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Recombinant DNA

DNA molecule carrying genes derived from two or more sources

Gene Cloning

production of multiple identical copies of gene-carrying piece of DNA

Genetic Engineering

manipulate genes for practical purposes

Vector

piece of DNA used to move genes from one cell to another

Genomic Library

set of DNA segments representing an organism's entire genome

Genetically Modified Organism

organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means

Gene Therapy

treatment for a disease in which the patient's defective gene is altered or provided for

DNA Profiling

DNA printing

Genomics

study of whole sets and their interactions

DNA Technology

used for diagnosis and treatment of disease

Vaccines

harmless variant of pathogen used to stimulate host organism's immune system

Trangenic Organisms

organism that contains genes from another species

Adaptation

inherited characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to survive and reproduce; behavioral, structural, biochemical, physiological

Evolution

descent with modification

Charles Darwin

theory of evolution was natural selection

Artificial Seletion

selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals

Natural Selection

descent with modification, favorable traits in a population

Strata

where fossils form

Biogeography

geographic distribution of species, organisms evolve from common ancestors

Homology

similarity in characteristics from common ancestry

Homologous Structures

structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry

Population

group of individuals belonging to one species and living the same geographic area

Mutation

change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA

Gene Pool

total collection of genes in a population

Microevolution

change in frequencies of alleles in gene pool

Genetic Drift

change in the gene pool of a population due to chance

Sexual Dimorphism

marked differences between secondary sex characteristics of males and females

Sexual Selection

form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates

Stabilizing Selection

favors intermediate phenotypes (middle)

Disrupting Selection

favors individuals at both extremes of phenotypic range

Directional Selection

acts against individuals at one of the phenotypic extremes (age, height)

Species

can produce fertile offspring

Speciation

emergence of a new species

Taxonomy

classify species

Biological Species Concept

interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

Reproductive Isolation

existence of a biological factor that prevent species from reproduction

Reproductive Barrier

isolate a gene pool and prevent inter-breeding

Prezygotic Barrier

reproductive barrier that prevents fertilization or mating

Postzygotic Barrier

reproductive barrier that prevents hybrid zygotes from developing into adults

Geographic Barrier

physical barrier that prevents hybridization of species

Adaptive Raditation

period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form new species whose adaptations allow them to fill vacant roles in environment

Punctuated Equilibrium

in fossil record, species evolves in short bursts (Stephen Day Gould)

Gradualism

in fossil record, species evolves gradually over time (Darwin)

Macroevolution

major changes over evolutionary time

Early Atomsphere

water vapor and compounds from volcanic eruptions

Energy Sources in Early Atmosphere

volcanic activity, lightning, UV radiation

Stanley Miller

tested Oparin-Haldare Hypothesis and simulated conditions of early earth, found amino acids

Earth formed...

3.5 billion years ago

Paleozoic Era

ancient animal, aquatic life, end had plants and animals on ground

Mesozoic Era

middle animal, reptiles and dinosaurs, mammals at end

Cenozoic Era

recent animal, mammals, birds

Radiometric Dating

measure decay of radioactive isotopes

Continental Drift

slow, continuous movement of earth's crustal plates on the hot mantle

Pangaea

supercontinent

Geologic Record

time scale that divides earth's history into time periods, grouped into Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic Eons

Binomial

two-part name of species

Genus

first part of species binomial

Species

second part of species binomial

Cell Walls

maintain shape, physical protection, prevent hypotonic environment

Gram Stain

technique to identify the cell wall composition of bacteria

Gram Positive

cell wall that is less complex, Actinomycetes (antibiotics) and Cyanobacteria (oxygen generating)

Gram Negative

cell wall that is complex, Chlamidia (STD) and Spirochetes (syphilis)

Pili

hair like appendages

Flagella

allow bacteria to move

Endospores

thick protective coat, dehydrate, tolerant of extreme heat/cold

Exotoxins

poisonous protein secreted by bacteria

Endotoxins

poisonous component released when bacteria dies

Ecology

how organisms interact with their environment

Biosphere

entire population of earth inhabited by life

Biotic Factors

living component of community (organism)

Abiotic Factors

nonliving component of community (air, water)

Habitat

place where an organism lives

Organism

individual living thing

Population

group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same area

Community

all the organisms living together and interacting in one area

Ecosystem

all organisms in one area along with abiotic factors

Landscapes

several different ecosystems linked by exchanges of animals, energy or materials

Rachel Carson

envt awareness, wrote "Silent Spring"

Intertidal Zone

shallow zone where waters of estuary or ocean meet

Photic Zone

aquatic ecosystem in which light and photosynthesis occur

Pelagic Zone

region of ocean occupied by seawater

Benthic Zone

seafloor

Aphotic Zone

no light and vast

Coral Reefs degraded by...

pollution, predators and human souvenir hunters

Estuaries

areas where rivers meet the ocean

Freshwater Biomes

river, lake, stream

Terrestrial Biomes

tundra, savanna, rainforest, desert, desiduous forest, coniferous forest, chaparral, grassland

Population Ecology

changes in population size and factors that regulate populations

Population

number and distribution of individuals

Dispersion Pattern

manner in which individuals of a population are spaced within their area

Clumped Dispersion Pattern

dispersion pattern in which individuals are in patches

Exponential Growth Model

represents idealized, unregulated population growth

Logistic Growth Model

idealized population growth that is restricted by limiting factors

Limiting Factors

environmental factors that restrict population growth

Carrying Capactity

number of individuals that an environment can sustain

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