black air force veteran who encountered opposition when he attempted to register to the University of Mississippi in 1962; backed by Kenedy and troops

Apollo 8

spacecraft that carried astronauts around the moon

hostages from USS pueblo released; apollo 8 launched

December 1968

Nixon wins a close election (minority president)

November 1968

George Wallace of independent party declares candidacy

September 1968

Democratic Convention in Chicago nominate Humphrey; Daley violently puts down protests

August 1968

Republican Convention nominates Nixon

July 1968

Kennedy wins Democratic primary then assassinated

June 1968

Denny McLean pitches his 30th game win

May 1968

MLK is assassinated

April 1968

LBJ announces he is not seeking a second term; Kennedy declares candidacy

March 1968

Tet Offensive

February 1968

Pueblo incident

January 1968

Great Society

name for LBJ's domestic policy

education, war on poverty, civil rights, senior citizens, immigration

points of the Great Society

all the way with LBJ

democratic slogan for 1964 elections

Barry Goldwater

very conservative Republican candidate in 1964 elections; lost by a landslide to LBJ; promoted use of nuclear weapons; against govt spending

Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1964

N. Vietnamese ships supposedly fired American ships

Gulf of Tonkin resolution 1964

gave the president a blank check to uses for military force in SE Asia; gave LBJ total control w/out Congress' approval to enter war

Domino Effect

theory that if Vietnam falls the rest of SE Asia falls to Communism

Viet Cong

Communist rebels in S. Vietnam; employed guerilla warfare

pacification

burning down villages in search for Communists

hawks, doves

pro war advocates, antiwar advocates

Dominican republic 1965

nation where a supposed Communist coup took place; Johnson sent troops and denounced as over-anxious

black panthers

belligerent radical black protestors; violent

Malcolm X

said blacks should get equality through any means necessary; inspired by the Nation of Islam and its founder Elijah Muhammed

Stokely Carmichael

leader of the SNCC; initially supporter of MLK; later urged to abondon peaceful demonstrations

Eldridge Cleaver

radical black civil rights leader of the Black Panthers

Pueblo incident

Jan 1968; US spy ship seized by North Koreans; imprisoned and beat 80 crew men for 11months; provoked anger but not military response

Eugene McCarthy

Democratic senator from MN; ran for presidency in 1968; antiwar; almost beat Johnson n the NH primary in Jan 1968

Tet offensive

campaign in Jan 1968 by the Viet cong to attack S. Vietnamese cities; ended in military defeat but proed that LBJ's GRADUAL ESCALATION WAS NOT WORKING; shocked American public who thought that Vietnam was a sure victory

Hubert Humphrey

LBJ's VP; won the Democratic ticket for 1968 elections

24th amendment 1964

abolished poll tax in federal elections; joined the blacks with whites during the civil rights movement

operation rolling thunder

massive air bombardment of N. Vietnam in April 1965

Robert Weaver

head of the HUD; first Black cabinet secretary

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

abolished the National Origin quota and doubled the immigration influx to 290,000 annualy

MS Freedom Democratic Party

integrated political party denied its seat

Watts Riots

violent race riots in LA in 1965

student non-violent coordinating committee

headed by stokey carmichael; urged the abandonment of peaceful demonstrations

Six-Day War 1967

Israel defeated Egypt and gained new territory in the Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, and the WEst Bank of Jordan River, and Jerusalem

Sen. William Fullbright

senator from Arkansas; anti Vietnam War; headed Senate Committee of Foreign Relations

cointelpro

code ame for the counterintelligence program; JOhnson ordered the CIA to spy on domestic antiwar activists

George Wallace

governor of Alabama; racist radical who wanted to use nuclear weapons on Vietnamese; ran on Independent Party ticket in 1968 elections

Rebel without a cause

movie that portrayed the youth counterculture of the 1960s

Sexual Behavior in the Human Male

book by Dr. Kinsey

Manhattan society

found in 1951- pioneered gay rights

Students for a Democratic Society

antiwar; later spawned an underground terrorist group called the Weathermen

youthful Population bulge; Protest against racism and Vietnam War; apparent Permanence of Prosperity

upheavals of the 1960s are attributed to the 3 P's

mario savio

led the free speech movement in UCAL at Berkeley in 1964

Stonewall Inn 1969

location and time of the brutal attack on gay men by off-duty police officers in NY

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