Research Methods, Tests of Means, and Chi Squares

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Please feel free to fix typos, but don't change and answer unless you ask Pete or Nancy

An independent variable in which a characteristic or trait varies among individuals. a) dependent variable b) subject variable c) confidence interval

b) subject variable

What test would be used to see if the difference between children with a single parent or two parents on state-based assessments is statistically significant? A) Paired sample t-test B) One sample t-test C) Independent sample t-test

C) Independent sample t-test

What test t-test would you use to compare the average about of practice time for conservatory students versus non-conservatory students who also play an instrument?

Independent sample t-test

How would you test this question: Is the student body at Oberlin as racially diverse as the rest of the United States?

Goodness of Fit Test

Reasearchers want to look at how having a parent die or having parents divorce effects high school students grades. They compare the GPAs of students who's parents divored with those of students who lost a parent and those of students who did not lose a parent or experience a divorce. What test should they run to determine if the GPAs of the different groups are significantly different?

Between Subjects One Way ANOVA

"According to the answers from my three questions and the Anticipation Effect, a participant would be most likely to choose the answer [a, b, c] for this question."

a

"What problem arises when subjects are aware of the presence of an observer? a) The subject may get nervous and ask not to be part of the study any more. b) Subjects "react" to the observer's presence and change their behavior, so their behavior may not represent their normal behavior. c) There is no problem whether or not the subject is aware of the presence of an observer."

B) Subjects "react" to the observer's presence and change their behavior, so their behavior may not represent their normal behavior.

"How do narrative records differ from other forms of recording and measuring behavior?

1)The classification of behaviors is done after the observations are made.

2) The classification of behaviors is done before the observations are made.

3) Narrative records are more comprehensive than other forms of recording and measuring behavior.

1) The classification of behaviors is done after the observations are made.

"In a double blind study, which of the following are aware of group conditions? A) Observer B) Researcher C) Participant"

B) Researcher

What test would you use if you wanted to look at the relationship betwwen the amount of sleep you get on an average night and your grades in school?

Pearson Chi-square

What test would you use to compare the blood pressure of the elderly at Kendal to the mean blood pressure of elderly people in the United States?A) independent sample T test B) paired sample T-test c) one sample t-test

c) a one sample t-test

What is block randomization good for? a) assigning participants to conditions in random groups b) order conditions for each participant in a complete design c) both a and b

c) a and b

Which of the following is a type of unobtrusive measure? 1) structured observation 2) physical traces 3) participant obsrvation

2) physical traces

What test would you use to compare the number of ExCos that women take as compared to men? a) independent sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) one sample t-test

a) independent sample t-test

Researchers want to test a drug to see if it is effective. What would be a threat to the experiment's internal validity? a) The researchers use a double-blind procedure b) The researchers accidentally give a placebo pill to one of the subjects in the test group c) the researchers randomly assign subjects to their control and test groups

b) The researchers accidentally give a placebo pill to one of the subjects in the test group

Which of the following is a threat to internal validity? A) Mechanical subject loss B) Randomly assigning intact groups C) Manipulating the independent variable

B) randomly assigning intact groups

What test would you use to compare the average practice time of professional musicians versus conservatory student musicians? a) paired sample t-test b) independent sample t-test c) one sample t-test

b) independent sample t-test

"A group of researchers are looking to see if watching tv or being active on the computer screen before bed has an affect on how quickly you fall asleep. They assign 80 people to each group (watching tv, being active on the computer, and staring at a blank wall). Within each group, they have three different measures. The first is doing the activity for 10 minutes, the second is doing the activity for 20 minutes, and the third is doing the activity for 30 minutes. Which test would they use to see which activity keeps the participants up longer?"

Between subjects one-way ANOVA

Researchers would use a repeated measure design to achieve which of the following:

a) Conduct an experiment when a large number of participants are available

b) Decrease the sensitivity of the experiment

c) To account for the changes in participants' behavior over time

d) When each trial of the experiment requires an extended amount of time.

c) To account for the changes in participants' behavior over time

What test would you use to comparare the average GPA at Oberlin to all other private colleges in Ohio? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One sample t-test

C) One sample t-test

"Are college professors smarter than elementary school teachers? In order to test whether there is a difference in intelligence between educators at different levels of education, samples of 50 educators from 5 different levels of education (elementary school, middle school, high school, college, and graduate school) all took identical IQ tests. What test could be used to determine if there are statistically significant differences in intelligence between educators?"

Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA

"Jelly Belly produces variety boxes of their jelly beans and claim that 50% are traditional flavors, 20% are sour flavors, and 30% are brand new flavors. Selecting a variety box at random from the candy store, you see that it contains 36 traditional flavors, 20 sour flavors, and 24 new flavors. What test would you use to determine whether Jelly Belly's claim is valid?"

Goodness of Fit

"The past 9 out of 17 winners on the TV show So You Think You Can Dance have been female, what test would you use to determine if female and male dancers differ in terms of the judge's scores? (A) Paired Sample t-test (B) One Sample t-test (C) Independent Sample t-test"

C) Independent Sample t-test

What is a major benefit of using event-based sampling in research? A) it allows you to record unpredictable phenomena B) it eliminates the problem of different times of day influencing your outcome C) it allows you to record events at convenient times

A) it allows you to record unpredictable phenomena

"Oberlin College Lanes wanted to see which lighting was most appropriate for students to bowl. The College Lanes claim that the current lighting, fluorescent lighting, is best suited and have advantage over other types of lighting available, including disco-ball lighting, spotlight lighting, and tungsten lighting. The researchers randomly assigned 48 students in Bowling I class into four groups. Each group bowled a game in four different lighting conditions. Group 1 bowled in a disco-ball lighting, group 2 bowled in a spotlight lighting, group 3 bowled in a fluorescent lighting, and group 4 bowled in tungsten lighting. Their performance was measured according to the number of pins they knocked down. What test should be run to test if their hypothesis is true?"

Between Subject One-Way ANOVA

Ben and Jerry's wanted to determine if there was a relationship between preference of ice cream flavor and age group. Which test would they run to see if whether the participant was a child, a teenager, or an adult could predict which of the two ice cream flavors they preferred?

Pearson chi-square

Which of the following is not an advantage that researchers gain when they use a repeated measures design? a) the design is more sensitive b) the researchers want more practice effects c) they require fewer participants

b) the researchers want more practice effects

Which of the following is an example of structured observation? A) a researcher intervenes in order to exert some control over the events that are been observed B) a researcher observes high school students interactions with one another by sitting in classrooms C) a researcher analyzes the results of a survey about teenage drinking

A) a researcher intervenes in order to exert some control over the events that are been observed

"When intact groups formed prior to the start of the experiment are randomly assigned, the result is a) non-comparable groups b) block randomization c) internal validity"

a) non-comparable groups

Is the male:female ratio in Research Methods 1 similar to the Oberlin College male:female ratio?

Goodness of FIt

Researchers wanted to test the effectiveness of three different generic drugs on pain relief. They drew from a pool of patients who had just had their wisdom teeth removed and randomly assigned 25 participants to each drug and 25 participants to a placebo in the form of a sugar pill. Participants filled out a 20 question survey designed to create an overall score describing the amount of pain that they were feeling. What statistical test should they use to determine which of the three drugs provided the best results?

Between Subjects One-way ANOVA

"A sample of 28 people who read the New York Times daily were given a quiz on current events over the last 10 years and, on a scale of 1 to 10 scored an average of 8.0 with a standard deviation of 0.8. A different sample of 32 people who read the Washington Post daily were give the same test and score an average of 7.3 with a standard deviation of 1.1. What test should be used to analyze the data? A) paired sample t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test"

B) independent sample t-test

The essential difference between field experiments and other observational methods is: (A) Field experiments are a form of structured observation (B) Researchers exert more control in field experiments when they manipulate an independent variable (C) Field experiments can take place inside and/or outside a lab setting (D) Researchers do not have to be objective

B) Researchers exert more control in field experiments when they manipulate an independent variable.

"Studies have shown that talking on a phone while driving impairs driving performance. A national scale experiment has shown that on a scale from 1 to 10 (1 being the worst and 10 being the best), the mean driving performance while talking on a phone was 4.3 with a standard deviation of 1.5. This study was replicated in Oberlin by psychology department. 50 drivers were tested and the mean was 5.6 with a standard deviation of 2.0. If we were to test that Oberlin sample is representative of the US population, which test would we use? a)One sample t-test b) Paired sample t-test c) Independent sample t-test"

A) one sample t-test

"A person participating in a study is asked to type words on sitting at a computer in silence, then sitting while listening to music, then while standing, and finally standing while listening to music. The person is participating in a A) repeated measures design study B) practiced designed study C) known activity design study"

A) repeated measures design study

Oberlin wants to know whether the number of students that major in a language and study abroad is representative of the number of people in the entire student body who study abroad. What kind of test could the school use to analyze their data?

