the family we are born in primarily consist of our parents and siblings
family of origin
when we get married and have children ourselves
family of procreation
the line of decent is figured from father to son. The old Testament is full of different family trees. Almost all of these have names of men (rare you will find a women's name)
the line of decent from mother to daughter
the line of decent of males is figured from father to son and the line of decent of females is figured from daughter to mother. However societies do it this line of decent is usually strongly connected to inheritance (ex: family property). That is why societies have rules about incest (not because of the dangers it causes biologically, but because it screws up the line of decent)
rules that say we have to marry outside of a certain group. Here in the U.S. you can't marry your mother, father, siblings, 1st cousin, sons, or daughters, and some states 2nd cousin
rules that say you have to marry within a certain group. In some societies you would have to marry within your own clan
a clan but describes a group that is divided up in two
has to choose a bride from the Bear clan. You would marry your 1st cousin on the opposite side of the family (so a boy has to marry a 1st cousin from his mother's side).
a women would have to marry a 1st cousin on her father's side. Then they wouldn't consider this to be incest
a person can have one spouse only. We like to think this is the way it is in America. In America things are not true monogamy, because many people do wind up having more than one spouse
we can only have one spouse at a time, but we can have one after another. 50% of marriages today wind up in divorce and many of these people remarry (sometimes multiply times).
is where a person can have one or more spouse at the same time
where a husband can have more than one wife at the same time. It is common in many different parts of the world. Western Researchers have heavily criticized this because it tends to be in societies where women are viewed as men's properties and women have low status. It seems to be a form of depression of women. Places that practice this have societies where a handful of people have all the money and most people have little or nothing. So women who have been a wife of a rich man in these societies view this as a good thing. Their place in societies is to be based on who they are married too. So women in these societies view themselves better off if they are married to this rich man even though there are 3 other wives.
- a system where women can have more than one husband at the same time. This is rare but it does exist in some parts of Asian and the Himalayas. Where this exits the women can't just choose the man. Often time the women will have to marry a set of brothers. This provides a certain degree of protection for the women. In societies where people have short life spans because life is dangerous (if something happens to one husband you still have 3 others so you are not on your own).
we are in a state of dependence -people are providing us with our needs (food, clothes, and shelter) they are also making decisions for us. More and more we are given the right for ourselves and we begin to plan our future. We start going to college and handling our own finances and moving into young adulthood.
childhood and adolescence
this is where we reach a state of independence and we are providing our own needs and making our own decisions. We may be taking care of others who are dependent on us (particularly children). This state last to the middle age
young adulthood and middle age
the older we get we start slipping gradually into a state of dependence again. Our bodies don't work like they use to. More and more we will need someone to help us with the routines of our daily life. The more this is true the more people will think they have the right. Most people during the U.S. today are providing care for the elders (nursing homes) still most people would say taking care of the elderly is their responsibility as long as they can handle the job
is how much you own
the oldest theory of retirement and ageing. It looks at the process of how an older person disengages from society
for most people this means drop an income.
retirement (reduced income)
more and more you encounter health problems. The more years of wear and tear on your body the more they will have an affect.
These two things combine to restrict an elderly person's activity. It cost money to do things. The more health problems you have the more you have to buy things to help you do things.
for most people their friends will probably be the same age so some of their friends will have already died or are having the same problems. So our social network is strained. When we do leave this earth it will affect a small number of people. This engagement is a structural functional theory. How would you get a job if no one ever retired? How would we every find a piece of earth to live on if no one who was ever born died. Through this process this means when a person does leave that loss will affect a small number of people and have a small impact on society as compared of someone who dies early in the 40's.
• People are living longer and longer and living healthier and healthier.
Fertility and morality was high
Eventually fertility will drop. Today we see very low fertility and very low mortality. We see the population decline. The effect on North American and Europe was not so dramatic as everywhere else in the world because we are getting everything imported.
The Demographic Transition
English man who is the first person we have any record of looking at population growth. You can see from the dates of his life that he watched these changes first hand. He said population can expand exponential (constantly doubled in a short amount of time). He also said our food supply can only grow arithmetically. So there will be a gap between the amount of food we produce and the amount of people we have to feed. This will lead to world wide famine. The more people you have the more land their going to be living on which means the less land you have to grow food. He also said not only will they have a world wide famine but they will be susceptible to all kinds of disease. Also people will be fighting over food supply and land for living. All in all it was not going to be a pretty picture. The only way to fix this would be delayed marriage (which means you produce children later) or Celibacy.
Most industrialized nations (most of Europe, as well as Japan) have a Constrictive population pyramid. It looks like its wearing a gurtle.
The fertility rate is below the replacement rate. There are fewer and fewer young people. You are not having enough babies to replace the population.
o This leads to a number of problems. Certainly if you look at the government's role in society the strains are at the top of the pyramid (usually the people who need the most health care and attention). you have fewer tax payers and workers to support the programs.
