Developmental Milestones are caused by nature, not nurture.
The prenatal stage that is the critical period for development of organs.
zygote or germinal
First stage of prenatal development.
Any substance that can cause birth defects.
sensory motor stage ( 0-18 months)
develop object permanance
preoperational stage( 18 months- 7 yrs)
and "representational though" ( lack conservation)
concrete operation stage( 7-11 yrs)
develop "conservation" and classification abilities improve
formal operations stage( 11-15 yrs)
begin to understand abstract ideas and hypothetical situations
Emotional intensity. Appears to be biological.
Babies need contact comfort. Surrogate chickenwire mothers.
Relationships in early childhood affect later relationships.
Lots of rules, pretty harsh punishment.
More a teaching style of parenting. Explains rules.
Few rules, few expectations. Don't be this type of parent. Kids turn out irresponsible.
Theory of Moral Development.
Makes decisions about right and wrong based on if a behavior is rewarded or punished.
Makes decisions about right or wrong based on: what does the rule say, and/or, what will people think of me.
Sometime called autonomous. Make decisions on OWN moral principles, or universal moral principles.
Accumulated knowledge. This does not decrease as you get older
One's ability to reason and use knowledge speedily. Declines with age.
Forgetting Curve. We forget the most right after we learn something. Continue to study until you have your AP exam.
All information that comes from the senses.
EYEconic. Visual sensory memory.
Echo,echo, echo....auditory sensory memory.
Also called working memory. Hold 7 + or - 2 items. Doesn't last long <20 seconds without rehearsal.
Your personal memories, or episodes out of your life.
Procedural or Skill Memory
Memory of how to do things. Drive a car, brush your teeth, etc.
A special type of episodic memory. Usually memories of emotional events. Stress hormones make you remember everything about the memory.
Remembering by Recall
Off the top of your head. Like taking a fill in the blank test.
Remembering by Recognition
Remembering because you recognize what you see or hear. Like taking a multiple choice test.
Remembering by Relearning
You think you have forgotten everything from 1st semester but as you review, it comes back.
Serial Position Effect
Tend to remember stuff at the beginning and end of a list. Remember to study the stuff in the middle again.
Study French,then Spanish. Forget Spanish.
Study French, then Spanish. Forget the OLD, RETRO stuff....French.
State Dependent Memory
Remember more when you encode and retrieve in the same state of mind.
Also known as False Memories. When we remember something that is incorrect. It happens because we construct our episodic memories every time we remember them. We can add or subtract and not know it.
Sleep Wake cycle. Approximately 25 hours long (that's not a misprint). In caves, people go to a 25 hour cycle.
Stage 2 sleep
Stage 4 sleep
Mostly Delta waves. Also called slow wave sleep. You are out of it.
Is also called paradoxical because your brain is active, but your body is paralyzed.
Freud's dream theory
Dreams contain symbols (latent content) of memories you have repressed into the unconscious mind.
Information Processing Theory of Dreams
Dreams sort and consolidate memories.
Activation synthesis theory
Dreams are the result of random electrical activity in the brain. They mean nothing.
Examples would be cocaine.
ALCOHOL. It suppresses the action of the central nervous system.
Increased openess to suggestion. Some suggest it is just us "dissociating".
Slobbering dogs. Classical Conditioning.
Slobbering Dog experiment
Neutral Stimulus - bell, UCS - food, UCR - salivating to food, CS - bell, CR - salivating to bell.
Having a CR to something that reminds you of the CS. Dogs salivating to something that sounds like the bell.
Occurs when the CS is no longer associated with the UCS (bell rings, but no food follows).
An extinquished CR comes back.
Learning based on the consequences of your behavior.
Something good follows your behavior.
THESE ARE REWARDS, NOT PUNISHMENT!!!! You are in a bad situation (headache), do something (take Advil), and bad situation stops.
Food, water...do not have to be learned
Praise, grades, money. Rewards you have to LEARN are a reward.
Extinction in Operant Conditioning
Happens when a behavior is not rewarded. Punishment has nothing to do with it.
Rewarding small steps, or successive approximations toward the desired behavior.
Fixed (same) Ratio (having to do with number of times). Sell 4 cars, get a bonus, 4 cars, get a bonus.
Variable (changes) ratio (numbers). Number of times you have to do something to get a reward varies. ANY FORM OF GAMBLING PAYS OFF ON A VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE!!!
Fixed (same) Interval (time). The amount of time that has to pass before you can be rewarded is the same. Being paid by the hour. Makes people lazy.
Variable (changes) Interval (time) Amount of time that passes inbetween opportunities for a reward varies. Pop tests.
Bobo Doll experiment. Observational Learning.