Goodness of fit test

The degree to which two independent observers agree is referred to as: a) interobserver reliability b) external validity c) cohesive opinion d) observational validity

a) interobserver reliability

Which method is NOT used to combat observer bias? A) By being aware of the outcomes for previous similar studies B) By recognizing observer bias may be present C) By keeping observers unaware of the hypothesized outcome

A) By being aware of the outcomes for previous similar studies

Oberlin college wants to compare the GPAs of students by department. What test should they use to compare the mean difference between the different majors?

Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA

"What test would you use to compare how upset Village People fans and Parliament-Funkadelic fans are at Nicki Minaj on a 1-5 scale? a) a paired sample t-test, b) an independent sample t-test, c) a goodness of fit test, d) a pearson chi-square, e) None, no test can rate the anger I have towards Nicki Minaj"

B) an independent sample t-test

Which test would you use to compare the average birth weight of females as opposed to males?A) paired samples t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test

B) independent sample t-test

Which of the following measurement scale involves ordering or ranking observations? (A) Nomial (B) Ordinal (C) Interval

B) Ordinal

"When does differential transfer occur? A) when the effects of one study effect another study B) when the effects of one condition influence the performance in subsequent conditions C) when one condition does not effect the other, they are independent of each other"

B) when the effects of one condition influence the performance in subsequent conditions

"A study is conducted to figure out when Oberlin Conservatory students give their most satisfying performance. However, if the researcher only visits the conservatory in the morning, what aspect of the data is being damaged? (A) External Validity, (B) Ecological Validity, (C) Content Validity"

A) External Validity

"A student has a history of lying. Which is an example of an occurence of statistical observer bias? a) In a survey of her class, a teacher assumes that this particular student has not honestly filled out the questionnaire and excludes it from her report to her principal. b) The teacher calls home to report to the parents, her suspicion of the student's dishonesty on an exam. c) The teacher gives a survey at the beginning of the semester and has no awareness of students previous behavior."

a) In a survey of her class, a teacher assumes that this particular student has not honestly filled out the questionnaire and excludes it from her report to her principal.

"Researchers are looking to analyze how different genres of music affect individual's heart rate. The three genres examined included country music, rap music, and classical music. Researchers randomly assigned 50 people to listen to a specific genre of music, either country, rap, or classical. After listening to music for five minutes, each individual's heart rate was taken. The groups of each genre are then compared. What test would you run to test your hypothesis?"

Between Subject One-Way ANOVA

What is the best way to determine the reliability of an experiment: a) use a control group b) replicate the experiment c) use multiple observers d) a and b

b) replicate the experiment

"When a research subject knows what behavior to show in order to give the researcher good results, the subject is exhibiting A) demand characteristics B) expectancy effects C) selective deposit"

A) demand characteristics

Which of the following is not an example of observation with intervention? A) Naturalistic Observation; B) Field Experiment; C) Structured Observation.

A) Naturalistic Observation

What test would be used to answer the question: 5% of Lady Gaga fans faint when they see her at a live concert. How does this compare to the fans that have fainted at famous pop concerts throughout history?

Goodness of Fit

Which test would you use to compare the average weight of 50 year old females from California as opposed to the national average for 50 year old females? A) paired samples t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test

C) one sample t-test

"Researchers wanted to find out whether taking notes on computer, as opposed to taking notes on paper or not taking notes but only listening, predicted better understanding of the material. The researchers randomly assigned 60 students into 3 groups. The first group watched a short clip of lecture while they took notes on computer. The second group did the same but took notes on paper. The third group just listened to the lecture. Ten minutes after the lecture, the students were given 10 multiple-choice questions to test their understanding of the material. What statistical test should they run to determine if their hypothesis is supported?"

Between Subject One-Way ANOVA

Demand characteristics are a) cues that participants use to guess what is expected of them and that can guide participant's behavior. b) cues that researchers use to direct confederates c) social cues that people use to judge people's mood

a) cues that participant's use to guess what is expected of them and that can guide participants behavior.

What test would you use to compare the number of hours spent studying per week for law school students versus medical school students?

B) independent sample t-test

"""Orville Orangenbacher"" claims that 98% of his popcorn kernels pop. The national average according to FarmAgro Foods is 83% popped kernels. What test would you use to determine if Orangenbacher popcorn pops statistically better than average popcorn?"