Constrictive Population Pyramid (Europe)
a little bit broader at the base
We have the baby bombers. After WWII all the soldiers came home got married and had a bunch of kids. Now they are getting to that age where they are reaching retirement. There has been speculation about our S.S. system. There will not be enough younger people paying taxes to pay for all these retirement baby bombers. We call the S.S. system a trust fund which congress oversees. S.S. Has brought in more money then is paid out every year since 1992. The problem is Politicians have been taken money out of the excess S.S. system and spending it on other things.
Stationary Pyramid (US)
Shorter and much wider at the bottom the fertility is very high
In many of these countries the average age of the population is 15 (half are 15 or younger and half are 15 or older). People at the bottom are trying to provide for all these young people. What happens here is even if you bring down your fertility rate below the replacement rate you have huge numbers of women and men who are 20-30 years old. These are the ones having lots of babies. Even if you reduce this number the people are getting to the age when they are 15 and going to have children and even if they only have 2 children that's still a lot of 15 year olds having children
Expansive Pyramid (Brazil)
people moving in or out
things that push people away.
North Africa tended to be the bread basket of Europe in Ancient times but then the climate got hotter and dryer. We have seen this in the U.S. also. You can compare tree rings to other tree rings and it is clear that one of the things that happened that could be the factor of the disappearance of people was climate change. It was more difficult to grow food.
EX: mine all the coal and you have a ghost town because there are no more natural resources in a town
lack of resources
floods, earth quakes, volcanic eruptions. If you are living in an area that is constantly at risk some people may decide it is better to move elsewhere
political or social climate of intolerance where people are subject to discrimination or prejudice, or some extreme cases genocide.
if you can't make a descent living where you are maybe you ought to move somewhere else where you can.
lack of jobs
exact opposite of push factors. Favorable climate, abundant natural resources, a political or social climate of tolerance, abundance of economic opportunities.
migration from one country to a different country
people moving from place to place within a certain country. The U.S. Started as just 13 colonies. In the late 1800's we saw people leaving the rural areas to get factory jobs. We also saw a big migration from South to North. People were leaving the agricultural South to go to big cities in the North. Over the last 55 years or so since the 1950's we have seen a reverse of this. The Northeast or Great Lakes areas are losing people. People are moving to the South. There is one major reason for this big shift. Air conditioning made living in the South or southwest an option, this was intertwined with finding cheap labor, and moving away from factory life.
we consider Japan to be an industrialized country, Tokyo has seen rapid growth but not nearly as much as some in developing countries
Some stats are losing population, so NY is doing well to even have a population growth.
More than double in just 20 years
is doing better than NY because people tend to shift where the son is (better climate then NY so you have more migration). Nigeria-More than tripled in just 20 years
people grow what they need. If your economy is based on this then there is very little need for money (money would be in short supply any ways). When a country starts to modernize more and more are moving away from subsistence to a money economy. More and more people want things they can't make themselves, they have to buy it.
people can move up in the economic system because there are more opportunities. More demand means more jobs. It increases the incentive for production but also for innovation (finding newer better ways of doing things). Innovation leads to better benefits
any significant modification or transformation in social structure or social cultural process
he looked at society like organisms and talked about how society evolved form simpler forms to more complex forms. In this evolution signifies societies abilities to adapt to their environment (more complex=better adapted). They provide not only more control over their social life, but over their physical life as well. It means a steady increase in knowledge. It allows us to protect yourself, feed ourselves, and protect ourselves better from disease. For people who follow this, these changes we have seen represents steady progress. Each society is a better adaptation then previous. There are a couple of downfalls with thinking this way.
