Bio Final

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1. Relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called

amino acids

2. Macromolecules that are used by organisms to store hereditary information are called

dna molecules

3. Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called

monosaccharides

4. Macromolecule lipids are characteristically

water insoluable

5. Biological membranes contain bilayers of

phospholipids

6. The specific amino acid sequence in a protein is its

primary structure

7. A five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, an organic nitrogen containing base, and phosphodiester bonds are components of

nucleic acids.

8. The nitrogen base not found in DNA is called

uracil.

9. Proteins can become denatured or loose form and function when affected by

heat, pH, and ionic concentrations.

10. characterized by being solid at room temperature, having only single bonds, and are typically from animal products. Unsaturated fats' double bonds can be removed through hydrogenation.

Saturated fats

11. have a carboxyl end and an amino end.

Proteins

12. Making and breaking molecules in the body require the aid of ... to help the reactions proceed.

enzymes

13. Glycogen is to animal cells as... is to plant cells.

starch

14. is described by all living organisms being composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest unit of living organisms, and new cells form from pre-existing cells by cell division.

Cell theory

15. Prokaryotes lack a .

true nucleus

16. mitochondria function in

ATP synthesis

21. The... of the plasma membrane are in large part responsible for the cell's ability to interact with its environment through their roles as channels, and as recognition, reception, and transport structures.

proteins

22. Some ribosomes are embedded into

rough er

23. are not very soluble in water, because they possess long stretches of non-polar amino acids that are hydrophobic.

Membrane proteins

24. On the outer surface of the plasma membrane there are ... molecules that identify the cell-type.

carbohydrate chain marker

25. The part of a membrane protein that extends through the phospholipid bilayer is primarily composed of... that are non-polar.

amino acids

26. is the movement of substances to regions of lower concentration.

Diffusion

27. is specific and passive, and which becomes saturated if all of the protein carriers are in use.

Facilitated diffusion

28. In a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up with the result that ...ions leave and ... ions enter.

3 NA leave 2 K enter

29. For the process of to occur, molecules must move from areas of high concentration to areas of lesser concentration until an equilibrium is reached.

diffusion

30. Labeling something as ... indicates it has more solute therefore less water than the compared system.... indicates less solute therefore more water than the compared system. Isotonic indicates equal solute therefore equal water.

hypertonic

31. The release of insulin from pancreatic cells occurs by

exocytosis

32. Reactions that occur spontaneously and release free energy are called

exergonic reactions

33. The organic non-protein components that aid in enzyme functioning are called

coenzymes

34. When an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons, it is said to be

reduced.

35. As energy is being reconverted through the many forms, it is continuously lost as

heat

36.are very specific in their choices of substrates because each different enzyme has an active site that is shaped to fit a certain substrate molecule.

Enzymes

37. At the conclusion of an enzyme catalyzed reaction, the enzyme frees itself from the... and is ready to be reused.

product

38. The feedback inhibition regulation of simple biochemical pathways often involves the end-product binding to the ... site of the first enzyme in the sequence.

allosteric

39. The... Law of Thermodynamics simply states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from one form to another.

First

40. inhibitor enzyme inhibition involves competition for substrate binding sites on the enzyme.

Competitive

41. energy is the amount of energy required for a reaction to move forward.

Activation

42. In..., the glycolytic reactions take place in the cytoplasm of the cell.

eukaryotes

43. In the absence of oxygen, hydrogen atoms generated by glycolysis are donated to organic molecules in a process called .

fermentation

44. The end-product of glycolysis is .

pyruvate

45. The ...of pyruvate produces NADH, acetyl-CoA, and CO2.

decarboxylation

46. A single ... molecule can drive the Krebs cycle two turnes.

glucose

47. The... electron carriers produced in the Krebs cycle are FADH2 and NADH.

coenzyme

48. The oxygen utilized in cellular respiration finally shows up as .

H2O

49. The energy released in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is used to transport ... into the inter-membrane space of mitochondria.

protons

50. The process of adding energy to convert ADP to ATP is an example of .

phosphorylation

51. The energy in NADH is transferred to ATP by first producing a .

proton gradient

52. The purpose of the ... pathways is to regenerate NAD+ for glycolysis.

fermentation

53. The equation, C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O (ATP + Heat), describes.

cell respiration

54. DNA consists of two antiparallel strands of nucleotide chains held together by .

hydrogen bonds

55. The method of DNA replication, where each original strand is used as a template to build a new strand, is called the method.