Goodness of Fit Test

"Researchers want to test to see if a persons diet will affect their hair growth. Four groups of 40 randomly assigned participants are given four different types of diets for a month. Before they are put on these strict diets the researchers measure the persons natural diet and natural hair growth. The first group is put on a grain based diet. The second, on a protein based diet. The third, on a fruit based. The fourth, on a vegetable based diet. After a month the hair growth will be measured and compared between each of the four groups. What test should be ran?"

Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA

Psychologists wanted to know if Oberlin students had higher or lower rates of depression than the general population of college age people. They created a scale to rank depression (1 being not depressed to 10 being very depressed). The mean for Oberlin students was 3.4 and the mean for the college age population was 4.2. The standard deviation of the Oberlin sample was 1.3 and they surveyed 124 students. What type of test would be used to see if Oberlin students are representative of the college aged population? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test

C) One sample t-test

Researchers asked boys and girls whether they would prefer to read a mystery novel or a fantasy novel. They want to know whether has gender has an effect on the type of novel that is preferred. What test should they use to interpret the data?

Pearson Chi-square

Which of the following is an example of mechanical subject loss? A) an experimenter reads the wrong set of instructions. B) A participant forgets to come to the second portion of the study. C) A participant leaves during the middle of an experiment.

A) an experimenter reads the wrong set of instructions.

Forty high school students volunteered to be part of a study. They were randomly divided into two groups of 20. Half were placed in an Honors Biology course and the other group was placed in an AP Biology Course. At the end of the study both groups took the AP test to evaluate whether the AP Biology course helped prepare students for the test. By the time of the AP test 17 of the honors students and 11 of the AP students showed up to take the test. The AP students scored higher but the study was determined to be an inaccurate indicator of the amount the AP course prepared the students. What phenomenon caused this study to be invalid? A) selective subject loss B) mechanical subject loss C) unsuccessful partial replication

A) selective subject loss

"Do men and women differ in what size coffee they drink, small, medium, and large? How would you best analyze your data?"

Pearson Chi-Square

"Does Type of Food (1. a donut 2. a banana 3. chocolate bar) eaten before SAT test affect the performance score? Of a 450 students taking the SATs, 150 were given a donut, 150 were given a banana, and 150 were given a chocolate bar."

Between Subjects one-way ANOVA

What test would you use to compare anxiety test scores of parents and their children? a) paired sample t-test b) independent sample t-test c) one sample t-test

a) paired sample t-test

"A group of researchers want to see whether the color of interior walls affects people's short-term memory ability. They randomy divide 120 participants into 3 groups. These groups are assigned to three conditions: memorize words in a red, a blue and a green room. In the end, researchers compare results from the groups. Which test would they use to test the effects of the colors?"

Between subjects one-way ANOVA

Researchers want to know if political party affiliation in the US varies by race. What kind of test should they conduct?

Chi-square

What test would be used to answer the question: is there any difference between how many male and female adolescents like the new Hannah Montana video game?

Pearson Chi-Square

You browse this week's board packet and notice a chart detailing all of OSCA's spending for this week. What test would you use to determine whether your Co-op's spending on non-food items is representative of all of OSCA's spending on non-food items?

Goodness of Fit Test

"An Oberlin professor taught 3 sections of introductory Spanish and noticed that student participation in each of the 3 sections seemed different. Students in the 9 am section seemed to pay attention less than students in the 4 pm section, who seemed to pay attention less than students in the 11 am section. The professor decided to test whether this perceived difference in participation presented itself in the students' midterm test scores, so she compared the average test grades for each of the three classes. She hypothesized that students in the 11 am section would do better on average than those in the 4 pm section, who would do better than those in the 9 am section. What type of test should she use to test her hypothesis?"

Between Subjects One-way ANOVA

Which of the following is not a method to control reactivity? (A) Disguised participant observation (B) Observation in a natural setting (C) Observation of physical traces.

C) Observation of physical traces.

"The Student Senate wishes to survey the Oberlin student population based on their transportation needs. During this research process, they wish to know how preferences for transportation to Cleveland differed between people requesting the service in the early morning (7-10), mid-morning/early afternoon (10-2), afternoon (2 - 5), evening (5-8), and late night (8-midnight). What statistical test would compare the central tendencies of each of these time slots on the matter of transportation to Cleveland?"

One Way ANOVA

Researches know the percent of people in New York City who use public transportation to get to work. How does this compare to the amount of public transportation used to get to work in other cities in the US?

