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University of Arkansas; Turner

wave

primary agent of erosion

wave height

vertical distance from the trough to the crest

wavelength

horizontal distance from crest to crest or trough to trough

wave period

time for one wavelength to pass by a given point

1/2 wavelength

when the wave begins to "feel bottom"

crest

highest part of a wave

trough

lowest part of a wave

wind

wave height and wave length are both dependent on?

surf zone

turbulent water where the waves break

longshore current

waves coming in at a small angle to the shoreline that result in a current that is parallel to the shore

berm

gently sloping landward part of the beach

beachface

steeply sloping part of the beach in swash zone

baymouth bars

form as spits extend all the way across the mouths of bays

spits

sand deposits that form when longshore currents that move along the shoreline encounter deeper water in a bay and drop their sediment load

tombolos

sand deposits that build up behind sea stacks

jetties, groins, breakwaters

manmade structures designed to keep channels open, interrupt longshore currents and stabilize beach sediments, and maintain quieter waters

coast

region along a body of water

shoreline

precise boundary of water and dry land

erosional coast

characterized by steep rocky headlands

depositional coast

gently sloping plains; characterized by barrier island systems with lagoons behind them

drowned coast

irregular; contains estuaries and fjords

estuaries

flooded river valleys that formed as sea levels rose

emergent coast

elevated by tectonic forces

marine terraces

old flat terraces that were below sea level that are exposed due to uplift

sea stacks

erosional remnants of headlands

stress

force per area

compressional stress

type of stress that pushes materials together

tensional stress

type of stress that pulls things apart

shearing stress

type of stress that moves horizontally

strain

deformation that results from stress

brittle deformation

deformation involving breaking of the rock

joints and faults

examples of brittle deformations

ductile deformation

deformation in which the rock deform plastically

folds

example of a ductile deformation

strike

azimuth of a horizontal line in a plane

dip

inclination of the place

90 degrees

dip is measured at ____ to strike

axial plane

planar surface containing the fold axis or hinge lines for each layer of the fold

hinge

point of maximum curvature of the fold

limbs

sides of the fold

anticline

upward arching folds; older rocks are near the core

syncline

downward arching folds; younger rocks are near the core

domes

circular uplifted rock

joint

fracture across which there has been little displacement

fault

fracture across which there has been a displacement (slip)

hanging wall

block above the fault

footwall

block below the fault plane

normal fault

fault where the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall

reverse fault

fault where the hanging wall moves up in relation to the footwall

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