(1789-1793) and (1793-1797) Congress adopts the Bill of Rights in 1789 and establishes an army. The Bill of Rights is ratified 1791. Congress passes the 11th Amendment, Whiskey Rebellion
(1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America's official capitol in 1800., He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
(1801-1805) and (1805-1809) Louisianna Purchase in 1803. In 1803 the 12th Amendment is approved by Congress and added to the Constitution in 1804. Lewis and Clark begin exploring the Lousianna Territory in 1804, returning in 1809. First secretary of state. Took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. Organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality.
(1809-1813) and (1813-1817) The War of 1812, the US declares war on Great Britain. In 1814, the British (technically the Canadians) set fire to the Capitol. The Treaty of Ghent ends the war in 1814., The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. Favored strict interpretation of the Constitution.
(1817-1821) and (1821-1825) The Missouri Compromise in 1821., the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas
John Quincy Adams
Democratic-Republican.(1825-1829) Secretary of State under Monroe. Skilled diplomat as evidenced by the Adams-Onis Treaty and the Treaty of Ghent. Wrote the Monroe Doctrine for Monroe. Accused of winning the presidency with a "corrupt bargain" with Clay. Repealed the Gag Rule in 1845.
(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
Martin Van Buren
(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
William Henry Harrison
(1841), was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief Constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
(1841-1845) His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution, he opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements at national expense.
James K. Polk
(1845-1849) The Mexican War starts in 1846. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the war in 1848. Wanted to settle Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain. Wanted to aquire California and to incorperate Texas into union, while reducing the tarriff and re-establish an independent treasury system.
(1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.
(1850-1853) The Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850. California becomes a free state, territories chose popular sovereignty, Uncle Tom's Cabin. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
Democrat (1853-1857), Candidate from the North who could please the South. His success in securing the Gadsden Purchase was overshadowed by the controversy surrounding the Ostend Manifesto, the Kansas Nebraska Act and "Bleeding Kansas." Passions over slavery had been further inflamed, and the North and South were more irreconcilable than before. He succeeded only in splitting the country further apart.
(1857-1861) The Confederate States of America are formed in 1861. He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860. Lecompton Constitution supporter.
Republican (1861-1865) and (1865) The Emancipation Proclamation declared in 1862. The 13th Amendment is passed in 1865. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. The Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted much attention. His attacks on slavery made him nationally known. He felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election. First President assassinated.
(1865-1869) The 13th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1865 and the 14th Amendment is passed by Congress and added to the Constitution in 1868. House of Representatives impeaches the President in 1868 and the Senate acquits the president of the 11 articles of impeachment. In 1868 the President issued a unconditional pardon to those who participated in the southern rebellion. The 15th Amendment is passed in 1869.
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869-1873) and (1873-1877) The 15th Amendment is added to the Constitution Administrative inaction and political scandal involving members of his cabinet, including the Crédit Mobilier scandal and the Whiskey Ring conspiracy. He was more successful in foreign affairs, where he was aided by his secretary of state, Hamilton Fish. He supported amnesty for Confederate leaders and protection for the civil rights of former slaves.
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877-1881), "His Fraudulency". President as a result of the Compromise of 1877, he resumed gold payments, refused to expand currency, and didn't overhaul civil service as promised. Complained about treatment of blacks but did nothing to prevent it. He started an era of honesty. He played down the tariff issue. He resumed assumption of hold payments and vetoed bills to expand the currency. He was involved in the Customs House Dispute, where he dismissed Chester Arthur and Alonzo Cornell from their positions as officials of the Customs House when they refused to carry out civil service reform measures. He also passed the Band Allison Act.
James A. Garfield
(1881) Second president to ever be assassinated. He was assassinated 6 months after his inauguration.
(1881-1885), an honorable man. Firmly believed in the spoils system but eventually demolished it, took Rutherford B. Hayes place when he was assassinated, Pendelton Act
Democrat (1885-1889) and (1893-1897) His presidency represented no sharp break with the conservative policies of his predecessors except in opposing governmental favors to business but was noteworthy for railroad regulation and tariff reform. He had a strictly limited view of the government's role in both economic and social matters- limited government. Dawes Act and Pullman Strike.
Republican (1889-1893) His administration is best known for a series of legislation including the McKinley Tariff and federal spending that reached one billion dollars. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress" and defeated the GOP in the 1890 mid-term elections, as well as defeating Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892. He is to date the only president from Indiana.