Goodness of Fit

You want to compare how much TV an average 7 year old watches a day to how much an average 10 year old watches a day. What test would you use? A) Independent Sample t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test

A) Independent sample t-test

When a subject fails to complete the experiment because of an equipment failure this is known as a) false data b) subject discard c) mechanical subject loss d) selective subject loss

c) mechanical subject loss

which test would you perform to compare the average calorie intake of college students to the U.S average person calorie intake per day a) paired sample t-test b)independent sample t-test c)one sample t-test

C) one Sample T-Test

"Give an example of a field expierement. A) The observer is the receptionist of a hotel. When the customer turns around the observer performs a switch with another person. Obeserving if the customer notices the switch. B) When there is a DV and IV where the observer does not have any control over the study. C) An observer records the behavior of elementary students in order to see if boys hit girls more, or if girls hit boys more."

A) The observer is the receptionist of a hotel. When the customer turns around the observer performs a switch with another person. Obeserving if the customer notices the switch.

Observation with intervention involves the following: (A) Participant Observation (B) Field Experiment (C) Indirect Obersvation (D) A & B

D) A & B

Which of the following is an effect under observer bias? A) field effects B) subject attribution C) expectancy effects

C) expectancy effects

"In a double blind procedure a) both the participant and observer are blind to what treatment is being administered b) no observation occurs in the procedure c) observations in the experiment is not recorded, only the final results are."

a) both the participant and observer are blind to what treatment is being administered

In which of these situations is random groups design employed? A) participants are asked to rate their self-esteem on a variable scale. B) participants in a drug trial study are randomly assigned programs of either the real drug or a placebo sugar tablet control. C) participants randomly select cards from a deck of 52 and place them into piles according to suit

B) participants in a drug trial study are randomly assigned programs of either the real drug or a placebo sugar tablet control.

Select the best answer: External Validity is the a) extent to which the results of a research study can be generalized to other settings b) extent to which the data is biased c) confirmation another experimenter gives your conclusion after retesting your experiment

a) extent to which the results of a research study can be generalized to other settings

Which of the following is a false description of situation sampling? a) It enhances external validity of findings b) It involves studying behavior under different circumstances c) It involves studying behavior in the same locations

c) It involves studying behavior in the same locations

How would you determine if on average the population in Texas has a higher rate of teen pregnancies thant the national average? (A) Paired Sample t-test (B) One Sample t-test (C) Independent Sample t-test

B) One Sample t-test

How many times is each participant given each treatment in the incomplete design? A) 0 times B) once C) twice

A) 0 times

"Oberlin Community Services on Food Distribution Day gave away 200 bags of onions, which test would you use to compare to the United State's Foodbank database on onion giveaways?"

Goodness of Fit

How would you answer this question? 35% of all beer consumed by US college students is Miller Lite. A recent survey showed that 42% of all beer consumed at Oberlin is Miller Lite. Is Oberlin typical of US colleges?

Goodness of Fit

Why are repeated measure designs good for conduction an experiment? a) they administer all conditions in the experiment to each participant b)they allow for certainty with repetition c) they give smaller standard deviations

a) they administer all conditions in the experiment to each participant

The most important facor in dealing with observer bias is: (a) limiting the information available to observers (b) awareness of its presence (c) using alternate methods of observation

(b) awareness of its presence

What does effect size measure? a) the effect of sample size b) strength of relationship between variables c) the number of effects an independent variable is perceived to have d) a and b

b) strength of relationship between variables

Which of the following is NOT a prerequisite to imply a causal inference? A) time-order relationship B) covariation C) random assignment

C) Random Assignment

Oberlin College student health wants to test whether the amount of students who smoke cigarettes is comparable with the national average. Which test would you use?

Goodness of Fit

"What test would you use to test whether, on average, children or their parents eat more vegetables? a) independent sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) one sample t-test"

b) paired sample t-test

"Researches want to determine if a vegan diet has an effect on blood pressure. Blood pressure is taken from 200 omnivores before their switch to veganism. After following a year long diet (no cheating allowed at penalty of death), blood pressure is taken again. What t-test would be used to determine if there was a mean change in bloodpressure after the diet?"

