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Donald C. Rizzo-(author) Study guide for chapter 9 & 10 quiz

True

1.) (true/false) When the inside of a cell is negatively charged while the outside of the cell is positively charged electroncally, it is known as resting potential.

True

2.) (true/false) Calcium ions have a greater concentration inside the resting muscle cell.

True

3.) (true/false) The source of energy for muscle contraction is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules.

False (40 to 50%)

4.) (true/false) Muscles make up about 10% of a persons body weight.

True

5.) (true/false) When the contraction of a skeletal muscle is studied in the laboratory by applying an electrical charge to the muscle, the contraction is called a muscle twitch.

True

6.) (true/false) The "all-or-nothing law" means that a muscle contraction either occurs or it does not.

True

7.) (true/false) Muscles that bend a limb at a joint are called flexors.

False (4 heads, knee)

8.) (true/false) The quadriceps femoris muscle consists of two parts that extend the foot.

True

9.) (true/false) Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles.

True

10.) (true/false) All of the muscle cells or fibers innervated by the same motor neuron are called a motor unit.

True

11.) (true/false) Muscles can be named according to their action, shape, origin and insertion, location or the direction of their fibers.

True

12.) (true/false) Rotator muscles revolve a limb around an axis.

False (A line constant/Z line moves)

13.) (true/false) During muscle contraction, the width of the Z lines remain constant.

False (Rapid)

14.) (true/false) Phosphocreatine is found only in muscle and provides a slow, sustained source of high energy for muscle contraction.

True

15.) (true/false) Mature skeletal or striated muscle cells are the longest and most slender muscle fibers.

True

16.) (true/false) The light bands are made of the thin filaments of the protein actin.

False (insert on eyeball)

17.) (true/false) The muscles that move the eyes insert on bone.

True

18.) (true/false) A single long extension of the nerve cell body that transmits the nerve impulse away from the cell body is called an axon.

False (parasympathetic)

19.) (true/false) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system stimulates digestion, urination and defecation and restores or slows down other activities.

True

20.) (true/false) Schwann Cells are located only in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and make up the neurilemma and myelin sheath.

True

21.) (true/false) Bipolar neurons have one dendrite and one axon.

False (Nonepinephrine)

22.) (true/false) The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system uses epinephrine as a neurotransmitter.

True (Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system)

23.) (true/false) The nervous system can be grouped into two major categories.

False (Na+/sodium)

24.) (true/false) During depolarization K+ ions rush in, causing a change inside the nerve membrane from negative to positive.

True

25.) (true/false) The nervous system shares in the maintenance of homeostasis.

True

26.) (true/false) Numerous mitochondria and neurofibrils are in the axon.

False (Immediatly breaks down Acetylcholine)

27.) (true/false) Acetylcholinesterase participates in the construction of acetylcholine.

Tendinitis

28.) Inflammation of a tendon is known as ____(c)______.

Fibrillation

29.) The rapid, uncontrolled contraction of individual cells in the heart, resulting in the hearts inability to pump blood properly is known as _____(a)_______.

Hypotrophy

30.) An increase in the bulk of muscle cells that occurs as a result of exercise is known as ____(b)_______.

Cramps

31.) Spastic and painful contractions of muscles that occur because of an irritaion within the muscles are known as ____(b)_______.

Atrophy

32.) A decrease in muscle bulk or a "wasting away of the muscle," due to lack of exercise is called ____(a)________.

Muscular Dystrophy

33.) An inherited muscular disorder in which the muscle tissue degenerates over time, resulting in complete helplessness, is known as ____(d)______.

Contracture

34.) A condition in which a muscle shortens its length in the resting state and remains that way is known as _______(a)_______.

Mastication

35.) Another name for chewing is ___(b)_______.

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

36.) Smooth and cardiac muscle is under the control of the ______(a)_______.

Synergists

37.) Muscles that assist the prime mover muscles in performing movement are called ____(b)________.

Myalgia

38.) Another name for muscle pain is _____(C)_______.

Myositis

39.) Inflammation of muscular tissue is known as _____(a)_______.

Aponeurosis

40.) Another name for a wide, flat tendon is ______(a)_______.

Origin

41.) The more fixed attachment of muslce that serves as a basis for the action is the ____(b)_______.

Myasthenia Gravis

42.) A condition usually beginning with the facial muscles and characterized by the easy tiring of muscles or muscle weakness is known as ____(c)__________.

Frontalis

43.) the muscle that raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the skin of the forehead is the _____(b)________.

Buccinator

44.) The muscle that compresses the cheeks is the ___(c)_____.

Masseter (blue) (& temporalis(red))

45.) The muscle that closes the jaw is the ____(a)______.

Superior Rectus

46.) The muscle that raises the eye is the ______(d)_______.

