Final Exam

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450 terms · All worksheets; Exam 1, 2, & 3

According to the systems perspective, most organizations have one working part rather than many sub-components. (T/F)

False

Psychology and sociology have contributed many theories and concepts to the field of organizational behavior. (T/F)

True

Counterproductive work behaviors include threats and work avoidance. (T/F)

True

Organizational effectiveness depends on the organization's capacity to acquire, share, use and store valuable knowledge. (T/F)

True

Absenteeism is lower in organizations with general sick leave. (T/F)

False

Stakeholders are shareholders, customers, suppliers, governments and any other groups with a vested interest in the organization. (T/F)

True

One widely mentioned high-performance work practice is employee involvement. (T/F)

True

Three challenges organizations are facing globalization, increasing workforce diversity and emerging employment relationships. (T/F)

True

Most organizational behavior theories have been developed by OB scholars rather than from other disciplines. (T/F)

False

All organizations have a collective sense of purpose, whether it's producing oil or creating the fastest Internet search engine. (T/F)

True

Social entities are called organizations only when their members have complete agreement on the goals they want to achieve. (T/F)

False

Given that OB experts have been accumulating a distinct knowledge about behavior within organizations, OB is referred to as a field of study. (T/F)

True

Globalization refers to economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world. (T/F)

True

A perspective that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital is called high-performance work practices. (T/F)

True

The knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees is an example of structural capital. (T/F)

False

____ is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations.

A. OB

In the field of organizational behavior, organizations are best described as:

D. groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose.

Organizational behavior views organizations as:

C. open systems.

Which of the following is a form of knowledge acquisition?

B. Experimentation.

Intellectual capital refers to:

B. the stock of knowledge that resides in an organization.

Self-verification stabilizes our self-concept. (T/F)

True

The 'Big Five' personality dimensions represent five clusters that represent most personality traits. (T/F)

True

People perform better in most employment situations when they have a strong external locus of control. (T/F)

False

The ideal situation in organizations is to have employees whose values are perfectly congruent with the organization's values. (T/F)

False

People with a high score on the neuroticism personality dimension tend to be more relaxed, secure and calm. (T/F)

False

One problem with applying the individual rights principle of ethical decision making is that one individual right may conflict with another. (T/F)

True

Evidence regarding the effectiveness of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Jung's psychological types is inconclusive. (T/F)

True

Ethically sensitive people recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue. (T/F)

True

The three structural dimensions of self-concept are: complexity, consistency, and clarity. (T/F)

True

People with high power distance expect relatively equal power sharing. (T/F)

False

People from cultures with a short-term orientation tend to value assertiveness, competitiveness and materialism. (T/F)

False

Situational factors are working conditions within the employee's control. (T/F)

False

The forces within a person affect the employee's motivation. (T/F)

True

Espoused values represent the values that you and your spouse have in common. (T/F)

False

All of these factors directly influence an employee's voluntary behavior and performance EXCEPT:

D. Moral intensity

Which of these factors directly influences an employee's voluntary behavior and performance?

E. Only 'A' and 'B'

Which of the following refers to the fact that motivation is goal-directed, not random?

B. Direction

___ are the natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better.

D. Aptitude

Which of these refers to a person's beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate or necessary in a particular situation?

B. Role perceptions

An individual's personality:

C. Is less evident in situations where social norms, reward systems, and other conditions constrain behavior.

The recency effect has occurred when a person's annual performance evaluation is heavily influenced by performance results over the last month. (T/F)

True

Interacting with people from other backgrounds is more likely to minimize perceptual biases when these people have equal status with you throughout the interaction. (T/F)

True

Confirmation bias causes use to screen out information that is contrary to our values and assumptions. (T/F)

True

Self-fulfilling prophecy may result in either better or worse performance than if the employee is not exposed to the self-fulfilling prophecy effect. (T/F)

True

Fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute the behavior of other people to internal factors more than external factors. (T/F)

True

Our emotions influence what we recognize or screen out. (T/F)

True

When making an internal or external attribution about a person's behavior, we tend to look at whether the person has acted this way in the past and other situations and whether other people act similarly in this situation. (T/F)

True

The primacy effect occurs because we have a strong need to quickly make sense of other people. (T/F)

True

Selective attention occurs after incoming information is organized and interpreted. (T/F)

False

The easiest way to minimize stereotyping is by preventing the activation of stereotypes in our heads. (T/F)

False

Social identity theory states that we define ourselves in terms of our differences with people who belong to other social categories. (T/F)

True

When people empathize with others, it leads to a higher likelihood of the occurrence of attribution errors. (T/F)

False

Tacit knowledge is mainly learned through observation and experience. (T/F)

True

Social identity is a comparative process, and that comparison begins with categorical thinking. (T/F)

True

People who learn to empathize with others are less likely to engage in attribution errors. (T/F)

True

Selective attention is a component of:

B. The perceptual process

Our likelihood of noticing a person or object depends on its:

E. All of the above

Prejudice and discrimination are most closely tied to which of these concepts?