Paired sample t-test

Complete and incomplete repeated measures designs differ in the specific ways in which they control for a) error variation b) practice effects c) sensitivity

b) practice effects

Which of the following could be the underlying cause of a spirious relationship? A) an unidentified third variable B) analysis of inaccurate archival records C) both a and b are correct

A) an unidentified third variable

"observer bias happens when? A) when a researcher gives a uses naturalistic observation to observe behavior, B) uses structured observation and determines which behaviors they choos to observe, and when observers expectations about behavior lead to systematic errors in identifying and recording behavior, C) reserachers use running records(public adn private documents that are produced continuously"

b) uses structured observation and determines which behaviors they choos to observe, and when observers expectations about behavior lead to systematic errors in identifying and recording behavior

"After reading several similar studies that demonstrate significantly different effect sizes for the same dependent variable, a researcher decides to examine the entire existing body of research investigating that variable in order to draw a conclusion about the effect size. The technique the researcher will employ is called: A) null hypothesis significance test B) meta-analysis C) independent samples t-test"

B) meta-analysis

"Researchers want to test whether different kinds of noises in the sleeping environment affect stress level upon waking. They randomly assign 90 students into 3 groups of 30. All groups sleep for 8 hours in a controlled setting. Group 1 sleeps in silence (the control), group 2 sleeps with violent television programs on in the background, and group 3 sleeps with classical music playing in the background. Upon waking each subject is measured for the amount of stress hormones in their body. They are measured again later on in the day to see if their stress level has changed. What statistical test should the researchers run to tell whether different kinds of noises in the sleeping environment affect stress level upon waking?"

Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA

"Researchers want to see if drinking different kinds of dairy products affects teenagers' growth. Four groups of 30 randomly assigned subjects are instructed to consume 16 oz per day of cow's milk, soy milk, almond milk, or no milk. Participants' height is measured before and after the one-year period. What test should the researchers run to determine if there is a difference in the growth between these groups?"

Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA

What test would you use to compare the average number of pounds of food thrown away by an Oberlin student to students at other American liberal arts schools? A) Paired t-test B) Independent Samples t-test C) One-Sample t-test

C) One Sample t-test

"An example of situation sampling is: a) Observations of pigeon feeding behavior are made every hour for 10 minutes. b) Observations of pigeon feeding are made when different types of bread (breadcrumbs, white, wheat, ) are strewn on the ground. c) Only white pigeons are observed."

b)Observations of pigeon feeding are made when different types of bread (breadcrumbs, white, wheat) are strewn on the ground

"If the two female student observers on the subway from Piliavin, Rodin, & Piliavin (1969) had had differing observations of the people on the subway, this would indicate they have: A) moderate relative frequency. B) low interobserver reliability. C) average correlative reactivity."

B) low interobserver reliability.

Which of the following is not an advantage of unobtrusive observation? a) It is nonreactive. b) It can confirm and/or support conclusions based on direct observation. c) It does not require researchers to conduct any preliminary set-up. d) It contributes to the importance of a multimethod approach.

c) It does not require researchers to conduct any preliminary set-up.

Which is a more serious problem for experimenters? A) mechanical subject loss B) selective subject loss C) they are equally serious

B selective subject loss

"What is an example of an experimenter effect? A) A participant drops out of an experiment because she does not enjoy the cold temperature she is being exposed to. B) The experimenter gives participants coffee as part of one condition, and they behave in accordance with their own expectations that the coffee will lift their mood. C) The experimenter treats one participant differently because the participant is wearing a t-shirt with a logo that the experimenter does not like."

C) The experimenter treats one participant differently because the participant is wearing a t-shirt with a logo that the experimenter does not like.

Which test would you use to compare the average amount of weight loss of mothers six months after pregnancy? A) paired samples t-test B) independent sample t-test C) one sample t-test

A) paired samples t-test

What test would you use if you wanted to compare the average number of hours of TV watched by parents to the aveage number of hours watched by their kids? A) Independent Samples t-test B) Paired Samples t-test C)One Sample t-test

B) paired sample t-test

"For a particular study, researchers host two similar outdoor gatherings, but with different music; they want to see if music genre influences event attendance. What kind of method are they using? A) participant observation B) field experiment C) structured observation"

C) structured observation

"What test would you do to compare the amount of wood an imaginary sample of woodchucks chuck, if woodchucks could chuck wood, to the amount of wood a sample of beavers chucks? a) independent samples t-test b) paired samples t- test c) one sample t- test d) there's no room for imagination in statistics"

A. (response to d = just multiply by i)

It has been reported that 75% of college students have a part time job. A recent survey showed that 85% of Oberlin students have a part-time job. Is Oberlin college typical of US college.

Goodness of Fit

What test would you use to compare the average IQ of college students in Maryland to the average IQ of college students in the US? a) one sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) independent sample t-test

a) one sample t-test

"Do men and women major in different areas? Area is defined as being in the arts and humanities, social sciences, or natural sciences. What test should you run to analyze your data?"

