list the common joint injuries 6
strains, sprains, tendons, bone surfaces, rotator cuff injuries and hip injuries
what are injuries to ligaments?
sprains and ruptures
what are injuries to tendons
rotator cuff injuries
What are injuries to bone surfaces
joint dislocations, patellar dislocations, loose bodies, meniscus injuries, and chondromalacia
What is rotator cuff injuries?
clavicle fractures, dislocations, bursa damage, torn tendons
dislocation and fracture
High risk for falling and fracturing hip include
x alcohol and caffine, physical inactivity, living in assisted living facility, low body weight, tal stature, certain drugs, visual impairment - osteoporosis (weakens bones)
discontinuity of the bone
softening of articular caritlage, as under the patella and frequenly in youth.
Fracure is the most
common type of bone lesion
List the 7 types of fractures
transverse, oblique, segmented comminuted, butterfly, impacted and spiral
bone healing has which 4 stage?
hematoma forms filled with fibrin network, 2- cells ftow in fibrin for new tissue 3- calcium salts ossification, 4- new tissue remodeled into normal shape
little pockets of fluid that cushion the joint and they are supposed ot be there
Hip fractures treatment
immobilize but if shifted screws, in old people replace hip
4- name 3 knee injuries
meniscus injury, patellar dislocation, chondromalacia
skin and muscle damage with bone exposed
nerve function may be temporarily lost, area becomes numb and muscle flaccid, then pain returns, muscle spams, swelling loss of function
to heal, bone needs to be
aligned and immobilized
delayed union of the bone can
cause healing to fail
large area of local hemorrhage
pressure from sweling and hemorrhave
fracture blisters and compartment syndrome
involvement of nerve fibers
reflex sympathetic dystrophy, (nerve injury)
4 complications from sot tissue injury
1-skin injury or fracture blisters, 2- muscle injury and swelling, compartmental syndrome, 3- Nerve injury reflex sympathetic dystrophy,4- fat emboli, adipose tissue or bone marrow
osteomyelitis, infection of bone 3 causes
1- direct contamination 2- from blood hematogenour as in miliary TB 3- contamination from skin lesions
hematogenous osteomyeitis in kids 4 things
1 - affects long bones, 2- purulent exudate inside bone 3- damages arteries to bone 4- may penetrate skin or involve joins
hematogenous osteomyliis begins with
infections oganisms taht reach the bone through the bloodstream
osteo refers to bone and myelo to the
marrow cavity, both of whcih are involved in osteomyelitis
Hematogenous Osteomyelis in adutls
verebrae, sternoclavicular and sacroiliac joints, or pubic symphysisor pubic symphisis, 2- tends to affect joint space
What developes in chronic osteomyelitis?
dead bone and new bone
dead bone is called
what is the distinguishing characteristic of chronic osteomyelitis (slide 10)
muscle to bone
bone to bone
benign bone tumors, name 4
osteoma, condroma, osteochondroma, osteoclastoma
small bony tumor on bone surface
tumor made of cartilage
cartilage-capped tumor with bony stalk
giant tumor cell or cell tumor that may invade bone and cause bone destruction
malignant bone tumors name 4
osteosarcoma, ewing sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, metastases
malignant bone tumors are opposit benigh
ill defined, lack sharp borders, and extend beyond confines of bone
two major forms of bone cancer in children and young adults
osteosarcoma and ewing sarcoma
most common primary malignant bone tumor and tends to appear in areas with fastest bone growth., cause unknown
PRimary symptomof osteosarcoma is
deep localized pain with nighttime awaykening and swelling in the affected bone.
small round cell undifferentiated tumors. nural crest? 2nd most common in adolescents and kids. Femur most common.
Ewing sarcoma manifestatins
pain, limited movement, tenderness, fever weight loss.
sarcomas is an important word for
malignant bone tumors
manifestations of osteosarcoma is
deep localized pain with nightime awakening and swelling in the affected bone. Sudden pain, overlying skin is warm, shiny and streched with prominent superficial veins.
malignant tumor of cartilage
2nd most common form of malignant bone tumor, occurs in mid life. bit more in men.
chondrosarcoma arises from
points of muscle attachmetn to bone, knee, shoulder, hip and pelvis.
condrosarcomas are ... and how treated .. how manifests
slow growing, metastasize late and often painless.destroy bone. MALIGNANT TUMOR OF CARTLEDGE early treatment good responds well to radical surgical excision but no radiation and chemo.
Metastic bone disease are the most
most common malignancies found in bone. 1/2 of all people with cancer have bone metastasis
metastic bone disease manifestations
pain, with an impending pathologic fracture. Develops gradually over weeks and more severe at night.
with metastic bone disease pathologic fractures are in
the femur, humerus, and verebrae.
small funny cells densely packed, regular cells round or oval nuclei.
name 3 manifestations of cancer
1) changes in organ function. 2) local effects of tumors 3) nonspecific signs of tissue breakdown.
What is changes in organ function
organ failure nad pathologic fracture bones are weakened.
what is local effects of tumors
compressons of nerves or veins, stretching of periosteum. pain and weakness
what are nonspecific signs of tissue breakdown
protein wasting, bone breakdown and calcium reslease and hypercalcemia
how woould an increase in blood calcium from protein breakdown cause weakness
the Na+ gates on his nerve and muscle cells wouappear to turn inia makes feet ld be blocked
internal tibial torsion is
bowing of tibia makes feet appear to turn in.is normal.
external tibial torsion is much less
common disorder, corrects naturally
what is genu varum and genu valgum
varum is bowleg and valgum knocknees.
foot inverted at heal
plantar flexion reminds me of
balarena with plant on head or flowers thrown at her
eversion of fllot
2 types of scoliosis
postural and structural
corrects with bending
structural scoliosis does
not correct with bending fixed deformity and may have 3 causes
3 causes of structural scoliosis
idiopathic, congenital and neuromuscular
clinical manifestations of scoliosis
high shoulder, prominent hip, projecting scapula, sometimes pain in lumbar region. Shortness of breath from diminished chect capacity gastrointestinal disturbance from crowding of organs. In adults may compromise cardiopulmonary function adn risk for neurologic complications.