E. Stereotyping

Someone who is new to the job and has a low sense of achievement is:

D. More vulnerable to the supervisor's self-fulfilling prophecies of that employee

Which of the following is a perspective of learning emphasizing the environment rather than human thought as the source of all learning?

D. Behavior modification

Attitudes consist of the following three components: emotions, beliefs, and behaviors. (T/F)

False

Employees tend to have higher organizational commitment when their personal values differ from the company's values. (T/F)

False

People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience. (T/F)

False

Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees, corporate leaders must demonstrate their trust in those employees. (T/F)

True

Eustress refers to the short-term causes of stress, whereas distress refers to long-term causes. (T/F)

False

Emotional dissonance occurs when we use our emotional intelligence on others but other people do not use their emotional intelligence on us. (T/F)

False

Trust, employee involvement, and organizational comprehension tend to increase organizational commitment. (T/F)

True

Sexual harassment is a type of stressor. (T/F)

True

Cognitive dissonance is more likely to occur when the dissonant behavior is known to everyone, was done voluntarily and can't be undone. (T/F)

True

Emotional intelligence can be learned to some extent. (T/F)

True

Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors. (T/F)

True

According to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model, some unsatisfied employees engage in "voice" by constructively recommending solutions to the source of their dissatisfaction. (T/F)

True

Emotions are brief events or "episodes". (T/F)

True

Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual obligation to provide a minimum amount of time and effort to the organization in return for a fair day's pay from the organization. (T/F)

False

Employees are more likely to quit their jobs and be absent from work if they are dissatisfied with their jobs. (T/F)

True

Anger, fear, joy, and sadness represent:

C. Type of emotions

Which of these statements represents the feelings dimension of attitudes?

A. I don't like how my boss treats his employees

Which of these countries is more likely to accept of tolerate, than any other country, people who display their true emotions at work?

D. Italy

The highest level of emotional intelligence is:

E. None of the above

Self-awareness is the ____ level of ____.

A. Lowest, emotional intelligence

Which organizational behavior perspective discusses inputs, outputs, and feedback?

B. Open systems

Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations are:

E. Called values

Which of these statements is consistent with the five anchors of organizational behavior?

D. The field of organizational behavior should rely on other disciplines for some of its theory development

The open systems anchor of organizational behavior states that:

A. Organization affect and are affected by their external environments

Which of the following concepts are closely associated with corporate social responsibility?

E. Both 'B' and 'C'

Globalization occurs when an organization:

A. Increases its connectivity with people and organizations in other parts of the world

[Scenario: Allison and the Anchors of OB] To collect and analyzer information systematically, OB researchers rely on:

E. Both 'A' and 'C'

The perspective that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital is called:

A. HPWP

Organizational citizenship refers to:

B. Employee behaviors that extend beyond normal job duties

Sabotage, threatening harm, and insulting other represent:

A. Three forms of counterproductive work behaviors

The triple bottom line philosophy says that:

E. Companies should try to support the economic, social, and environmental spheres of sustainability

In order for something to be called an organization it must have buildings and equipment. (T/F)

False

Employees who experience job dissatisfaction or work-related stress are more likely to be absent or late for work. (T/F)

True

Everyone is a manager. (T/F)

True

According to the MARS model of individual behavior and performance, employee performance will remain high even if one of the four factors significantly wakens. (T/F)

False

Conscientiousness refers to the extent that people are sensitive, flexible, creative, and curious. (T/F)

False

The distributive justice principle of ethical decision making people who are similar in relevant ways should receive dissimilar benefits and burdens based on their individual rights. (T/F)

False

Aptitudes are natural talents that help individuals to learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better than pother people. (T/F)

True

Three personality traits are care, utilitarianism, and distributive justice. (T/F)

False

Personality is a relatively stable pattern of behaviors and internal states that explains a person's behavioral tendencies. (T/F)

True

Motivation affects a person's ___ of voluntary behavior.

A. Direction, intensity, and persistence

Schwartz's model organizes ___ into ___.

