HDFS 2400 - Chapter 14

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During the decade of the twenties, there is a sharp rise in the extent to which people feel they

are personally in control of the events in their lives.

The life pursuits and subjective judgments of many contemporary young people have spawned the ______________ transitional period, extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties

emerging adulthood

Which of the following is true about emerging adulthood?

Many emerging adults construct their own individualistic religious beliefs.

Janet, an emerging adult, believes in her ability to succeed. She is determined to overcome obstacles and takes personal responsibility for both positive and negative outcomes. Janet has a well-developed

sense of personal agency

Which of the following statements accurately explains the recent appearance of the emerging adulthood transitional period?

Entry-level positions in many fields require more education than in the past.

Which 22-year-old is the most likely to experience emerging adulthood?

Percy, a high-SES male in the United Kingdom

Which of the following is an accurate statement about risk and resilience in emerging adulthood?

Feelings of loneliness are higher during the emerging adulthood years than at any other time in life.

Low-SES young people in Western nations

experience a limited or nonexistent emerging adulthood.

Dr. Tevye recognizes that cultural change has prolonged the transition to adult roles for many young people. However, he does not agree that this change merits the creation of a new developmental period. Which of the following statements is Dr. Tevye the most likely to agree with?

Transitions occur during all periods of the lifespan, with societal conditions heavily influencing their length and complexity.

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of early adulthood is

intimacy versus isolation.

Some aspects of ____________, such as childbearing and child rearing, are under way in early adulthood.

generativity

According to Levinson, each season of life begins with a __________, which concludes the previous era and prepares the person for the next one.

transition

According to Levinson, wide individual differences exist in the weight of central and peripheral components of a persons

life structure.

Gia characterizes her life as full of energy and abundance, contradiction, and stress. According to Levinson, Gia is probably a(n)

young adult.

According to Levinson, which of the following is true about gender differences in dreams?

Most career-oriented women display split dreams involving both marriage and career.

When Paul started his job, he developed a close relationship with Richard, a senior colleague. Richard helped Paul succeed in his job, and with his help, Paul was quickly promoted. According to Levinson, Richard

acted as a mentor to Paul.

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to experience a psychological crisis during the age-30 transition?

Miles, who has no romantic relationships and a dissatisfying job

Marnie stayed at home with her two children for 10 years before resuming her career in her early thirties. She is likely to reach career maturity and take on more authority in the community

in middle adulthood.

The major difference between Levinson and Vaillant is that Vaillants theory

denies a strict age-related schedule of change.

According to Vaillant, men become keepers of meaning, or guardians of their culture, in their

fifties and sixties.

Tabitha, age 22, felt stressed about the direction of her life. She had always planned to be married by 24 and have her first baby by 26. Tabithas age-graded expectations are

consistent with the feminine social clock.

Christine, a college graduate, held a variety of part-time jobs in her early twenties. She had neither married nor begun a career by age 30. According to Neugarten, Christine is likely to

suffer from self-doubt and lack confidence.

__________________ seems to foster confidence during early adulthood because it guarantees that young people will engage in the work of society, develop skills, and gain in understanding of the self and others.

Following a social clock

Which of the following is true about mate selection?

Little support exists for the idea that opposites attract.

Research suggests that when Bobby and Betty select their mates, Betty will assign greater weight to __________, while Bobby will place more emphasis on ______________.

ambition; physical attractiveness

According to Sternbergs triangular theory of love,

intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop.

Adam and Dianne have a warm and trusting relationship. They share attitudes and values. They exchange trusting affection and caregiving. According to Sternberg, Adam and Dianne display ___________ love.

companionate

Gayle has had a few dates with Joine. Early ________ love is a strong predictor of whether they will keep dating.

passionate

In the transformation of romantic involvements from passionate to companionate, __________ may be the aspect of love that determines whether a relationship survives.

commitment

Maryellen and Mitchell have been dating for over a year. Their romance will most likely break up without ____________ love.

companionate

Sal and Sadie have been married for 40 years. When asked to compare their current relationship to when they were newlyweds, they are most likely to say that

they love each other more now than they did earlier.

An important feature of good communication in a romantic relationship is

constructive conflict resolution.

Which of the following is true about perceptions of intimate relationships in Eastern cultures?

In choosing a mate, young people are expected to consider obligations to others.

College students of Asian ethnicity are more likely than their Caucasian-American peers to endorse a view of love strongly based on

companionship.

