Chapter 14/ Musculoskeletal System

130 terms by beccas801 

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periosteum

outermost layer of the bone, made of fibrous tissue

compact bone

dense, hard layer of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum

cancellous (spongy) bone

contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone

endosteum

membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone

diaphysis

shaft of the long bone

epiphysis

end of each long bone

bone marrow

material found in the cavities of bones

red marrow

thick, blood like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation

yellow marrow

soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones

articular cartilage

smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surface of joints

meniscus

crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee

intervertebral disk

cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine

pubic symphysis

cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together

synovia

fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities

bursa

fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another

ligament

flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint

tendon

band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

aponeruosis

strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone

skeletal muscles (striated)

attached to bones by tendons; voluntary muscles

smooth muscles (unstriated)

located in internal organs such as the digestive tract; involuntary muscles

cardiac muscle (myocardium)

forms the wall of the heart

abduction

movement of drawing away from the middle

adduction

movement of drawing toward the middle

inversion

turning inward

eversion

turning outward

extension

movement in which a limb is placed in a straight postion

flexion

movement in which a limb is bent

pronation

movement that turns the palms up

supination

movement that turns the palms down

rotation

turning around its own axis

carp/o

carpals

clavic/o

clavicle

clavicul/o

clavicle

cost/o

rib

crani/o

cranium

femor/o

femur

fibul/o

fibula

humer/o

humerous

ili/o

ilium

ischi/o

ischium

lumb/o

loin/lumbar region of spine

mandibul/o

mandible

maxill/o

maxilla

pelv/o

pelvis

pelv/i

pelvis

phalang/o

phalanges

pub/o

pubis

rachi/o

spine

radi/o

radius

sacr/o

sacrum

scapul/o

scapula

spondyl/o

vertebra

vertebr/o

vertebra

stern/o

sternum

tars/o

tarsal

tibi/o

tibia

uln/o

ulna

aponeur/o

aponeurosis

arthr/o

joint

burs/o

bursa

chondr/o

cartilage

disk/o

intervertebral disk

menisc/o

meniscus

synovi/o

synovia, synovial membrane

ten/o

tendon

tend/o

tendon

tendin/o

tendon

ankyl/o

crooked, stiff, bent

kinesi/o

movement, motion

kyph/o

hump

lamin/o

lamina (thin flat plate or layer)

lord/o

bent forward

myel/o

bone marrow

my/o

muscle

myos/o

muscle

oste/o

bone

petr/o

stone

scoli/o

crooked, curved

inter-

between

supra-

above

sym-

together, joined

syn-

together, joined

-asthenia

weakness

-clasia

break

-clasis

break

-clast

break

-desis

surgical fixation, fusion

-physis

growth

-schisis

split, fissure

ankylosing spondylitis

form of arthritis that first affects the spine & caused a forward bend of the spine

bunion

abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe. Often hereditary or caused by bad shoes

carpal tunnel syndrome

common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve

Colles fracture

type of wrist fracture. The radius is fractured at the lower end, the distal fragment is displaced backward.

exostosis

abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (spur)

fracture

broken bone

gout

disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes crystal to be deposited in the joints, esp. that of the big toe

herniated disk

rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage which allows the contents to protrude through it. Also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk or herniated nucleus pulposus

Lyme disease

infection caused by a bacterial carried by deer ticks

muscular dystrophy

group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness

myasthenia gravis

chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses nerves to muscle cells

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bone density

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body

spinal stenosis

narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots

spondylolisthesis

forward slipping of one vertebra over another

chiropodist

specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot

podiatrist

specialist in treating and diagnosing diseases and disorders of the foot

chiropractic

system of therapy that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column

chiropractor

specialist in chiropractic

crepitus

crackling sound heard when two bones rub against each orther

orthopedics

branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of disease and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system

orthopedics

branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system

orthopedist

physician who specializes in orthopedics

orthotics

making and fitting of orthopedic appliances

orthotist

person who specializes in orthotics

osteopath

physician who specializes in osteopathy

osteopathy

system of medicine that uses the usual forms of diagnosis and treatment but places greater emphasis on the whole picture

prosthesis

artificial substitute for a missing body part

C1-C7

cervical vertebrae

CTS

carpal tunnel syndrome

EMG

electromyogram

fx

fracture

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus

L1-L5

lumbar vertebrae

MD

muscular dystrophy

MG

myasthenia gravis

OA

osteoarthritis

ortho

orthopedics

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

T1-T12

thoracic vertebrae

THA

total hip arthroplasty

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