The Dual Alliance
alliance between austria and Germany
a secret pact. At any attack on either one, the other country will come to its aid. -between russia and germany
war between england and the tribes of south africa they were colonizing
"the friendly understanding." -between england and francr ended very long hatred
France, Russia, Britain then formed the
the black hand
serb nationalist terrorist group
member of the black hand who killed francis ferdinand
german war plan that said that first France had to be knocked out and then Germany had to deal with Russia. It considered a two-front war. When Germany declared mobilization it declared war against France.
The Battle of the Marne
was where the French resisted against the German invasion. Then the German army moved back a bit and established trenches. For the next 4 years neither side pushed forward much, and the trenches reached from the North to the South near the mountains.
says that German leadership wanted this war because they felt challenged by undermining forces in society and then there was a big war to bring everyone together.
But also true for France, which was divided by the Dreyfuss Affair.
battle of Jutland
german navy chalanges british But then the Germans retreat and the blockade is going to be maintained. Strategically the British win the battle.
a ship that was sunk- is sunk, with 100+ Americans on this passenger ship, the Germans claim it was carrying military supplies (which it was).
The Germans then started unconditional submarine warfare and they hope the US won't come into the war. When the resources seemed to be lacking soon, Germany wanted a quick conclusion to the war.
german decides to tell farmers what to produce and what percentage goes to the army and what stays at home. The army has to stay well-fed and the people at home have to tighten their belt. England and France do not have to rationalize as much because they had naval access.
in Ireland, an uprising that was put down viciously. The war created greater tensions and division, as it continues over years and years.
radical socialist oppose the war, who was arrested
russian governmetn group composed of all political parties. Nicholas II's response is to destroy the Duma because he does not want it.
russian politician decides that the land reforms are necessary but have to be put off until the end of the war. -russian
Army Order No. 1
was the first law passed by the Soviet in Petrograd. - gave the military authority to the ordinary soldiers. It destroys the discipline in the army. The war effort collapses and then the moral collapses. Many soldiers desert and grab land at home. The country descends into chaos. This situation allows the advance of the Bolshevik.
treaty of BrestLitovsk
settled the relationship between Russia and Germany. The area then also had to be occupied.
The second battle of the Marne i
the decisive battle of the war.
American troops moved in and held the line at the Marne River. Then the German troops retreated and the moral was broken. Soon there were 2 million Americans, fresh, who pushed the Germans back with the French and the British. Van Ludendorff recognized that the war had been lost but wouldn't let the army surrender. He appointed a government of social democrats and lets them surrender. The peace is signed in a train car in France.
The Spartacus Uprising: Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
tried to overthrow the government and duplicate Lenin. But the moderates win and set up the Weimar Republic. -germany
The Treaty of Versailles.
america, England, and France basically decided the terms for the treaty.
The representatives held in contempt the work of the people in Vienna, and thought they did a bad job with lots of mistake. They wanted to create an everlasting war. The peace only lasted for two years though.
David Lloyd George
represented Britain and when he runs for reelection he ran on hanging the Kaiser and charging the Germans. There was so much propaganda that that represented the spirit of the people. He is caught in a situation where he has to sound like a tough guy to please the people but did not want to go on Germany as hard as Clemenceau.
-the Fourteen Points
made by woodrose wilson suggested what the allies were fighting for, the freedom of the seas and each country should have its own territory, and a league of nations should be created. -germasn surrender under this
founded Christian existentialism
said that immediate experience and intuition are just as important as rational and scientific thinking.
