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Compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids

What are the 4 classes or groups of biomolecules?

Monosaccharides
(such as glucose)

Monomers or building blocks of carbohydrates are ____.

Fatty Acids and Glycerol

Monomers or building blocks of lipids are ____.

Amino Acids

Monomers or building blocks of proteins are ____.

Nucleotides

Monomers or building blocks of nucleic acids are ____.

5-Carbon sugar
Phosphate Group
Nitrogenous Base

What 3 parts or subunits make up a nucleotide?

Deoxyribose (in DNA)
OR
Ribose (in RNA and ATP)

What 5-carbon sugars would you expect to find in a nucleotide?

-ose

Carbohydrates that are sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) often end in the suffix.

Any one of these:
Adenine (DNA, RNA, & ATP)
Guanine (DNA & RNA)
Cytosine (DNA & RNA)
Thymine (only DNA)
Uracil (only RNA)

What nitrogenous bases would you expect to find in a nucleotide?

Monomers

___ make up polymers. They are like building blocks.

Polymers

Monomers join together to make up ___.

Carbohydrates

Which group of biomolecules have this structure?

Monosaccharides (1 sugar big such as glucose)
Disaccharides (2 sugars big, such as sucrose)
Polysaccharides (many sugars big, such as starch or cellulose)

Carbohydrates can be classified into 3 groups based on size. What are they?

Glucose
Carbohydrate
(simple sugar or monosaccharide)

Identify this molecule.
What class of biomolecules does it belong?

Basic energy or fuel source
(This molecule is converted to ATP so the cell can do work)

How does this molecule function in cells?

1. Chloroplasts (plant cells)
2. Mitochondria (all cells)

1. Where in the cell is this molecule produced?
2. Where in the cell is this molecule converted to cellular energy or ATP?

1. Water
2. Dehydration synthesis ("building larger by taking away water")

1. What must be removed for two or monomers to join together to make a larger molecule (polymer)?
2. What is this called?

1. Water
2. Hydrolysis ("breaking by adding water"

1. What must be added to a polymer to break it down into smaller pieces?
2. What is this called?

1. Primary energy source (glucose)
2. Structure (cellulose)
3. Short-term storage (starch, glycogen)

How do carbohydrates function?

Amino Acid

Identify this molecule.

Protein

If you put many of these molecules together (by removing water), what larger molecule will they form?

Proteins

Which group of biomolecules function in building tissues, structure maintenance, and repair?

Proteins

Which group of biomolecules includes enzymes?

Muscle; Protein

The "meat" you eat (beef, chicken, ham, etc) is actually ___ and therefore, which type of biomolecule?

Antibodies

Proteins that are produced by white blood cells and circulate in your blood stream help to defend your body against foreign invaders. What type of biomolecule are antibodies?

Lipid

This type of biomolecule is nonpolar; it does not dissolve in water.

Phospholipid

This lipid has both a polar and non-polar region. It's non-polar regions face the aqueous cytoplasm and extracellular fluid making it an excellent boundary for the cell. This molecule is known as a(n) ___.

Lipids

Long-term, back-up energy storage and insulation are the functions of which biomolecule?

1. Triglycerides (true fats) such as fats, oils, & waxes
2. Phospholipids
3. Steroids

List 3 types of lipids.

Top = Saturated Fatty Acid
Bottom = Unsaturated Fatty Acid

Identify these 2 molecules

Bottom one - unsaturated fatty acid
(*Note - double bonds between some of the carbon atoms)

Which of these 2 molecules tends to be liquid at room temperature like a vegetable oil?

Lipid
(triglyceride= glycerol +fatty acids)

Identify this molecule.

1. Phospholipid bilayer
2. Cell membrane

1. Identify
2. Where woud you expect to find this?

1. Phospholipid
2. Cell membrane (or other membranes)

1. Identify this molecule.
2. Where would you expect to find it?

Dehydration synthesis

The molecules surrounded by blue circles are removed when this lipid is formed. The process is called_________ ____________.

The one on the left
(single sided)

Which molecule is RNA?

1. Double helix
2. Thymine is a nucleotide

How do you know the molecule on the right is DNA?

1. Ribose
2. Deoxyribose

1. What is the sugar in the molecule on the left?
2. What is the sugar in the molecule on the right?

nucleotide
nucleic acid

These 3 molecules make up a(n) ___ which is a monomer of ___.

DNA

Which nucleic acid functions as the Genetic Code?

DNA

Which nucleic acid functions as the instructions for synthesizing proteins?

messenger RNA

Which nucleic acid transcribes DNA's message and carries it out of the nucleus?

ATP

Name the substance that works as a high energy molecule used for cellular work?

transfer RNA

Which nucleic acid translates DNA's message into an amino acid sequence resulting in a protein?

ATP

The molecule that is like a "charged" battery, capable of doing cell work is ___.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Identify this molecule

The test tube on the left; Iodine turns from amber to blue-black in the presence of starch

Iodine is an indicator for starch which is a polysaccharide or complex carbohydrate. Which test tube has starch in it?

The test tube on the far right

(#4)

The indicator used in these test tubes is Biuret solution. Which test tube below a positive test for protein?

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