Children between 12 and 18 years of age.
Apparent Life-Threatening Event (ALTE)
An event that causes unresponsiveness, cyanosis, and apnea in an infant, who then resumes breathing with stimulation.
Slow respiratory rate: ominous sign in a child that indicates impending respiratory arrest.
Pulses that are closes to the core (central) part of the body where the vital organs are located; include the carotid, femoral, and apical pulses.
A general term applying to all forms of child abuse and neglect.
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure
A seizure that features rhythmic back-and-forth motion of an extremity and body stiffness.
The first year of life.
An "uh" sound heard during exhalation; reflects the child's attempt to keep the alveoli open; a sign of increased work of breathing.
The external openings of the nostrils. A single nostril opening is called a naris.
Refusal or failure on the part of the caregiver to provide life necessities.
A form of bacterial meningitis characterized by rapid onset of symptoms, often leading to shock and death.
Pediatric Assessment Triage (PAT)
A structured assessment tool that allows you to rapidly form a general impression of the infant of child without touching him or her; consists of assessing appearance, work of breathing, and circulation to the skin.
Pediatric Resuscitation Tape Measure
A tape used to estimate an infant or child's weight on the basis of length; appropriate drug doses and equipment sizes are listed on the tape.
A specialized medical practice devoted to the care of the young.
An acute infectious disease characterized by a catarrhal stage, followed by a paroxysmal cough that ends in a whooping inspiration. Also called whooping cough.
Children between 3-6 years of age.
Children between 6-12 years of age.
Shaken Baby Syndrome
A syndrome seen in abused infants and children; the patient has been subjected to violent, whiplash-type shaking injuries inflicted by the abusing individual that may cause coma, seizures, and increased intracranial pressure due to tearing of the cerebral veins with consequent bleeding into the brain.
Optimum neutral head position for the uninjured child who requires airway management.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Death of an infant of young child that remains unexplained after a complete autopsy.
The period following infancy until 3 years of age.
Increased respiratory rate.
Work of breathing
An indicator of oxygenation and ventilation. Work of breathing reflects the child's attempt to compensate for hypoxia.
Making eye contact, recognizing caregivers, and following a bright light with their eyes are initially noticed in children of what age group?
Saying their first word, sitting without support, and teething are initially noticed in what age group?
What is initially seen in children 12-18 months?
Speaking 4-6 words, know the major body parts, can open doors.
Toilet training is typically mastered at what age?
What is FALSE regarding the pediatric airway?
The trachea is larger in diameter and shorter in length.
Breathing sounds in the pediatric population are more easily heard, because:
Their chest walls are thinner.
An infants heart can beat as many as _______ time per minute if the body needs to compensate for injury or illness.
What is NOT a common cause of altered mental status in pediatric patients?
A fracture of the femur is rare and is a major source of ________ in the pediatric population.
When you assess a pediatric patient, it is best to place _______ on the patient's chest to feel the rise and fall of the chest wall.
Tachycardia in pediatric patients may be an indication of:
When assessing capillary refill in pediatric patients, the colour should return after:
Pupillary response in pediatric patients may be abnormal in the presence of:
Hypoxia, brain injury, drugs.
When obtaining a pediatric patient history from a family, what are appropriate questions?
Does the child have rashes, has been the child's recent activity level, and has there been any vomiting or diarrhea?
When examining the head of a pediatric patient, this is false:
A bulging fontanelle suggests dehydration.
In pediatric patients, guarding of the abdomen suggests:
What are signs of increased work in breathing in pediatric patients?
Nasal flaring, grunting, retractions.
This is NOT an infection that can cause an airway obstruction in pediatric patients:
Signs and symptoms of a lower airway obstruction in pediatric patients include:
Exposure to cold air, infection and emotional stress are all triggers of:
This statement regarding pediatric asthma is FALSE:
Use strong, forceful breaths when ventilating to get air past the obstruction.
All of the following signs are associated with pneumonia in pediatric patients:
Grunting, nasal flaring, hypothermia.
Bronchiolitis usually occurs during the first ________ years of life.
A pediatric patient with hives, wheezing, increased work of breathing, and hypoperfusion is likely suffering from:
What is appropriate when treating pediatric patients with seizures?
Clear the mouth with suction, provide 100% oxygen, and consider placing the patient in the recovery position.
What population is at the highest risk for contracting meningitis?
Children who have had head trauma.
A pediatric patient with a fever, pain on palpation of the lower right quadrant, and rebound tenderness is likely to be suffering from:
What questions would you ask in the event of a possible poisoning?
Are there any changes in behavior or level of consciousness, what is the substance involved, and was there any choking or coughing after the exposure?
Activated charcoal is not indicated for children who have infested a(n):
Acid, alkali, or petroleum product.
What are severe signs of dehydration in pediatric patients?
Very dry lips and gums, sunken eyes, and sleepiness.
Young children can compensate for fluid loss by:
Decreasing blood flow to the extremities.
All of the following are common causes of fever in pediatric patients.
Infection, status epilepticus, and drug ingestion.
A pediatric patient involved in a drowning emergency may present with:
Head and neck injuries are not common after high-speed collisions in the following contact sport:
All children with abdominal injuries should be monitored for signs and symptoms of:
What is NOT a common exposure when dealing with pediatric burns?