social evolution/social darwinism
we are in conflict and competition with various groups. Marx ideas is that the economic idea of any society shapes the rest of that societies social structure. Every epic of human history can be marked off by the domination of one particular economic system. Social change comes about b/c each economic system allows a hand full of people to make themselves wealthy by dominating in that society. No matter what economic system a handful of people can use the system to make themselves wealthy by dominating in that society. When that economic system fails they replace it with a new one. It still has the same features, just a different ways
Karl Marx-conflict theory and economic determinism
over the course of human history we have seen many civilizations rise and fall. Certainly the rise of the Roman Empire had declined and disintegrated leading us into the Dark Ages. Europe wasn't the only area in the world that has seen great societies (it happens all over the world). It is similar human history is not just the stead increase of knowledge. Knowledge can be gained and lost
Cyclical Theory-Arnold Toynbee
was a very advanced Greek society. They would trade with neighboring cities. And have very advanced knowledge. We have records that there was a doctor who knew how to cure cancer. It was completely destroyed by volcanic eruption so much of their knowledge went with their society and we are still trying to figure out how to cure cancer
changes in climate, of the things we see is both North and South America and other continents when humans arrive there large mammals disappear (they became extinct). Could be from over hunting, diseases? We don't know. These instances also occurred over the last Ice Age. We do know that the buffalo was over hunted. Natural disasters and various others can cause social change. Using up your resources, means you have to use new resources which can bring about social change
when we look at the history of humans they divide various time spans up by technology. Where would we be today if we didn't have electricity, fridge, and so on? we can also acquire technology through this process called cultural diffusion
borrowing cultural elements from neighboring societies. There will be societies that are much father away so they will be much slower at developing cultural diffusion. Social change can be not only a matter of what you do in your own society, but also who your neighbors are
new ideas can bring about social change. Some new ideas can come from new technology. Certainly technological advances and allow us to learn about new disease. Historians have set aside 20th century and free market capitalisms and communism (ideas about how society should distribute goods)
certainly the discovery in the new world by Europeans caused dramatic social changes. In Europe for the people who moved, and even more for the people who lived here already
the great depression brought many social changes. It changed are political and legal systems. It changed our ways of thinking about the roles of government in society
they usually bring about the most rapid and dramatic social changes. First they almost always bring physical and social destruction (destroying one government). It is easy to see the immediate changes with war and revolution, but they also have long term affects
war and revolution
social movements are conscious efforts to change a society to means that go beyond the normal political process. Social movements try to bring about change in other ways like through demonstrations, meetings, and political ways
social movements, war & revolution, economic changes, population changes, ideas, cultural diffusion, technology, environmental changes
causes of social change
indigenous means native to a particular area; these are movements that start out spontaneous from one place to another in response to local conditions. (the impact of WWII). We started seeing protests all over gradually gaining strength in response to our countries segregation rules
indigenous/grass roots movements
another way social movements starts
organized professional movements
(SMO's)-They start by having a purpose of creating a social movement (Mothers against drunk drivers MADD)
social movements organizations
an Entrepreneurs is a person who goes out and does something on their own. A moral Entrepreneurs is a person who starts a social movement trying to change some aspect of our society
revolutionary, reformist, conservative, reactionary, millenarian
types of social movements
they like to overthrow the existing institutions of society and replace them with different ones (the French Revolution)
they don't want to overthrow the existing institutions they just want to change some aspect. They want to change to make it better in their eyes
is generally designed to oppose the changes that are pushed by reformist
these want to overthrow existing institutions and go back to a previous social order. (After the French Revolution, in a very short time the next thing you saw was new revolutions trying to restore the monarch)
those that predict the end of the world as we know it. As some particular time. It usually picks some millennium period. Despite the fact that none of these be in a millenarian movements have been right we still keep seeing them
this is especially true for grass roots organizations. You have all kinds of people trying to do all kinds of different things
turbulence and disorganization
you will have to get organized and people will have to get on the same page and make sure they are planning with each other
if the movement is successful you will see this. This is where we accept this movement as part of our social family (labor unions, for most of our countries history labor unions were considered illegal.) once we did this we accepted this group as a part of American Life
the final stage is where we reach the point of what are we going to do now. There are two factors that go into this stage
little fighting with each other over control of the organization and who's going to set the goals now. This will be true whether you are successful or not
fracturing & splintering
if you weren't successful in achieving your goals then you need to try something else. But sometimes those different goals can be completely different then what you were originally trying to achieve. And, if you did achieve your goals, now what is your purpose for existing?
turbulence & disorganization, organization, institutionalization, disorganization
life courses of social movement
you need to be able to justify your goals in terms of society's norms and values. (ex: Justice, and equal opportunities). A social movement that would want to overthrow our government is not going to get much support in our country (b/c there values aren't the same).
goals conicide with broad values of society
what exactly is it that you are trying to achieve
demands are specific & focused
you can't expect other people to just accept every one of your demands. You need to allow room for compromise
demands are negotiable
- you need to gain the support of 3rd parties, individuals, other organizations that maybe share or have some similar goals. Attracting media attention, getting celebrities to jump on your band wagon. This helps in being able to get money, get resources, as well as getting your point out there to the public eye
support of influential 3rd parties
you need to be able to apply pressure with hurting other parties. One of the big issues in the last decade or so has been teacher pay
apply pressure without hurting 3rd parties
techniques that the authorities aren't familiar with and will grasp the attention of the media. Sit-ins don't work anymore b/c police are familiar with them now
use new techniques
demands are specific & focused, demands are negotiable, support of influential 3rd parties, apply pressure without hurting 3rd parties, use new techniques
determinants of success
sometimes a society can go into this when they are not used to something. Back in ancient times there was a considerable amount of cultural diffusion. But there were some major differences with some of the big cultures back then. The Greeks were horrified at some of the things the Portuguese did. They can go into this when you see people doing things you don't think they should