semiconservative

56. The enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA molecules is called .

DNA polymerase III

57. The lagging strand is replicated with stretches of Okazaki fragments and that is why its synthesis is considered to be .

discontinuous

58. The site of the opening of the DNA strands where active replication occurs is referred to as the .

replication fork

59. Eukaryotic organisms solve the problem of time constraints on replication of DNA by using multiple origins of the replication on each chromosome, which results in .

multiple replicons

60. The enzyme DNA pol I removes the primers used for .

DNA replication

61. In DNA adenine-thymine pairs have 2 hydrogen bonds between them while guanine-cytosine pairs have .. between them.

3

62. An organism's ... material must be dynamic, changing rapidly in response to changes in the environment.

genetic

63. If a eukaryotic cell has a single set of chromosomes, it is called.

haploid

64. The... exist as a single, circular, uncoated, double stranded DNA molecule.

bacterial genome

65. The two copies of each chromosome in body cells are called .

homologous chromosomes

66. The first stage of mitosis, when the chromosomes become visibly shorter and thicker is .

prophase

67. The proteins that participate in the functioning of the checkpoints for cell cycle control are ... and ...-dependent kinases.

cyclins

68. If a cell has 32 chromosomes prior to S and undergoes mitosis followed by cytokinesis, each new daughter cell will have ... chromosomes.

32

70. The pairing of chromosomes along their lengths which is essential for crossing over is referred to as ...

synapsis

71. The cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm is the .

zygote

72. In animals, the ... cells will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development.

germline

73. Between the two divisions of meiosis there is no ... phase.

S

74. The synaptonemal complex, which develops early in meiosis, is a lattice of proteins that holds .. together

homologues

75. In a sexually reproducing organism the process of mitosis produces new body cells while meiosis produces .

gametes

76. ...s, held together at the centromere by kinetochore proteins and formed during the S phase of the cell cycle, consist of two identical copies of a single homologue and double the amount of DNA in a cell. ... separate during anaphase of meiosis II.

Sister chromatid

78. Both DNA and RNA are made up of building blocks known as .

nucleotides

79. Ribosomes are the polypeptide-making organelles residing in the cytoplasm and are large protein aggregates to which... is associated.

RNA

80. The process in which an RNA polymerase molecule assembles an mRNA molecule whose nucleotide sequence is complementary to the DNA sequence is called .

transcription

81. pairs with adenine in RNA.

Uracil

82. The nucleotide sequence of a mRNA codon is composed of ... bases.

3

83. The sites A, P, and E are progressively occupied by amino acids being assembled into a chain in ... and are part of the large ribosomal subunit.

protein synthesis

84. The enzyme that initiates transcription is

RNA polymerase

85. The... of biology is stated as DNA --> RNA --> proteins.

Central Dogma

86. Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNAare products of ... genes, and are therefore never translated.

nonstructural

87. Ribosomes, translation factors, tRNA, and mRNA are components of the ... machinery.

translation

88. ... provides the energy for translation.

GTP

89. When the two haploid gametes contain two different alleles of a given gene, the resulting offspring is called .

heterozygous

90. The concept that offspring can inherit the acquired skills of their parents is called blending inheritance or ... hypothesis.

Lamarck

91.... involves the mating of two different true-breeding parents to produce a heterozygous hybrid.

Hybridization

92. ... results allows one to determine the genotype of a dominant phenotype individual. The appearance of any recessive phenotypes in the offspring means the unknown parent was heterozygous.

Test-cross

93. An organism that is heterozygous for two traits can produce a maximum of ... different gametes for these traits.

4

94. When a single-gene mutation can have phenotypic effects at multiple stages of development, it is .

pleiotropic

95. A person with blood type O can donate blood to people of ... blood type.

any

96.... varies the shape of the beaks among Darwin's finches in response to the available food supply.

Natural selection

97. Domestication of dogs has led to a variety of .

phenotypes

98. The shape of the beaks of Darwin's finches, industrial melanism, and sickle-cell disease are often cited as examples of the process of ... leading to evolutionary change.

natural selection

99. The molecular record suggests that a series of evolutionary changes is tied to a progressive accumulation of alterations of .