Pearson Chi-Square

"Time sampling is sometimes not an effective method for sampling behavior when the event of interest occurs infrequently. In this case, researchers use which type of sampling that enables them to record each event that meets a predetermined definition? A) situation sampling, B) subject sampling, C) event sampling"

C) event sampling

What test would you use to determine if people in their 30s who currently consistently run or consistently bike average more days of exercise per week? A) Paired t-test B) Independent Samples t-test C) One-Sample t-test

B) Independent Samples t-test

"Oberlin has a high percentage of students living on campus, about 90%. But a national survey shows that US colleges on average have 40% of students living on campus. Is Oberlin typical of US universities?"

Goodness-of-fit

"A researcher is interested in whether household size had an effect on the averaged score of a student taking the Georgia High School Graduation test. Every student taking the test that year was asked to self-report his or her family size. Students are divided into 4 groups: single parent/only child household, two-parent/only child household, single parent/multiple siblings, and two-parent/multiple siblings. What test should be used?"

One Way ANOVA

"Are boys at the age of 8 more likely to take part in rough and tumble play than girls at the age of 7? Whether they take part in such play is scaled as they often take part in rough and tumble play, they sometimes take part in it, or they never take part in it. What test would you use to analyze your data?"

Pearson Chi Square

What test would you use to compare the mean score of college students on a self esteem test to the mean scores of children and as a separate test to the mean score of adults? a) one sample t-test b) paired sample t-test c) independent sample t-test

c) indepedent sample t-test

"Suppose two groups of people have been randomly selected to play Morton's List at a gaming convention. To make sure that no team has an advantage, the people running the game quickly gather data on everyone's height. How would you determine if the height data for the two groups had the same mean and standard deviation? a) independent sample t-test b) pearson chi-squared test c) paired sample t-test d) t-test from a sample with known mean"

a) independent Sample T-Test

What is the preferred way of balancing practice effects is: a) ABBA counterbalancing b) Matched group designs c) Using all possible orders

c) Using all possible orders

30% of entering freshmen in the USA are first-generation college students. Are Oberlin students typical? How would you answer this question?

Goodness of fit

Researchers can only draw a strong conclusion from their data by doing what in their experimental design? a) manipulating an independent variable b) eliminating other plausible explanations by holding relevant conditions constant c) balancing individual differences among the groups by random assignment to condition d) all of the above

d) all of the above

What test would you use to comparare the average high school GPA of a parent to their child? A) Independent samples t-test B) Paired samples t-test C) One sample t-test

B) Paired samples t-test

Ben and Jerry's created two new flavors of ice cream and ran a study of 500 people in which each participant preformed a taste test and chose which flavor they liked more. Which test would they run to determine if there was a statistically significant overall preference of ice cream in their sample?

Goodness of Fit

"When observers intervenes in order to cause an event to occur, we called this procedure A) structured observation B) field experiment C) participant observation"

A) structured observation

"A professor in the Psychology Department at Oberlin decides to conduct an experiment to determine if being an international student has an effect on grades. Sorting through the Intro Psych class for that semester, they divide the students by their place of origin; Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, North America (not counting the US), and within the US. At the end of the semester, the student's final exams are used to gauge their learning of the subject. Which statistical test would the professor want to use to interpret these results?"

One Way ANOVA

What test would be used if we wanted to compare the time people of ages 13-19 and people of ages 40-49 spend on the computer?

pearson chi square

Participants in a study are asked to count and remember the size of 15 sets of black circles under two conditions. 1--The circles are on the ceiling while the participant is lying down. 2--The circles are on the wall in front of them while the participant is standing up. The circles sets are equidistant from the viewer. The order of performance of Condition 1 and Condition 2 is varied across subjects to control for practice effects. The study is created with A) Complete Design B) Incomplete design C) Block Randomization

B) Incomplete design

"Which of the following is NOT true about archival records? a) Archival records that are continuously kept and updated are called "progressing records" b) Potential problems include selective deposit, selective survival, and the possibility of spurious relationships. c) Researchers may examine archives to assess to effect of a natural treatment, a naturally occurring event that significantly impacts society or individuals."

