Biology I and Honors Biology - Semester 2 Final Exam Study Guide

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For Biology I and Honors Biology students at Christian Life School 13-14

8 Levels of Classification in modern taxonomy

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Bacillus

Rod shaped bacteria

Coccus

Spherical shaped bacteria

Conjugation

Occurs when the DNA of one bacteria passes through the conjugation tube to another bacteria

Flagella

Long, whip-like extension that allows for movement

Microbiologist

Someone who studies microscopic organisms

Parasitic

When an organism must feed off of a living host

Pathogenic

Disease causing

Peptidoglycan

Sugar & protein molecules found in the cell walls of some organisms

Saprophytic

When an organism feeds off of dead organic matter

Spirillum

Spiral shaped bacteria

Be able to label the following parts of a typical bacteria

Flagella
Nuclear area/chromosome
Capsule
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Ribosomes

Amoeboid movement

When all of the endoplasm from a protist moves to one area of the plasma membrane forming a pseudopod, and the rest of the organism then flows along with it.

Pellicle

Firm, flexible covering of a paramecium.

Macronucleus

In a paramecium, this contains many copies of the genetic information.

Micronucleus

In a paramecium, this helps to exchange genetic information during conjugation.

Contractile vacuole

Collects and eliminates water in most protists.

Pseudopods

A cytoplasmic extension of the cell used for finding food and locomotion

Trichocysts

Stiff filaments that are discharged in response to certain stimuli in a paramecium.

Spore

A cell with a hard, protective covering that forms during times of extreme or harsh conditions.

How malaria is passed from person to person

The mosquito "bites" a person that has the plasmodium sporozoan in their bloodstream. The plasmodium cells go to the mosquito's salivary glands. Before feeding on the blood of another human, the infected mosquito injects some of its saliva, containing the parasite, into the puncture wound of this new victim. The plasmodium goes to the human liver cells, reproduces quickly, and then enters the bloodstream where they will burst and fully infect the human.

Label the parts of a paramecium

Contractile vacuole
Food vacuole
Gullet
Oral groove
Macronucleus
Micronucleus
Cilia
Anal pore
Pellicle
Trichocysts

Hyphae

The basic structural features of fungi that are microscopic filaments filled with cytoplasm and nuclei

Septate

Hyphae with cross walls

Coenocytic

Hyphae without cross walls

Mycelium

A large branching network of hyphae

Absorptive heterotroph

An organism that digests its food outside itself and then absorbs those nutrients

Rhizoids

Root-like hyphae that are used for anchoring and to connect sporangiophores together

Sporangium

A structure in which spores are produced

Sporangiophore

Vertical hyphae that hold the sporangium

Zygospore

A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering to withstand unfavorable conditions

Blade

Wide portion of the leaf; also called the lamina

Botany

The study of plants

Cotyledon

Contains stored food to nourish an embryonic plant while it is in the seed

Cuticle

Waxy covering a leaf that prevents water loss

Epidermis

Consists of a single layer of cells at the top & bottom of the leaf that serve as a protective layer

Fibrous root

A system in which there are many secondary roots

Fiddlehead

A coiled young leaf of a new fern

Frond

The mature leaf of a fern

Fruit

A mature ovary

Guard cells

Specialized cells on each side of the stomata

Margins

Edges of a leaf

Palisade mesophyll

Column shaped cells that are lined up side by side

Petals

Large, brightly colored parts of a plant

Phloem

Food carrying tubules

Pistil

The female reproductive structure in a plant

Prothallus

A heart shaped gametophyte in ferns

Seeds

Contains the young plant and stored food in a protective coat

Spongy mesophyll

Made of irregularly shaped cells that have intercellular spaces in between them

Stamen

The male reproductive structures in a plant

Stomata

Little openings on the underside of the leaf which permit the exchange of gases with the air

Taproot

A system in which the primary root continues to grow is the predominant root

Xylem

Water carrying tubules

Be able to label the cross section of the leaf

Upper epidermis
Lower epidermis
Palisade mesophyll
Spongy mesophyll
Xylem
Phloem
Guard cells
Stomata
Intercellular spaces

Be able to label the parts of a flower

Petals
Sepals
Stigma
Style
Ovary
Ovules
Anther
Filament

Know the 9 Life Processes of Animals

Movement
Support
Protective body covering
Nutrition
Respiration
Circulation
Excretion
Response
Reproduction

Vertebrates

Animals with a backbone

Invertebrate

Animals without backbones

Locomotion

Movement through the environment

Sessile

When an animal is unable to move

Motile

When an animal is able to move

Ingestion

The intake of food

Digestion

Breakdown of food into substances the animal can use

Endoskeleton

Internal system of bones and cartilage

Exoskeleton

Outside body covering that gives support

Assimilation

Absorption of food for later use

Irritability

Ability of an organism to respond to its environment

Zoology

The study of animals

Symmetrical

When an organism is able to be cut into two similar parts or equal halves

Asymmetrical

When an organism is not able to be cut into two similar parts

Anterior

Forward; toward the front end

Cephalic

Concerning the head

Caudal

Concerning the tail

Dorsal

Back or upper surface

Lateral

On or toward the side

Midline

Divides into right and left sides

Medial

On or toward the middle

Transverse

A cut that runs perpendicular to the midline

Posterior

Farther back; toward the rear

Ventral

Belly or lower surface

Difference between an open and closed circulatory system

In a closed system, the blood stays in the vessels. In an open system, the blood leaves the vessels and bathes the organs and surrounding tissues

Explain how an arthropod molts

The arthropod epidermis produces enzymes that eat away at the inside of the old exoskeleton while a new exoskeleton is produced beneath it. It wiggles out of the old one and then goes into seclusion until the new one hardens.