DNA sequences

101. The evolution of different forms in the same lineage when exposed to different selective pressures is called .

divergence

102. ... Structures are structures of animals that have difference appearances and functions but seem to have evolved from the same body part in a common ancestor.

Homologous

103. The side toes of a horse, the pelvis of the whale, and the human appendix are all examples of ... structures.

vestigial

104. ... refers to molecular changes in genetic material that lead to phenotypic changes.

Molecular evolution

105. An important message from the work of Thomas ... that influenced Charles Darwin was only a fraction of any population will survive and reproduce.

Malthus

106. Species are said to be... if they are naturally found only in a particular location.

endemic

107. The genes encoding the blood proteins myoglobin and hemoglobin are derived from a common gene ancestor. These proteins both occur in humans. Therefore, these genes are .

paralogs

108. Features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction by an organism in a particular environment are called .

adaptations

109. The ... principle explains how rare alleles may become more common in new populations.

founder

110. The Hardy-Weinberg equations only hold true, that is, a population is only in equilibrium when ... of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.

all

111. In ..., over time the population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).

disruptive selection

112. ... would be expected to produce the smallest evolutionary change in a given period of time in a population of birds.

Mutation

113. All the members of a single species that occupy a particular area at the same time are known as a .

population

114. Two groups of organisms that differ from one another in one or more characteristics and do not hybridize extensively if they occur together in nature are considered to be .. species.

different

115. ... promotes speciation by strengthening isolating mechanisms, restricting gene flow, and character displacement.

Natural selection

116. To ensure that individuals .. with their own species a variety of communication cues have evolved such as vocalizations, pheromones, and visual signals such as body colors and rituals.

mate

117. Many species might coexist in a particular environment by occupying different areas called .

habitats

118. ... mechanisms lead to reproductive isolation by preventing the formation of hybrid zygotes.

Prezygotic

119. ... is best described as the existence of groups of closely related species recently evolved from a common ancestor.

Adaptive radiation

120. The five major mass... were caused mainly by geological events and, perhaps, collision with asteroids, but by definition, in mass extinctions all major groups are affected unequally.

extinctions

121. Under the... species concept, species are identified based on a unique combination of physical or molecular characteristics.

phylogenetic

122. A disadvantage of the phylogenetic species concept is that it may be difficult to determine the number of traits necessary to ... individuals.

characterize

123. In the ... species concept, the most common way for researchers to establish a lineage is to examine DNA sequences of particular genes.

evolutionary

124. The ... species concept distinguishes species that are different from each other based on their use of resources.

ecological

125. Species evolve relatively quickly then exist essentially unchanged for most of their existence according to the concept of ... equilibrium.

punctuated

126. Characteristics between the branch points of a cladogram that are shared by all organisms above the branch point and are not present in any below it are called .

derived characters

127. Characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent are said to be.

ancestral characteristics

128. The evolutionary sequence in the development of a complex derived character shared by clade members can be best analyzed through .

synapomorphies

130. ... can result from both convergent evolution and evolutionary reversals.

Homoplasies

131. A group is considered... if all members of the group share a common ancestor that is included in the group.

monophyletic

132. The field of biology concerned with classifying organisms and viruses is .

phylogeny

133. Eukarya, Archea, and Bacteria are .

domains

134. Phylum, class, and order are taxa in correct hierarchical order from

left to right.

135. In a cladogram, taxa are placed at the..., not at the branch points, of the phylogenetic tree.

tips

136. In a ..., Shared, derived characteristics common to taxa above the branch point are put at the branch points.

cladogram

137. In choosing among possible ... phylogenetic trees, the principle of parsimony states that you should choose the tree that is simplest.

cladistic

double bonds can be removed through hydrogenation.

Unsaturated fats

smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a role in

detoxification

participate in protein synthesis

ribosomes

cytoskeletons are made up of

microfilaments

contain hydrolytic enzymes that allow for intercellular digestion of substances

lysosmes

the nucleus is part of

DNA replication

the cell membrane is the

lipid bilayer

performs modification, processing, and sorting of macromolecules.

Golgi

Water moves into that which is..., moves out of that which is hypotonic. There is no net movement in an isotonic relationship.

hypertonic

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