A) Archival records that are continuously kept and updated are called "progressing records

One can control/reduce observer bias by a) keeping observers unaware of the goals and hypotheses of the study b) lying about the goals and hypotheses of the study c) explaining the concept of observer bias to the observers beforehand

a) keeping observers unaware of the goals and hypotheses of the study

Louisville Slugger made two new bats and ran a study asking 600 participants to decide which bat they preferred. Which test should be used to determine if there was a preference for one of the two bats?

goodness of fit

"A researcher at Oberlin College is interested in the courting practices of First-Year students. When he finishes collecting data on his subjects he finds that his results differ substantially from his friends observations. He only agreed with his partner on twenty of the fifty total observations. What might have caused the differences in results. a) They did not outline specifically what the event to be outlined would be. b) They were reliable observers but just did not make accurate observations. c) One of them might have written their narrative record of their observations after too much time had passed between the event and their recording of it. d) a, b, and c"

D) a, b, and c

"When would mechanical subject loss occur? a) the computer that is being used in the study crashes unexpectedly, b) a subject's car breaks down after the experiment, c) The experimenter's prosthetic leg falls off the morning before the experiment, d) A subject is lost at different points in the study due to a characteristic related to a dependent variable used in the study."

A) the computer that is being used in the study crashes unexpectedly

Are men who drink wine instead of beer less likely to get divorced?

Pearson chi-square

What test would you use to compare average food consumption between students in their first and second year of college. A) independent sample t-test B) paired sample t-test C) a goodness of fit test

B) paired sample t-test

Which types of experimental designs or tests best account for individual differences? a) repeated measures experiments b) paired sample t-tests c) one sample t-tests d) A and B e) A and C f) all of the above

d) A and B

"If researchers did a study on children's hand-eye coordination at the age of 10 and then compared scores to when they were 20, what t-test would you use? The researchers threw 30 baseball and counted the number of contacts the children had with a bat. A) Paired samples t-test B) One sample t-test C) Independent samples t-test"

A) Paired samples t-test

"Which one is NOT a level of measurement scale used to obtain quantitative measures of behavior?
A. Interval
B. Numerical
C. Ratio

B) Numerical

"The FDA wants to examine the health effects of consuming MSG in adults. The researchers conduct a survey that asks how many days per week an individual consumes products high in MSG (potato chips, soy sauce, ramen noodles). The researchers then record the BMI's of the individuals. What method should they use to determine if greater MSG consumption corresponds with an individual's BMI?"

Between Subjects one-way ANOVA

What does correlation coefficient indicate? A) the direction of the correlation B) the strength of the correlation C) both

C) both

What test would be used to see if the percentage of Oberlin students who smoke is the same as all college students? A) Paired sample t-test B) One sample t-test C) Independent sample t-test

B) One sample t-test

Are high school students accepted into Oberlin representative of all high school students in the United States based upon SAT scores? What test should you run to analyze your data?

Goodness of Fit Test

What test would be used to compare the mean number of concussions sustained by the local high school football team to the national average of concussions sustained by high school football team? A) Independent Sample Test B) Paired Sample Test C) One Sample Test

C) One Sample Test

differential transfer.... a) arises when performance in one condition differs depending on the condition that precedes it b) can be identified by comparing the results for the same independent variable when tested in a repeated measure design and in a random groups design c) both a and b

c) both a and b

Which of the following is a type of observation with intervention? 1) naturalistic observation 2) field observation 3) nonreactive observation

2) field observation

Are women who has historically taken oral contraceptives likely to get ovarian cancer? The population is sampled from a group of women at high risk for ovarian cancer.

Pearson Chi Square

"Researchers want to see if mood affects how well one does on a test. They split participants into three groups. For the first group, they make the participants irritated by creating a hostile waiting environment (for example with lots of loud noise and a long wait). For the second group, they keep participants relatively neutral by having them show up and participate right away. For the third group, they put participants in a good mood by surprising them with nice things (such as food or small gifts). Then, the researchers have the participants take a 20 question quiz having to do with simple mathematics. What statistical test should the researchers use to determine if mood affects how well one does on a test?"

Between Subjects One-Way ANOVA

"When researchers are interested in events that happen infrequently, what strategy do they rely on to sample behavior? A) systematic time-sampling B) random time-sampling C) event sampling"

C event sampling

"A musician wants to measure their ability to perform in the morning versus other times in the day. They decide to record themselves in the morning, then at varying hours of the day such that on day 1, they record one hour later. Day 2, two hours later. etc. This is an example of: A. External validity B. Unobtrusive measures C. Time Sampling"

C) time sampling

Pick the definition that best describes All Possible Orders (A) Each participant is randomly assigned to one of the orders (B) The number of required orders decreases with increasing numbers of conditions (C) The use of all possible orders is usually unlimited to experiments (D) The number of possible orders will always be equal to some multiple ofthe number of conditions in the experiment.

A) Each participant is randomly assigned to one of the orders

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