PSYCH 6.1 & 6.2

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The _____ gland signals the body to increase production of growth hormones that interact with the sex hormones to cause the growth spurt and puberty.

pituitary

Though early maturation is largely a plus for boys, there are downsides. All of the following are downsides to early maturation in a boy EXCEPT

the boy is likely to demonstrate early maturity in his nonverbal cognitive development.

Which of the following STIs were recorded by ancient historians?

gonorrhea and syphilis

How many hours of sleep do older adolescents require for optimal functioning?

9 hours per night; they need to go to bed later and to sleep later in the morning.

Girls begin their growth spurt around age ____, while boys begin their growth spurt around age ____.

12; 14.

Meredith is a 17-year-old adolescent female who weighs approximately 82 pounds and is gaunt and frail, with a skeletal appearance. Although she fears food and eating, she focuses on food by talking about food, collecting cookbooks, and cooking huge meals for others. Whenever she looks at herself in the mirror, her perception of her body is distorted in that she thinks she is disgustingly fat. Meredith is suffering from which of the following disorders?

anorexia nervosa

All of the following are true of today's adolescents as compared to adolescents in the 19th century EXCEPT

adolescents are exhibiting advanced levels of intellectual and emotional growth much earlier.

When a student notices conspicuous examples of drunkenness around campus, which causes him/her to assume that everybody is drinking heavily, and therefore, begins to engage in binge drinking, it is known as

false consensus effect.

Stella is a 16-year-old adolescent female who privately eats large quantities of food and then purges it immediately afterward by self-induced vomiting and taking laxatives. Stella is suffering from

bulimia

According to research, all of the following are factors linked to the age of menarche in girls EXCEPT

the age of menarche for the girl's mother.

Which of the following groups is the least likely to have difficulty adjusting to late maturation?

tenth grade late-maturing girls

Approximately how many cigarettes does an adolescent have to smoke to increase his/her chance of becoming an addicted and habitual smoker for life?

10 cigarettes

Which of the following is the most likely reason for adolescent impulsivity and risky behavior(s)?

the adolescent prefrontal cortex is biologically immature

By age 8, _________ Caucasian American girls and ________ African American girls develop breasts or pubic hair.

1 out of 7; 1 out of 2

Male sex hormones are called __________, while female sex hormones are called

androgens; estrogens.

Mrs. Valdez was concerned that her daughter was not getting adequate sleep and that, as a result, her daughter was failing classes and suffering from depression. Mrs. Valdez attended a school meeting with other concerned parents about adolescent sleep requirements and learned that

with increasing academic and social demands, adolescents are often leading their lives in something of a sleep-deprived daze.

The surge in hormone production that triggers the beginning of adolescence may lead to rapid mood swings. Boys may have feelings of ________, while girls may feel ______

anger and annoyance; anger and depression.

According to Piaget, the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly is called the

formal operational stage

When an adolescent's newly sophisticated metacognitive capability enables him/her to construct elaborate scenarios about others' thoughts, this is known as

adolescent egocentrism

Which of the following is a type of thinking that is evident in both early childhood and adolescence?

egocentrism

Which of the following is NOT a term that relates to an adolescent's belief that his or her own behavior is unique and a primary focus of others' attentions and concerns?

formal operational thought disorder

According to Piaget, what do adolescents employ during the formal operational stage of development that helps them reason differently than children in the concrete development stage?

propositional thought

While Piaget proposed that formal operational thought is not fully settled in until around 15 years of age, evidence suggests that some people never fully employ formal operational thinking. Studies show that only _________ of college students and adults achieve formal operational thinking, and other estimates run as low as _________.

40% to 60%; 25%

According to information processing explanations of cognitive development during adolescence, one of the most important reasons for advances in mental abilities is the growth of

metacognition.

16-year-old Sally primps in front of every mirror she comes across, and believes that she is the focus of everyone's attention - even fictitious observers.
Sally is demonstrating

imaginary audience.

Adolescents who engage in risky behaviors such as not using condoms when engaging in sexual activity and driving recklessly when drunk are exhibiting

personal fable.

All of the following are factors to consider regarding the gap in educational achievement between U.S. students and other students around the world EXCEPT

U.S. parents and students do not care as much about education as do parents and students from other countries.

All of the following are reasons why children from a lower socioeconomic status (SES) do not do as well in school as children from middle or high SES EXCEPT

children from middle and high SES groups are born with genetically superior IQ potential.

Anthropologist John Ogbu argues that members of certain minority groups may have low academic achievement because

these groups perceive that school success is relatively unimportant with regard to their success in the workplace because of discrimination.

Because independent measures of achievement, such as SAT scores, have not risen in the past decade, but overall grades in school have risen over the past decade, the most likely explanation for this is

instructors have become more lenient, awarding higher grades for the same performance, known as "grade inflation."

What was the result of a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation regarding instant messaging (IMing)?

What was the result of a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation regarding instant messaging (IMing)?

While it is clear that the Internet is having an impact on education, schools should consider changing their curricula to include specific instruction in a key skill for deriving value from the Internet, specifically

the ability to search, choose, and integrate information in order to create new knowledge.

The phenomenon known as the "digital divide" is

the challenge involving socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity, where poorer adolescents and members of minority groups have less access to computers than more affluent adolescents.

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