location cues are " "
head related transfer function
the difference between the sound from the source and the sound actually entering the ears
provides information for sound localization because the head an pinnae decrease the intensity of some frequencies and increase the frequencies of others
the perception that the sound is inside our head; occurs with earphone usage
not effective for judgements of on elevation since in many locations they may be zero
auditory system determines Azimuth based on " " regardless of frequency
acoustic shadow effect
higher frequency sounds elicit greater intensity differences between ears due to the " "
helps with localizing high frequencies
also needed for good sound localization
summation of binaural beats occurs where in the cortex?
beat frequencies appear to have " " amplitudes
superior olivary complex and auditory cortex
have neurons that respond best to specific time difference between the sound in one ear and the time in the other
damage to the " ", patients have difficulty localizing sound
humans localize based on topographic maps (true or false?)
responsible for identifying sounds, sound recognition
responsible for locating sounds, sound localization
judge sound location to be the source that is detected by the closest ear
at differences of " " we detect teh same sound
for sond differences great than " " we detect an echo
the amount and duration of indirect sound in a room, also known as the time it takes for the sound to decrease to 1/1000th of its original level (or 60dB)
if the RT is too long, the sound seems " "
if the RT is too short, the sound seems " "
perfect RT for a concert hall
time between when sound arrives and when the first reflection arrives from indirect sound
JND for pitch
eliminating the fundamental causes a change in " "
side of the brain especially critical for perceiving pitch
side of brain for processing rapid changes in frequency and intensity
second auditory cortex
central pitch processor; when damaged, causes tone deafness
both left and right sides are necessary for complete perception of " "
when one sensation provides another, ie tasting blue, or hearing orange