Chapter 8: Political Geography

60 terms by JamesShaffer 

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Balance

of Power a distribution of power among nations to prevent any one nation from becoming too powerful

Boundary

invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory

City-state

sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.

Colonialism

Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.

Colony

A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.

Compact

State A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.

Elongated

State A state with a long, narrow shape.

Federal

State An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.

Fragmented

State A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.

Frontier

A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.

Gerrymandering

Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.

Imperialism

Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.

Landlocked

state A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.

Microstate

A state that encompasses a very small land area.

Perforated

state a state that completely surrounds another one

Prorupted

State an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension

Sovereignty

ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

State

an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs

Unitary

State An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

Geopolitics

study of the government and its policies as affected by physical geography

Organic

Theory concieved of a state as a living organism that must require new territories into order to thrive

Sea

Power a nation that controls the ocean controls the international politics

Heartland

Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.

Rimland

Theory Nicholas Spykman's Theory that the domination of the costal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest

Domino

Theory the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

Territory

the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state

Nation

a politically organized body of people under a single government

State

an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs

Nation-state

state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

Multi-ethnic

State A state that contains more than one ethnicity

Multinational

state State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.

Race

Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.

Sovereignity

ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

Nationalism

Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.

Centripetal

Forces Forces that bond a country together.

Centrifugal

Forces forces that tend to divide a country.

Ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Federal

State An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.

Unitary

State An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

Confederation

a joining of several groups for a common purpose

Decolonization

the action of changing from colonial to independent status

International

Organization an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination

Supranational

Organization Alliance of three or more states for the mutual benefits of all involved.

Self-determination

concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves

Devolution

the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government

Exclave

A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.

Enclave

A piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part.

Geometric

Boundary political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or an arc

Physical-Political

natural boundary is just like rivers, mountains, or forest that separate nations by geographic objects. A political boundary is the limiting lines of jurisdictional authority for the various levels of government

Cultural-Political

Boundary straight lines that serve as political boundaries that are unrelated to physical and /or cultural differences

Antecedent

Boundary boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed

Subsequent

Boundary a boundary that developed with the evolution of the cultural landscape and is adjusted as the cultural landscape changes...

Superimposed

Boundary A boundary line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern.

Relict

Boundary boundary that ceased to function but whose imprint on the cultural landscape can still be detected...

Forward

Capital capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.

Irredentism

A policy of cultural and political expansion into a neighboring state by a state whose nationals live in the neighboring state

Shatterbelt

A large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting states and is caught between the conflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers; a zone of chronic political splintering and facturing.

Balkanization

The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities

Apartheid

Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.

Ethnic

cleansing Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region

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