cardiac physiology

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Which chamber receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cavae?
right ventricle
left ventricle
left atrium
right atrium

right atrium

Which heart chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins?
right ventricle
right atrium
left ventricle
left atrium

left atrium

Which heart chamber pumps unoxygenated blood out the pulmonary trunk? left ventricle
right ventricle
right atrium
left atrium

right ventricle

Which chamber pumps oxygenated blood out the aorta to the systemic circuit?
right atrium
right ventricle
left ventricle
left atrium

left ventricle

The heart's pacemaker is the:
atrioventricular node.
sinoatrial node.
Purkinje fibers.
atrioventricular bundl

sinoatrial node.

What is the main function of heart valves? to separate the left and right atria
to separate the atria and ventricles
to pump blood through the heart
to prevent backward flow of blood

to prevent backward flow of blood

When the atria contract, which of the following is true? The atria are in diastole.
. The semilunar valves are open.
The AV valves are closed.
The ventricles are in diastole

The ventricles are in diastole

Which of the following is equivalent to the ventricular volume during isovolumetric contraction? the stroke volume (SV)
The end diastolic volume (EDV)
the minimum ventricular volume (MVV)
the end systolic volume (ESV)

The end diastolic volume (EDV

Which of the following is true during ventricular systole?
The AV valves are closed.
The ventricles are empty.
The atria are in systole.
The ventricles are relaxed.

The AV valves are closed

During the ventricular ejection phase of the cardiac cycle, which of the following is true?
The AV valves are open.
The ventricles are in diastole.
The semilunar valves are open.
The atria are in systole.

The semilunar valves are open.

Most of the decrease in ventricular volume takes place during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
ventricular ejection
ventricular filling
atrial contraction
isovolumetric relaxation

ventricular ejection

Which of the following is equivalent to the ventricular volume during isovolumetric relaxation?
end diastolic volume (EDV)
stroke volume (SV)
end systolic volume (ESV)
maximum ventricular volume (MVV)

end systolic volume (ESV)

Most of the increase in left ventricular volume takes place during what phase of the cardiac cycle?
ventricular filling
atrial contraction
ventricular ejection
isovolumetric relaxation

ventricular filling

In what direction does blood flow through the heart? from ventricles to atria
from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure
from a region of high volume to a region of low volume
from a region of high oxygen content to a region of low oxygen content

from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure

Atrial pressure is greater than ventricular pressure during which phase of the cardiac cycle? ventricular ejection
isovolumetric contraction
isovolumetric relaxation
atrial contraction

atrial contraction

At what point during the cardiac cycle does the AV valve close? when ventricular pressure becomes greater than aortic pressure
when the semilunar valve opens
when aortic pressure becomes greater than ventricular pressure
when ventricular pressure becomes greater than atrial pressure

when ventricular pressure becomes greater than atrial pressure

At what point in the cardiac cycle does the semilunar valve open?
when atrial pressure becomes greater than ventricular pressure
when the AV valve closes
when ventricular pressure becomes greater than aortic pressure
when ventricular pressure becomes greater than atrial pressure

when ventricular pressure becomes greater than aortic pressure

Ventricular pressure is greater than aortic pressure during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
isovolumetric relaxation
ventricular ejection
isovolumetric contraction
ventricular filling

ventricular ejection

At what point in the cardiac cycle does the semilunar valve close?
when ventricular pressure becomes greater than aortic pressure
when ventricular pressure becomes greater than atrial pressure
when pressure in the ventricle becomes less than aortic pressure
when atrial pressure becomes greater than ventricular pressure

when pressure in the ventricle becomes less than aortic pressure

Isovolumetric relaxation is characterized by which of the following?
The semilunar and AV valves are closed.
Pressure in the atrium exceeds pressure in the ventricle.
Pressure in the ventricle exceeds pressure in the aorta.
Blood flows backward through the heart from high to low pressure

The semilunar and AV valves are closed.

At what point in the cardiac cycle does the AV valve open? when atrial pressure becomes greater than ventricular pressure
when ventricular pressure becomes greater than aortic pressure
when the semilunar valve closes
when aortic pressure becomes greater than ventricular pressure

when atrial pressure becomes greater than ventricular pressure

The aorta is an example of a(n):
arteriole.
muscular artery.
elastic artery.
vein.

elastic artery

Which arteries carry deoxygenated blood?
carotid arteries
renal arteries
aorta
pulmonary arteries

pulmonary arteries

Gas and nutrient exchange occur in the:
veins.
arteries.
arterioles.
capillaries.

capillaries.

Which of the following will lower blood pressure?
Antidiuretic hormone
Aldosterone
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Angiotensin II

Atrial natriuretic peptide

Which of the following is NOT an important source of resistance to blood flow? total blood volume
blood viscosity
vessel length
vessel diameter

total blood volume

Which of the following is directly involved in long-term blood pressure regulation?
Renal mechanisms
Chemoreceptor reflexes
Baroreceptors
Hormonal controls

Renal mechanisms

Why is it important that blood pressure drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds? capillaries actually are high pressure vessels
are fragile and extremely permeable
depend on the lower pressure to prevent fluid exchange between the capillaries and the tissue fluid
actually need a higher blood pressure for filtration activities

capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable

Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.
pressure changes in the thorax
venous valves
urinary output
activity of skeletal muscles

urinary output

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure. Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.
Excess protein production would decrease blood pressure.
Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas.
An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery.

Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase

Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?
carotid sinus and aortic arch
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata

carotid sinus and aortic arch

If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?
increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity
increased PNS and SNS activity
decreased PNS activity and increased SNS activity

increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity

Which of the following would cause vasodilation of arterioles?
decreased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following? vasodilation of arteries
an increase in heart rate and contractility
a decrease in cardiac output
a decrease in blood pressure

an increase in heart rate and contractility

A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following?
a decrease in cardiac output
an increase in heart contractility
vasodilation of arterioles
a decrease in heart rate

increase in heart contractility

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