Adrian developed a secure attachment to his parents when he was a child. Adrian probably characterizes his most important adult love relationship in terms of

trust, friendship, and happiness.

Because Jessies past relationships have been characterized by jealousy and emotional distance, she feels a great deal of mistrust toward her romantic partners. She is anxious about people getting too close and stresses the need for independence in her relationships. Based on this information, we can conclude that Jessie has a(n) __________ attachment history.

avoidant

Adult friends tend to be

similar to each other in most ways.

Women generally evaluate their same-sex friendships more positively than men because

women experience a more equitable balance of power.

Throughout adulthood, friendships continue to be

vital contexts for personal sharing.

Which statement is true of long-lasting male friendships compared to shorter-term friendships?

Long-lasting male friends disclose more personal information to one another.

Compared with same-sex friendships, other-sex friendships

are as common as romantic relationships during the college years.

Which person will probably have the highest number of other-sex friends?

Kari, an employed female chemist

Which of the following is true about other-sex friendships?

When a solid other-sex friendship evolves into a romance, it may be very stable and enduring.

Lisa, age 27, is unhappy because she lacks the gratifying friendships she once had during college and she does not have an intimate partner. Lisa is experiencing

loneliness.

Which of the following is true about loneliness?

Loneliness rises during early adulthood because young adults expect more from their intimate ties.

If they are all statistically average, which of the following individuals is most likely to be lonely?

Donna, who is 25 years old and has recently divorced

Immigrants from collectivist cultures report

higher levels of loneliness than people born in the United States and Canada.

Sarah is socially anxious and has an avoidant attachment history. Which of the following is probably true?

She has periods of intense loneliness.

Which person is the most likely to experience loneliness?

Melissa, who is socially unresponsive

As long as it is not overwhelming, ___________ can motivate young people to reach out to others.

loneliness

Emma left home to attend college and lived on her own until she got married. As her own children grew up and left home, her parenting responsibilities declined. She eventually retired and her husband died. This sequence of life phases that Emma has experienced is referred to as the

family life cycle.

Which of the following is true about the family life cycle?

Some people do not experience all family life-cycle phases.

Residential independence

rises steadily with agea trend evident in most industrialized nations.

Which individual is most likely to establish early residential independence?

Gretchen, whose parents are divorced and combative

Tanya is a single 22-year-old. She moved out of her parents home and into her own apartment just to be independent. Which of the following statements about Tanya is probably true?

Nearly half of young adults like Tanya return home for a brief time after leaving.

Which of the following young adults is the most likely to live with his parents?

Jose, a Hispanic American

Which young adult is more likely to live on her own?

Julia, an economically successful Caucasian American

Leaving home very early is associated with a(n)

unsuccessful work life.

What percent of Americans marry at least once?

90

The average age of first marriage in the United States has

increased for both men and women over the last half century.

________ is the most consistent predictor of marital stability.

Age of marriage

Which couple will face extra challenges in achieving a successful transition to married life?

Ken, an African-American Baptist, and Eileen, an Asian-American Mormon, who married at age 21

Jessica and Rick are married. They both try to balance the time and energy they devote to their occupations, their children, and their relationship. They have a(n) __________ marriage.

egalitarian

Mike and Carol are married. Mike is the head of the household. He works outside the home as an architect. Carol devotes herself to caring for Mike and their children and creating a comfortable home. They have a(n) ____________ marriage.

taditional

Adria is a well-educated woman who is seeking a job in engineering. Adria probably expects to form a(n) ____________ marriage.

egalitarian

Barney and Cynthia met in college and married after they both graduated. They both work full-time. Which of the following is probably true?

Cynthia spends nearly twice as much time as Barney on housework.

Which of the following couples is most likely to report high marital satisfaction?

Taylor and Lucas, who waited to get married they until both had secure employmen

Which of the following statements about marital satisfaction is true?

The sharing of family responsibilities usually enhances both mens and womens marital satisfaction.

Today, in Western industrialized nations, parenthood is a(n)

matter of true individual choice.

Which of the following statements is true about violence in families?

When researchers ask American couples about fights that led to acts of hostility, men and women report similar rates of assault.

Which of these factors is most likely to lead to partner abuse

The abuser is dependent, jealous, and possessive.

Many perpetrators treated for partner abuse

repeat their violent behavior with the same or a new partner.

Which woman is more likely to delay parenthood or decide against it altogether?

Renae, who has a high-status, demanding job.