reaty of nan king
terms- $1,000,000 pay and give up hong kong and give up cities for trade to british
result- 1850s and 1860s there is a civil war in choina called chibing rebellions
ottman geneeral who establishes his own state
⁃ does this by westerniziung army-brings in europian oficers to train his armies
⁃ ordinary soldiers are the peasants
⁃ pays for it by using peasant food land and sells it as private land
⁃ europians start coming in cause they see oppertunities
grandson of mohamed ali he mad the suez canal
leads rebellkon in egypt , europeans massacred, nritish send in navy and bombard caro and put down rebellin
ppl who would fsarm italy for the growing season then when the growing season was done they would go to a place in southern hemisphere where it was the growing season-alternating seasons
amous critic- published book called ximperialism- his opposition of imperialsim is he said- capitialism exploits working class but after a while they have so thouroughly exploited the working class in theri own countries there is no one else for them to exploit- imperialism gives capitalist ability to exploit ppl in other countries
⁃ becomes popular especially to socialist
⁃ realy stupid-1- therre wasnt huge amounts of money available for export over seas
⁃ 2-if you are an english investor and you are looking for inverstments in other places they will look for [laces where the economy is booming and growing
⁃ a simply attack on imperialism cause of the lack of morality in imperialism- west prides itself on certain principles(civil liberties rep govs...) and imperialsim by its nature undermines this- it goes against equality- africans treated not as well as the whites
⁃ signif- his ideas become popular - he represents a certain group of ppl which shows that there was opposition to imperialism
poeple who dont react to change
ppl who do adapt to change
the great mutiny
it all culminated for trqditionalistb in 1858- army issued new rifles- to get to cartridge casing you have to bite it off and its greased- possibly greased with animal fat- if pig fat bad for muslims if cow fat bad for hindu- both sides mutiny
japan takes taiwan from china
ruso japenese war
ppl of color defeat the whites(russians)-signif- insperational to colonial ppl who want to become independent westernized state
100 days of reform
hundred days where theyweant to reform this failsd, same time as boxer rebellion
son yat sen
educated in hawaii believed in republic- leads a rebeelion- overthrows ching dynasty, he becomes king, real power is in local warlords(shoguns)
germans took alsaz and luraine from france which is an issue whic leads to ww1
congress of berlin
russian who had made a big puppet stae(bulgaria) austrians get serbia and bosnia
⁃ english get cyprus to protect suez canal
⁃ russias are upset
⁃ bulgaria is created to be cliant state of russia
⁃ serbia is created to ber a austrian client state- serbia joins russia cause they dont want o be ruled by austria and bulgaria sides with austria cause they dont want to be ruled by the russians
⁃ now russia has no ally
⁃ after russian drop out- duel alliance with austria and then get italy to join- secretley tells french to take tunisia and then tells italians how french are bad for taking tunisia from you
creator of logical positivism writes essay of philosophy wehre he says philisophers should imit themselves to what we can know for certain which is very narrow- for vitchenstein what we can know for certain is tryoing to piece together ideas based on language and logic-
discoverst aht redium emits particles and therfore its weight is not constant
group of samurai who are modernizers say ewe need to modernize and they take over in a cou- - shogun pushed aside- gov that is now there says we need to strengthen army ... and this is done by modernizing
discovers that electrons move form shell to shell and release energy called quanta- this is called quantum jump
⁃ this is problem because it i just more uncertainty
in working with the quanta he discovers thta that when the quantum jumps occur thye do so so fast that it can not be explained- uncertainty principle
⁃ SIGNIF- signif shows that even in physicl things there are things thqt cant be explained
develops mathmatical proof called goedels law- in mathmatical universe there are paradoxes- where things dont match up
⁃ if this is the case it shows that mathmatics is nto perfect and mathmatics is the ultimate in logic-
⁃ signif- mathmatics cant tell us everything
we should understand others positions on theri morels- if you behave in ways that are bad in my mind they mnight be right in that persons mind
⁃ for einstein tis is terrible because it allows all crimes to happen and ppl were understandign why they did it because ppl should understand why other ppl tink something is right or wrong
choices we make more often then not there is something going on that we are bot aware of that is fueling this signif- came up with idea that we are not reasoning ppl and we behave irrationally not becaus eof ourselves but because of our subconcious
psychic energy in the body that is channeled in certain ways- humasn are fundamently animals and becaus eof this the lbito channels into the sexual drive
the subconcious tht tells you to have carnal sex
subconciuous that restrains carnal urges
distraction of carnal sex-mplaying soccer so you dont jump out of your seta and have sex in public
fight between the id and the superego
started functionalism- get rid of ornamental buildings and make them more functional
comitte says germany owes alot germans make 1st payment in 1921 which results in inflation in germany and the gpv becoems unpopular
industrial hreart of germany- french and belgian take **** from here cause germans arent paying reperasion but soont ehy find that the germans have boycotted and arent working
us loans miney to french belgians and and then they pay it back and then we loan to the germans
agreement that france belgium and germany willrespect each otherw sborders and italy and england will moderate
bavarian beer hall putsch
hitler tries to take over bavaria- hitler takes over and ludenwwog doesnt show up with the army
abor gov. of britian in old fashioned- raise taxes cut gov spending and balance the budget-
- tries to cary out new economic policies, social reform put in a 40 hour work week to help spread jobs around-doesnt work-leader of popular front