Characteristics that distinguish insects from other arthropods

Three pairs of walking legs
Wings are usually present
3 segments on the body
One pair of antennae

Omnivores

Eat both plants and animals

Herbivore

Plant eaters

Carnivore

Meat eaters; feed on other animals

Endothermic

Warm blooded animals that are able to generate their own body heat

Exothermic

Cold blooded animals that don't generate their own body heat

Arteries

Carry blood away from heart to body tissues

Capillaries

Smallest branches of arteries that pass through body tissues

Veins

Carry blood from tissues back to heart

Hemoglobin

A red, oxygen-carrying pigment in the blood

Purpose of the air bladder in a fish

It allows the fish to control its depth and to maintain that depth without swimming. By increasing the gas volume, the fish rises. By decreasing the gas volume, the fish sinks.

What is countershading in fish and why its important

Countershading is a form of camouflage that protects fish from predators above and below it. The upper half of the fish is dark in color so when viewed from above, it blends with the bottom of the body of water. The lower half of the fish is lighter in color which makes it blend with the lighter water surface.

Names of the paired fins in fish

Pectoral fins
Pelvic fins

Names of the unpaired fins in fish

Anterior dorsal fin
Posterior dorsal fin
Caudal fin
Anal fin

Label the internal anatomy of the Starfish

Ossicles (not pictured...make up the covering of the starfish)
Pyloric caeca (digestive glands)
Gonads
Ampulla
Stomach

Path water takes through the water vascular system of a starfish

Water goes into the sieve plate and moves through the stone canal and into the ring canal and then through the radial canals

Be able to label and know the functions of the external anatomy of the Starfish

Rays - Arms of the starfish
Sieve plate (madreporite) - part of the starfish where water enters
Central disc - where all of the rays of the starfish connect (not labeled)
Eyespot - light sensitive organ

Be able to label and know the functions of the external anatomy of the Starfish

Spines - act as protection from parasites for the starfish (found all over the starfish)
Tube feet - aid in movement and feeding
Oral spines - (not pictured) surround the mouth for protection

Know the difference between the oral and aboral surface of a Starfish.

The oral side is on the bottom of the starfish and contains the oral spines, tube feet, mouth.
The aboral side is on the top and includes the spines, sieve plate.

Know how a Starfish captures and eats prey

A starfish will use its rays to capture the food. It then everts its stomach and forces digestive juices into the clam (the favorite meal) until the clam is dissolved. It will then absorb the broth and the stomach will be drawn back into the mouth.

Label the external anatomy of the Grasshopper

Head
Thorax
Abdomen
Antennae
Compound eyes
Tympanum (not pictured...found under the wing on the first abdominal segment)
Spiracles
Ovipositor (not pictured...at the rear end of the grasshopper)

Label the internal anatomy of the Grasshopper

Mouth
Esophagus
Crop
Gastric caeca
Stomach
Intestine
Rectum
Anus

Know the two types of Grasshopper wings and what they function to do

Membranous - function to help them fly
Leathery - function to protect the membranous wings

Label the 5 major parts of the Grasshopper leg

Coxa
Trochanter
Femur
Tibia
Tarsus

Label the external features of the Shark

Anterior (1st) dorsal fin
Posterior (2nd) dorsal fin
Caudal fin
Pectoral fin
Pelvic fin
Rostrum (snout)
Spiracles
Nostril
Gill slits
Lateral line (not pictured...found all along the side of the shark from anterior to posterior)

Label the internal features of the Shark

Heart (not pictured...above the esophagus...will be a small gray looking organ)
Liver (there are 3 lobes)
Gallbladder
Stomach
Pancreas
Spleen
Intestine

Label the male reproductive structures of the Shark

Clasper
Testis
Vas deferens
Seminal vesicle

Label the female reproductive structures of the Shark

Cloaca
Ovary
Oviduct
Uterus
Yolk sac
Embryos

Phylum Sarcodina

Amoebas

Phylum Ciliophora

Paramecium, Stentor

Phylum Sporozoa

Plasmodium

Phylum Zoomastigina

Trypanosoma

Phylum Euglenophyta

Euglena

Phylum Zygomycota

Rhizopus; the common molds

Phylum Ascomycota

yeasts, Penicillium, sac fungi

Phylum Basidiomycota

mushrooms, puffballs, club fungi

Phylum Bryophyta

mosses

Phylum Pteridophyta

ferns

Phylum Coniferophyta

conifers

Phylum Anthophyta

flowering plants

Phylum Porifera

sponges

Phylum Cnidaria

jellyfishes, hydras, sea anemones

Phylum Platyhelminthes

tapeworms and flatworms

Phylum Nematoda

roundworms

Phylum Mollusca

clams, oysters, scallops, snails

Phylum Echinodermata

starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers

Phylum Chordata

amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals

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