Stimulation and fun, as well as growth and learning experiences, are some of the most important reasons that many adults cite for choosing to

have children.

The most common disadvantage of parenthood cited by contemporary couples is

the loss of freedom.

After the birth of a first child, parents gender roles

often become more traditional.

For most new parents, the arrival of a new baby

does not cause significant marital strain.

Postponing childbearing until the late twenties or thirties

eases the transition to parenthood.

Brad and Karin found that their gender roles became more traditional after the birth of their first child, despite the egalitarian marriage they both had worked hard to achieve. Which of the following will probably occur after the birth of their second child?

Brad will take an active role in parenting by caring for one child while Karin tends to the other.

Stephanie is a new mother. While she is entitled to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave from work, she returns to her job after only four weeks. What is the most likely reason for Stephanies decision?

Financial pressures do not allow her to take more time off without pay.

Men and women today are _____________ than in previous generations.

less certain about how to rear children

Mr. and Mrs. McPhillips work together as a coparenting team. This will likely result in

favorable child development.

Which of the following is true about parenting young children?

Rearing young children is a powerful source of adult development.

Parents of __________ often report a dip in marital and life satisfaction.

adolescents

Which of the following is true about parent education?

Fathers frequently turn to mothers to figure out how to relate to their child, especially if they have a close marriage.

Improved family communication, more flexible parenting attitudes, and social support are all benefits of

parent education courses.

In view of recent trends, it is likely that most Americans will spend a substantial part of their adult lives

single.

Which groups of people are overrepresented among singles after age 30?

Men in blue-collar occupations and women in prestigious careers.

Raymond is a single African American in his thirties. Statistically, what is the most likely reason for Raymonds singlehood?

unemployment

Which of the following statements about singlehood is accurate?

Because they marry later, more young adult men than women are single.

Russell and Janine are involved in a sexually intimate relationship and share an apartment. Their relationship is referred to as

cohabitation.

In Western nations, there has been an especially dramatic increase in cohabitation among

well-educated young people.

Which person is the most likely to cohabit instead of getting married?

Trevor, who is divorced

Which of the following is true about the differences between American and Western European attitudes toward cohabitation?

When cohabiting Western Europeans decide to marry, they more often do so to legalize their relationship.

Dennis and Kristen are an American cohabiting couple who are not engaged to be married. Compared with their friends who waited to live together until after they were engaged or married, which of the following is likely to be true?

They are more androgynous.

Cohabiters are more likely than married people to

have poorer-quality relationships.

Same-sex civil unions are ____________ heterosexual marriages.

as stable as

Bernice and Leo never had children. They married in their thirties, and their efforts at fertility treatments did not succeed. Bernice and Leo are

involuntarily childless.

The voluntary childless are usually

college-educated.

Childlessness interferes with adjustment and life satisfaction

only when it is beyond a persons control.

Divorce rates in the United States have ______ since the mid-1980s.

stabilized

Most divorces occur

within the first 7 years of marriage.

About _______ of divorced people remarry.

two-thirds

Which of the following is true about factors related to divorce?

Infidelity and substance abuse are among the strongest predictors of divorce.

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to have an especially hard time following a divorce?

Beatrice, who was a homemaker throughout her marriage

Remarriages are

especially vulnerable to breakup.

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to quickly establish positive bonds with stepchildren?

Barry, a stepfather with children of his own

In the United States, ___________ make up the largest group of never-married parents.

African-American young women

For never-married low-SES women, child support enforcement

reduces financial stress.

Which of the following is true about children of never-married mothers?

They are benefited by parental marriage only if the father is a reliable source of support.

Research suggests that

gay parents are just as committed and effective as heterosexual parents

Sabines mother is a lesbian. Sabine will most likely be

heterosexual and well-adjusted.

The Wheelocks are both attorneys. Research suggests that Mrs. Wheelocks career path will be __________ and Mr. Wheelocks career path will be __________.

discontinuous; continuous

On average, people in their twenties move to a new job every

two years.

Laurie just started a new job in her chosen field. She wants to select a helpful mentor. Which person would probably be her best choice?

a member of her professional association

Women just graduating from college now earn ________ as much as men.

about 80 percent

Ten years after college graduation, the gender pay gap

widens.

Women who pursue nontraditional careers

usually have masculine traits, such as high achievement orientation and self-reliance.

African Americans usually _______________ than Caucasian Americans with equivalent job qualifications.

experience less stable employment

The dominant family form today is the

dual-earner marriage.

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