Electrocution from poor wiring.
How many triage categories are there in the JumpSTART system?
Known risk factors of SIDS include:
Mother younger than 20, mother smoked during pregnancy, and low birth weight.
When you do your scene assessment at an incident involving SIDS, you should focus your attention on:
Signs of illness, including medication, humidifiers, and thermometers, general condition of the house, and the site where the infant was discovered.
Signs of posttraumatic stress:
Nightmares, difficulty sleeping, loss of appetite.
(T/F): You should avoid letting a parent or caregiver hold an infant during your assessment.
(T/F): Toddlers have a hard time verbalizing or localizing paint because they do not have the verbal ability to be precise.
(T/F): It is considered acceptable to lie to a preschool aged child because they will not understand their true medical condition.
(T/F): Adolescence is a time to risk taking and dangerous behaviors.
(T/F): Some of the risks that adolescents take can ultimately facilitate development and judgement.
(T/F): Congenital cardiovascular problems are the leading cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in the pediatric population.
(T/F): Sprains are uncommon in the pediatric population.
(T/F): Infants and young children should be kept warm during a transport or when the patient is exposed to assess or reassess and injury.
(T/F): Bradypnea usually indicates at the pediatric patient's condition is improving.
(T/F): Pediatric patients weighing less than 60 pounds should be transported by car seat.
(T/F): Blood pressure is usually not assessed in patients younger than 4 years of age.
(T/F): A prolonged asthma attack that is unrelieved can progress to a condition known as "status asthmicus"
(T/F): An oralpharyngeal airway should be used for pediatric patients who are unconscious and in possible respiratory failure.
(T/F): Blow-by oxygen is as effective as a face mask or nasal cannula or delivering oxygen a pediatric patient.
(T/F): A rectal temperature is the most accurate for infants and toddlers.
(T/F): Around 8-10 years of age, children no longer require padding under their torso to create a neutral position.
(T/F): Extremity injuries in the pediatric population are managed much differently than extremity injuries in adults.
(T/F): EMT's in every state must report all cases of suspected abuse, even if the emergency department fails to do so.
(T/F): Do not examine the genital area of a child unless there is evidence of bleeding of there is an injury that must be treated.
(T/F): You should use a euphemism such as "passed away" when informing a family of a pediatric death to lessen their emotional pain.
Before positioning an infant of child's airway, you should:
Place him or her on a firm surface.
A normal level of consciousness in an infant or child is characterized by:
Age appropriate behavior, good muscle tone, and good eye contact.
You are dispatched to a local elementary school for an injured child. As you approach the child, you note he is laying at the base of the monkey bars. He is not moving, and does not appear to be conscious or breathing You should:
Stabilize his head and open his airway.
After determining that a child has a strong central pulse, you should:
Not rule out compensated shock.
A 6-month old male presents with 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. He is conscious, but his level of activity is decreased. The infants mother tells you he has not soiled his diaper in over 12 hours. The infants heart rate is 140 beats/min and his anterior fontanelle appears to be slightly sunken. You should suspect:
After using the PAT to form your general impression of a sick or injured child, you should:
Perform a hands on assessment of the ABC's.
When caring for a female child who has possibly been sexually abused, you should:
Have a female EMT remain with her if possible.
A common cause for shock in infants is:
Dehydration from vomiting and diarrhea.
An infant with severe dehydration would be expected to present with:
Absent urine output.
When questioning the parent of a child who ingested a poisonous substance, what are pertinent questions?
Do you know what substance was ingested, have you noticed any signs and symptoms, and what time did the ingestion occur?
An oropharyngeal airway should not be used in children who have ingested a caustic or petroleum-based product because:
Cause the child to vomit.
Before assessing the respiratory adequacy of an unconscious infant or child, you must:
Ensure that the airway is patent and clear of obstructions.
When inserting an oropharyngeal airway in an infant or child, you should:
Depress the tongue with a tongue depressor.
A 4-year old female ingested an unknown quantity of liquid drain cleaner. Your assessment reveals that she is conscious and alert, is breathing adequately, and has skin burns around her mouth. You should:
Monitor her airway and give her oxygen.
A 2-year-old has experienced a seizure. When you arrive at the scene, she is conscious, crying and clinging to the mother. Her skin is hot and moist. The mother tells you that the seizure lasted approx. 5 minutes. She further tells you that her daughter has no history of seizures, but has had a recent ear infection. You should:
Attempt cooling measures, offer oxygen and transport.
A high-pitched inspiratory sound that indicates a partial upper airway obstruction is called:
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18-month-old female is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry, and her heart rate is 120 beats per minute. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:
Administering blow-by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother.
A 8-year-old with a history of asthma continues to experience severe respiratory distress despite being given multiple doses of her prescribed albuterol by her mother. She is conscious but clearly restless. Her heart rate is 130 beats/min. She is receiving high-flow oxygen via a nonthreatening mask. You should:
Be prepared to assist her ventilations, transport at once, and request an ALS intercept en route to the hospital.
With regard the the legal implications of child abuse:
All EMTs must report all suspected cases of child abuse.