Deltoid

47.) The muscle that abducts the arm and is also the muscle that receives injections that are given in the arm is the ____(d)________.

Supinator

48.) The muscle responsible for moving the hand so that the palm is facing upward is the ______(b)_______.

Interossei

49.) The muscles, found between the metacarpals, that cause abduction of the proximal phalanges of the fingers are the ___(a)______.

Diaphragm

50.) The main muscle used in breathing is the ____(c)_____.

Rectus Abdominis

51.) The muscle that is developed when we do sit-ups and try to tighten the abdominal wall is the ___(b)_____.

Acetylcholine

52.) The neurotransmitter released by the neuromuscular junction is _____(d)________.

Troponin

53.) During muscle contraction, calcium attaches to ______(d)_______.

Anconeus

54.) Two muscles extend the arm: triceps brachii and the ____(c)______.

Four

55.) The quadriceps muscle consists of ______(c)______ parts.

Dendrites

56.) The short, branched nerve fibers on the nerve cell that are the receptive areas of the neuron are known as the _____(a)________.

Tract

57.) A bundle of nerve fibers located inside the central nervous system is called a(n) _____(c)________.

Reflex Arc

58.) The simplest pathway able to receive a stimulus, enter the central nervous system for immediate interpretation and produce a response is known as a _____(b)________.

Dura Mater

59.) The outermost layer of the meninges is the ______(a)______

Arachnoid Mater

60.) The middle layer of the meninges, known as the "spider layer" is called the ______(c)_______.

Nervous System

61.) The body's control center and communications network, which directs the functions of the body's organs and systems, is _____(d)_______.

Reflex

62.) An involuntary reaction to an external stimulus in known as a(n) ____(a)_____.

Astrocytes

63.) Star-shaped cells that wrap around neurons for support in the brain and spinal cord and connect neurons to blood vessels are known as _______(c)_________.

Microglia

64.) Small cells that protect the central nervous system by engulfing and destroying microbes and cellular debris are called ____(d)______.

Afferent Nerves

65.) Sensory neurons that convey information from receptors in the periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord are also known as ______(a)_______

Neurotransmitters

66.) Transmission of nerve impulses across the synapses is brought about by the secretions of very low concentrations of the chemicals known as ______(a)________

Efferent Nerves

67.) Motor neurons that convey information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands are called _______(b)_________.

Ganglia

68.) Nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system are called __________(b)________.

Meninges

69.) The three layers of connective tissue membranes that cover and protect the spinal cord and brain are the _______(c)________.

Synapse

70.) The area where the terminal branches of an axon are close to, but not touching, the ends of the dendrites of another neuron is called a(n) ______(a)____________.

Receptors

71.) Neurons that detect stimuli in the environment are known as _____(c)_________.

Central Nervous System

72.) The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord is known as the ____(b)______.

Somatic Nervous System

73.) The part of the nervous system that conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to skeletal muscle is known as the ______(d)_______.

Nerve

74.) A bundle of nerve cells or fibers is known as a(n) _______(d)_______.

Neuroglia Cells

75.) Most brain cells are________(a)_______.

Schwann Cells

76.) The cells that are located only in the peripheral nervous system and make up the neurilemma and myelin sheath are the ___(c)_____.

Ependymal cells

77.) The cells that form the lining of the cavities in the brain and spinal cord are the _____(b)________.

Multipolar Neurons

78.) Neurons that have several dendrites and one axon are known as ____(c)_______.

Nodes of Ranvier

79.) Gaps in the myelin sheath that allow ions to flow freely from extracellular fluids to the axons are known as ____(a)______.

Bipolar Neurons

80.) Neurons that have one dendrite and one axon are known as ____(d)____.

Unipolar Neurons

81.) Neurons that have only one process extending from the cell body are known as ____(b)______.

Ganglia

82.) Nerve cell bodies that are found outside the central nervous system are generally grouped together to form ___(a)______.

Horns

83.) Areas of gray matter in the spinal cord are called ____(c)______.

Neurons

84.) Nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses in the form of electrochemical changes are known as _____(d)_______.

Oligodendroglia

85.) The neuroglial cells that form the fatty myelin sheath on the neurons of the brain and spinal cord are the ______(a)______.

Ependymal Cells

86.) The cells that line the fluid-filled ventricles of the brain are the ________(b)________.

White Matter

87.) The term that refers to groups of myelinated axons from many neurons supported by neuroglia is _____(c)_______.

Eight

88.) The correct number of pairs of cervical nerves is _____(b)_______.

Twelve

89.) The correct number of pairs of thoracic nerves is ___(c)_____.

Five

90.) The correct number of pairs of lumbar nerves is ______(b)_______.

One

91.) The correct number of pairs of coccygeal nerves is _______a)______.

Dura Mater

92.) The phrase that means "tough mother" is _______(c)_______.