D. Values, ten broader domains

One problem with the utilitarian principle of ethical decision making is that:

D. It is almost impossible to evaluate the benefits or costs of many decisions

Competencies include:

D. All of the above

Incongruence between a company's dominant values and an employee's values is known to:

D. All of the above

People with a high ___ value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism.

E. Achievement orientation

___ is the amount of effort allocated to the goal.

C. Intensity

__ refers to an individual's self-beliefs and self-evaluations.

A. Self-concept

___ represents the forces within a person that affect the direct, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior.

A. Motivation

Self-fulfilling prophecy tends to have a stronger effect on employees who are new to the job than on employees who have worked in that job for a few years. (T/F)

True

Mental models that give us a rich understanding of one's environment may cause us to screen out or ineffectively organize information in another environment. (T/F)

True

Tacit knowledge is mainly learned through observation and experience. (T/F)

True

Employee satisfaction with work accomplishments is influenced to a large degree by whether they take credit for those accomplishments or attributes the success to external causes. (T/F)

True

According to the halo effect, a supervisor's initial expectations of you influence your behavior so that you are more likely to act consistently with those expectations. (T/F)

False

According to the Johari Window, the hidden area is reduced through disclosure. (T/F)

True

Homogenization and differentiation are two activities in the process of forming and maintaining our social identity. (T/F)

True

According to social learning theory, people can reinforce heir own behavior. (T/F)

True

Consistency, consensus and distinctiveness are:

C. The three rules determining whether to make an internal or external attribution

Which of the following is an example of punishment?

A. The organization takes away some of your paycheck to cover the cost of a machine that you carelessly broke

Reflecting and experimenting are components of:

B. Experiential learning

The statement "First impressions are lasting impressions" best represents the premises of:

A. Primacy effect

The philosophy of positive organizational behavior states that:

C. Focusing on the positive rather than negative aspects of life will improve organizational success and individual well-being

___ is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intent or behavior of other person.

B. Trust

The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called:

D. Cognitive dissonance

Employees with strong organizational commitment are more likely to:

A. Engage in organizational citizenship behaviors

Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's wellbeing. (T/F)

True

Your boss is usually able to calm employees when they are upset and to get staff enthusiastic about an otherwise mundane activity. This ability probably means that your boss has:

A. The highest level of emotional intelligence

Employees with high levels of affective commitment tend to engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors.

True

Emotional labor refers to:

A. The effort, planning, and control needed to express organizational desired emotions during interpersonal transactions

Trust is a reciprocal activity; to receive trust from employees. (T/F)

True

Motivation is closely related to the concept of employee engagement. (T/F)

True

Overreward inequity occurs whenever other people receive less money than you do. (T/F)

False

Underreward inequity occurs when your outcome/input ratio is lower than the outcome/input ratio of a comparison other. (T/F)

True

One advantage of ERG Theory over Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory is that the ERG model seems to explain human motivation somewhat better. (T/F)

True

Goal setting is more effective when employees can easily complete the goals assigned to them. (T/F)

False

Distributive justice increases directly with the extent that the decision allows voice, can be appealed, and has an unbiased decision maker. (T/F)

False

The problem with the concept of employee engagement is that it lacks theoretical foundation. (T/F)

False

To learn about their progress towards goal accomplishment, employees usually prefer feedback from supervisors and other people. (T/F)

False

According to Learned Needs Theory, companies should hire leaders with a strong need for personalized power. (T/F)

False

Four-drive Theory recommends keeping all four drives in "balance"; that is, organizations should avoid too much or too little opportunity to fulfill each drive. (T/F)

True

Maslow is credited for bringing a mechanistic perspective to the study of motivation. (T/F)

False

In Expectancy Theory, the performance-to-outcome expectancy represents the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual places on an outcome. (T/F)

False

Employees who experience feelings of inequity tend to change their comparison other:

E. If they can't alter the outcome/input ratio through other means

It is often difficult to maintain feelings of equity among employees because:

D. Each employee has different opinions regarding which inputs should be regarded and which outcomes are more valuable than others

Employees who believe that accomplishing a particular task will almost certainly result in a day off with pay would have:

B. A P-to-O expectancy close to 1

ABC Corp. introduced a training program that ensured everyone had the required knowledge and skills to perform the work. The company also brought in a performance-based reward system that accurately identified employees who performed better than others. These practices improve employee motivation by:

E. Both 'C' and 'D'

With respect to procedural justice, the "value-expressive" function which "voice" provides refers to:

B. The way employees feel after voicing their opinions

In the Four-drive Theory, the drive ___ is the drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with others.

A. To bond

People who are 'equity sensitive' tend to:

E. Want their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the outcome/input ratio of the comparison other

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