(1897-1901) and (1901) The United States declares war on Spain in 1898, starting the Spanish-American war, although it ends in the same year with the Treaty of Paris. The United States annexes Guam, the Phillipines, and Puerto Rico.
Republican (1901-1905) and (1905-1909)Conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War. "Walk Softly and Carry a Big Stick"
William H. Taft
(1909-1913) The 16th Amendment is passed by Congress in 1909 and added to the Constitution in 1912. The 17th Amendment is passed by Congress in 1912.
(1913-1917) and (1917-1921) The 17th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1913. The Underwood Tariff Act and the Federal Reserve Act pass in 1913. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act passes in 1914. In 1915 the US Marines are sent to Haiti. In 1916 the Workingmen's Compensation Act, teh Federal Farm Loan Act, the Warehouse Act, Adamson Act, and Jones Act are passed. In 1917 the US buys the Virgin Islands from Denmark. The Zimmerman Note incident occurs in 1917. Also at this time is the Espionage Act of 1917. The Fourteen Points are proposed in 1918 and the Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versaille occur in 1919. The 18th Amendment is passed in 1919. In 1920 the Versaille Treaty is defeated by the Senate and the 19th Amendment (WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE!!!) is passed.
Warren G. Harding
(1921-1923), laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over
(1923-1925) and (1925-1929), taciturn; small gov't conservative; laissez faire ideology; in favor of immigration restriction (Immigration Act); reduced the tax burden; the Bonus Bill was passed over his veto; Revenue Act of 1924; Kellogg-Briand Pact
(1929-1933) The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 "Black Tuesday". The 20th Amendment is passed and added and the 21st Amendment is passed by 1933.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933-1937) and (1937-1941) and (1941-1945) and (1945) The 21st Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1933.
Harry S. Truman
(1945-1949) and (1949-1953), Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon his death. Led the country through the last few months of World War II, and made the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery. Created the CIA
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953-1957) and (1957-1961), when elected President, he was the most popular American; "I like Ike!" button. Modern Republicanism---didn't undo the New Deal of the Democrats. Called "The Republican's Choice" . He was the commander of the allied forces in Europe, the army chief-of-staff after the war, and the director of NATO for two years. Dwight displayed "grandfatherly good will". The night before the 1952 presidential elections, he declared that he would personally go to Korea and end the war. This helped to win the majority in 41 of the lower 48 states. Eisenhower reigned over a period of unstable peace and prosperity. At the time of the integration of Central High he made the decision to send the 101st Airborne to Little Rock to protect the students
John F. Kennedy
(1961-1963), Cold war and the superpower rivalry and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Used the technology of the television to tell the public about the crisis and he allowed the leaders of the Soviet Union to withdraw their missiles. Building of the Berlin Wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war. He was assassinated.
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963-1965) and (1965-1969) The 24th Amendment is added in 1964. In 1965 the 25th Amendment is passed and in 1967 it is added to the Constitution.
Richard M. Nixon
Republican (1969-1974) In 1971 the 26th Amendment was passed and added to the Constitution. Reduced troops in Vietnam and signed a peace treaty, ending US involvement in Vietnam. Normalized relations with China with detente. Watergate Scandal. Resigned from office
(1974-1977), Solely elected by a vote from Congress. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. Evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war. We are heading toward rapid inflation. He runs again and debates Jimmy Carter. At the debate he is asked how he would handle the communists in eastern Europe and he said there were none and this apparently sealed his fate.
(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
(1981-1985) and (1985-1989), first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
(1989-1993), Berlin wall comes down, Persian Gulf war against aggressive Saddam Hussein who invaded Kuwait.
Democrat (1993-2001) War in Bosnia; NAFTA, campaign that emphasized broad economic issues instead of the racial and cultural questions that had divided Democrats in the past., extended Palestinian self-rule and arranged timetables for Israeli withdrawal from disputed lands, was impeached due to the Monica Lewinski scandal and was later acquitted, cut spending; lowered taxes; decreased national debt
George W. Bush
Republican (2001-2005) and (2005-2009), neo-conservative, foreign policy dominated by war on terror, No child left behind, tax cuts, high deficits, major economic problems, proposed privatizing social security, opposed stem cell research/pro-life/carbon reductions/ international law, but wanted more domestic drilling to alleviate oil dependence, major contributions to HIV/AIDs