Resting Membrane Potential

93.) ______(d)_______ is maintained by the soduim-potassium pump.

Increased permeability of Na+ ions

94.) Depolarization of the nerve membrane begins with _______(a)_______.

Isotonic Contraction

95.) __________ is a property of muscle whereby a steady or constant state of partial contraction is maintained in muscle.

Diaphragm

96.) The _____ is the main muscle involved in breathing.

Gluteus Maximus

97.) The _________ is the major muscle that forms the buttocks.

Agonists

98.) In performing any given movement, such as bending the leg at the knee joint, the muscles performing the actual movement are called the prime movers or _______.

Gluteus Medius

99.) The muscle of the buttocks where injuctions are administered, above and lateral to the gluteus maximus, is known as the __________.

Gastrocnemius

100.) The calf muscle is also known as the __________ muscle.

Plantar

101.) The soleus muscle ______ flexes the foot.

Smooth

102.) The type of muscle found in hollow structures such as the intestines, arteries, veins and bladder is ________ muscle.

Cardiac

103.) __________ muscle is found only in the heart and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

Tendons

104.) _________ attach muscle to bone.

Sternocleidomastoid

105.) The main muscle that moves the head is the _________________.

Levators

106.) Muscles that lower a part of the body are depressors, while muscles that raise a part of the body are known as _______________.

System or Tubules

107.) The muscle action potential is able to pass into the muscle via the T-______________.

Aponeurosis

108.) A tendon that is wide and flat is called a(n) _____________.

Fascicle

109.) A bundle of muscle fibers is called a(n)________________.

Myosin

110.) Dark bands of the muscle fibers are made up of thick filaments of the protein _______________.

Sarcolemma

111.) The cell membrane of the muscle cell (fiber) is called the ______________.

Afferent

112.) _________________ or sensory neurons are those that convey information from receptors in periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord.

Reflex Arc

113.) A(n) _________________ is the simplest pathway able to receive a stimulus, enter the central nervous system for immediate interpretation and produce a response.

Neurotransmitters

114.) Transmission of nerve impulses across synapses is brought about by the secretion of very low concentrations of chemicals called _______________ that move across the gap.

Dendrites

115.) The short, branched nerve fibers on the nerve cell that are the receptive areas of the neuron are called ______________.

Efferent

116.) __________________or motor neurons are those that convey information from the bain and spinal cord to muscles and glands.

Arachniod Mater

117.) The ______________ is the middle layer of the meninges.

Microglia Cells

118.) _______________ are small cells that protect the central nervous system by engulfing and destroying microbes and cellular debris.

Nerve Fibers

119.) Nerve Cells are also known as ____________.

Repolarization

120.) During ____________, the membrane potential moves back to resting membrane potential.

Epinephrine

121.) The autonomic nervous system uses adrenaline (also called ________________) as a transmitting agent.

Pia Mater

122.) The innermost spinal meninx is known as the _________________.

Dorsal

123.) The posterior or ____________ root of a spinal nerve is the sensory root.

Nissl

124.) In a neuron, protein synthesis occurs in the ___________ bodies, which are a chromatophilic substance.

Association

125.) From the sensory neuron, the impulse may pass through a number of internuncial or _____________ neurons.

Frontalis

126.) (e) Raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the skin of the forehead.

Buccinator

127.) (a) compresses the cheek.

Masseter

128.) (b) closes the jaw.

Lateral Rectus

129.) (d) rolls eyeball laterally.

Trapezius

130.) (c) draws the head to one side; rotates the scapula.

Deltoid

131.) (e) abducts the arm

Opponens Pollicis

132.) (c) flexes and opposes thumb.

Extensor Digitorum Communis

133.) (d) Extends the finger

Diaphragm

134.) (b) increases the vertical diameter of the thorax.

Iliacus

135.) (a) flexes and rotates the thigh medially.

Biceps Brachii

136.) (c) Flexes the arm and supinates the hand.

Flexor Pollicis Brevis

137.) (d) flexes the thumb.

Brachialis

138.) (a) flexes the forearm

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

139.) (b) flexes and adducts the wrist

Flexor Digitorum Profundus

140.) (e) Flexes the terminal phalanx of the hand

Rigor Mortis

141.) (c) occurs after death when muscles connot contract

Snoring

142.) (a) caused by the rapid vibration of the uvula and soft palate.

Tetanus

143.) (b) Also called lockjaw

Polio

144.) (d) now rare because of Salk and Sabin vaccines.

Plantar Fasciitis

145.) (e) inflammation of the connective tissue that is part of the arches of the foot.

Astrocytes

146.) (a) attach neurons to their blood vessels.

Oligodendroglia

147.) (b) produce myelin sheath on neurons

Ganglia

148.) (d) nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system.

Arachnoid Mater

149.) (c) the middle layer of the meninges

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